Incunabula: other features index

This index draws together those books with features or peculiarities that may be of interest to researchers but which do not fit comfortably into the other indexes. Included here are books with the following features:

Books printed on parchment

BD9-b.2 (single quire); Be.3.4; Bf.1.18Bf.3.2Bg.2.24Bw.2.19 (two leaves); Bw.3.25; Bx.1.6 (some sheets parchment); Bx.3.24


Ds.2.3; Ds.2.4

Made-up copies

BD9-b.7; Be.3.17 (one leaf loosely inserted); Bg.1.1 (fifteen leaves have been made up from another, smaller copy); Bv.2.9 (one leaf inserted from another copy?); Bv.2.24 (some of the missing leaves from the Hunterian copy had been transferred by Ratcliffe whilst in his possession to perfect his larger copy (see BMC XI, 173)); Dp-b.3 (final leaf possible from a different copy); E.c.44

Blind impressions of type

Ai-a.11Am-z.45; BC33-d.14BD7-f.3; BD9-b.1; BD9-b.2; BD9-d.1; BD9-e.10Be.2.9; BE6-h.13 (item 2); Bf.2.20Bg.2.32; Bh.2.14; Bh.2.19 (bearer type accidentally inked); Bh.3.25; Bh9-d.1Bk5-g.22 (item 4); Bv.2.2; Bw.3.21 (item two); Bw.3.30Bx.3.5; By.3.4; Eg7-c.10; Eg8-b.10T.C.L. 284; T.C.L. f65 & 167526

Hard point inscriptions


Hammer marks


Offsetting of decoration

167521BD7-f.9; Be.3.4Bg.2.12; Bh.1.3Bw.2.11; Bw.2.14, 15; By.2.3; Cm.1.5 (offsetting remains but decorated page now missing)  

Waste used in binding


77723: parchment manuscript guards visible.
160826: parchment manuscript guards visible.163434: two parchment manuscript guards visible.
167502: offsetting of manuscript waste onto parchment endpapers from the text of the Middle High German manuscript romance, 'Parzival'.
167503: parchment manuscript guard strips visible in a few quires (portions of large illuminated initials visible on the guard strip between [*6] and a1).
167513: parchment guard strips from a medieval manuscript visible in many quires.
167514: parchment manuscript fragments visible as spine strengtheners.
167517 & 167518: pastedowns are bifolia from a late medieval rubricated manuscript on paper containing Latin hymns including “Ave maris stella, dei mater alma”, “Quo custode procul pelle rex” and “Christe sanctorum decus angelorum”;  two parchment manuscript guards visible.
167525: parchment manuscript guards visible in the middle of each quire.
167529: parchment pastedowns are from a manuscript missal.
Ag-y.21: a leaf from a 12th-century service book containing 21 lines of text taken from Luke 4:39-40, Jeremiah 14:19-22, Matthew 15:32; also offsetting on both inner boards from medieval manuscript pastedowns (both now lost).
Ah-b.26: 19th-century German paper boards covered in part of a parchment leaf from a manuscript service book containing the text of Psalm 29: 10-12.
Ai-x.21: front pastedown is part of a parchment bifolium from a rubricated manuscript prayer book.
Al-a.75: pastedowns (covering half the area of each board) are fragments of bifolia from an unidentified parchment manuscript of small format, ruled in ink, text in two columns and rubricated; some leaves guarded with parchment strips from a medieval manuscript
An-x.18: guarded with thin parchment strips from a late medieval manuscript.
An-y.10: endpapers guarded with parchment strips from a medieval manuscript.
Ap-x.1: front pastedown is a parchment manuscript bifolium, with text in two ruled columns, of St Augustine, Enarratio in Psalmum 108, 17-18;  rear pastedown is a parchment manuscript bifolium, in the same hand, containing the text of Ezekiel 20:32-43 and Ezekiel 23:32-43; manuscript waste spine strengtheners and guard strips.
Ap-x.2: thin wooden boards covered with parchment leaves of musical notation (neumes on a four-line staff) from a manuscript service book.

BC2-f.6: thin parchment guards from a medieval manuscript.
BC4-c.22 (item 1) & BC4-c.22 (item 3): front pastedown is a parchment bifolium containing an unidentified manuscript text with frequent references to Vergil, Georgics, Book 3;  rear pastedown is a parchment leaf from a liturgical manuscript containing musical notation in staveless neumes with text beginning “Adiutor in oportunitatibus in tribulatione” (Psalms 9:10).
BC7-y.11 (item 1) & BC7-y.11 (item 4): fragments of rubricated medieval manuscript used to line joints.
BC33-d.8 (item 7): a fragment consisting of quire b only, bound up as quire b of the sixth item in this volume.
BC33-e.21: evidence of fragments of a parchment manuscript used as spine strengtheners.
Bd.2.13: parchment fragment from a liturgical manuscript bound-in at front (intended as a pastedown?) and overwritten with 16th-century English financial accounts;  parchment fragment with three lines of unidentified Latin text bound-in at rear (also intended as a pastedown?)
BD1-g.4: fragments from a liturgical manuscript with musical notation in staveless neumes - perhaps written in the Basel area and probably dating from the second half of the 11th century.
BD7-c.1 (item 1) & BD7-c.1 (item 2): evidence of manuscript strips used as guards.
BD7-c.5: thin parchment guards from a rubricated medieval manuscript visible in each quire.
BD7-e.2: thin parchment guards from a medieval manuscript with French text.
BD9-a.9: illuminated initials and border extracted from parchment manuscript and pasted in.
BD9-b.1: paper pastedowns pasted over parchment manuscript originals (small sections of which are exposed on both boards);  evidence of parchment manuscript guards.
BD9-c.8: fragment of parchment manuscript covering damage on the inside of the rear board; parchment leaf from a late medieval manuscript missal inserted at front; parchment guards from a medieval manuscript visible in centre of each quire.
BD9-d.20: parchment pastedowns are bifolia from a rubricated late medieval liturgical manuscript with text in two columns.
BD9-e.10: fragment from a parchment manuscript with text in German used to guard final quire.
BD12-a.10: parchment manuscript guard strips in the middle of each quire.
Bg.1.6: parchment guard-strips in the middle of each quire.
Bg.1.14: centre leaves of each quire guarded with thin parchment strips.
Bg.2.25: parchment manuscript guard-strips used in the middle of several quires.
Bg.2.32: guarded with thin parchment strips.
Bg.3.24: evidence that the front board is lined on the outside with a page from a parchment manuscript.
Bh6-d.4: manuscript fragment containing the text of Priscian’s 'Institutiones grammaticae' (Lib. XIII, cap. 6 and XV, cap. 1) with marginal gloss, originally used as a pastedown on the rear board, is now tipped onto new rear pastedown.
Bh8-e.8: earlier front parchment pastedown (part of a 16th-century legal document in Latin) loosely inserted
Bl7-e.3: parchment manuscript pastedowns with text on the pasted sides only.
Bl9-g.25: fragments used to line spine from a manuscript of Paul the Deacon’s 'Homilarius doctorum'.
Bm9-d.11: the front pastedown is a single leaf containing an unidentified text in two columns, the rear pastedown is a bifolium containing the text of Pope Gregory the Great’s 'Regula pastoralis', Part III, ch. 15-17, 21-23.
Bo1-d.2: pastedowns consist of two leaves from a 14th/15th-century parchment manuscript containing the text (in two ruled columns) of Duns Scotus, Ordinatio I, Dist. 2, Part I, Quaest. 2, 21-30 (front pastedown) and Ordinatio I, Dist. 2, Part I, Quaest. 3, 177-185 (rear pastedown).
Bw.3.9: evidence of a parchment manuscript strip used to strengthen spine.
Bw.3.12: inner fold of middle leaves of each quire guarded with thin parchment strips from a late medieval manuscript.
Bw.3.30: front pastedown is the lower half of a leaf containing the text in two columns, with marginal glosses, taken from a manuscript of Boniface VIII, 'Liber sextus Decretalium', I, 12-14;  rear pastedown is a fragment of a rubricated liturgical text written in two columns.
Bx.3.22 (item 5): outer leaves of quire [b] guarded with thin parchment strips from a medieval manuscript.
Cm.1.3: thin parchment manuscript guard preserved and lightly attached to rear pastedown.
Cm.1.4: two parchment tabs - probably cut from a leaf of a liturgical manuscript.
Dp-b.3: centre leaves of each quire guarded with thin parchment strips from a medieval manuscript;  pastedowns parchment leaves from ruled medieval manuscript with rubricated text in two columns (Justinian, Digest, 43.24.13-16 (front) & 44.7.52-61 (rear)).
E.1939.65.1438 (item 1), E.1939.65.1438 (item 2), E.1939.65.1438 (item 3) & E.1939.65.1438 (item 4): original parchment pastedown from front board, which is now tipped onto first front flyleaf, is a leaf with rubricated text in double columns from a manuscript of Thomas Aquinas, 'Commentaria in libros Perihermenias et posteriorum Aristotelis et eiusdem fallaciarum opus' (cap. XV-XVI).
Eg6-e.20 4 items bound together: identified as a 14th-century manuscript of St. Jerome Adversus Jovinianum.
Eg8-a.9: part of an 18th-century legal document in Italian used as rear pastedown.
Eg8-b.9: parchment manuscript spine liners.
K.T. f1 (item 1) & K.T. f1 (item 2): front and rear pastedowns are bifolia from a late medieval manuscript on thin parchment whose Latin text, in two columns, relates to the monastic life.
K.T. f2: evidence of parchment manuscript spine strengtheners.
T.C.L. 237: evidence of parchment strips from a late medieval rubricated manuscript used as guards.
T.C.L. 284: inner margin of leaf D4v strengthened with paper guard on which are visible two manuscript lines of German in a 17th-century(?) hand.
T.C.L. e2: possible early parchment pastedowns containing a manuscript fragment of Gregory the Great’s 'Moralia' - stub visible between the final two quires in the volume.
T.C.L. f4: manuscript offsetting on the final page of text [p8v] suggests the volume originally had parchment manuscript pastedowns.
T.C.L. f5: Parchment manuscript pastedowns are leaves from a liturgical manuscript giving the text of Psalms 53-55 and the opening of Psalm 56.
T.C.L. f9: centre leaves of each quire guarded with thin parchment strips.
T.C.L. f10, 11: rear pastedown of vol. 1 is part of a parchment bifolium from a liturgical  manuscript, ruled and with text in double columns;  front pastedown of vol. 2 is of parchment with the title “Ludolffus” on the visible side and with a text in German on the now partially loose pasted side (the text includes a reference to “Graff Reinhard von Tierstein”);  the rear pastedown of vol. 2 is part of a parchment bifolium from an unidentified manuscript text - on canon law(?).
T.C.L. f12: Parchment guard-strips in the middle of each quire.
T.C.L. f65: fragments from a late medieval manuscript used as parchment guards and spine strengtheners.
X.2.15: evidence of parchment strips from a late medieval French text used to strengthen joints.


Al-b.45: inserted between pastedowns and boards are two leaves extracted from an English newspaper dated May 1832.
Al-b.47: pastedowns consist of an Italian 18th-century printed broadside.
Al-c.10: 19th-century printer’s waste (French text) visible as spine strengthener.
Am-z.44: front pastedown is upper half of an incunable leaf extracted from a folio Bible (Job, chapter 38 with surrounding gloss).
An-y.3: outer fold of bifolium a1.8 guarded with a strip probably taken from a 15th-century printed book.
An-y.39: binder’s waste exposed at damaged head of spine shows printed text in German.
BC2-f.6: covers consist of a folded leaf of an incunable.
Bf71-a.4: two strips from an incunable.
: evidence that the front board is lined on the inside with a page of printed text.
Cm.1.5: paste boards covered with sheets of printed blue/grey paper.
Cn.2.21 (item 1) and Cn.2.21 (item 2): pages 81-2 from a quarto edition of 'De decem praecept. Philonis Iudaei'.
E.c.43: incunable leaf with text in German, and an incunable leaf (printed in red and black) with text in Latin.
Mu11-y.1: front pastedown - now detached from board - is leaf m3 (printer’s waste) from the edition of Bonifacius VIII, Liber sextus Decretalium, printed at Nuremberg by Koberger, 12 Mar. 1482.
Mu50-e.33: French text visible as spine strengthener.
T.C.L. f2: earlier binding covered with leaves from a 16th-century printed book containing an unidentified theological text in German (now separately preserved as the covers of a blank book).

Incunabula fragments bound in

BD9-d.9 (item 2); Bv.2.31 (item 1) & Bv.2.31 (item 2): Inserted at the front of the volume, between the first and second flyleaves, is the lower half of leaf Aaaij from a copy of Bartolus de Saxoferrato, Super secunda parte Digesti novi, cum additionibus Alexandri Tartagni.  [Lyons: Johannes Siber, ca. 1495] (ISTC ib00223300); By.3.24 (item 2): Between [a8] and [b1] is inserted leaf [a8] from Ulrich Zel’s edition of Leonardus Brunus Aretinus, Isagogicon moralis disciplinae [Cologne:  ca. 1470] (ISTC ib01249000); By.3.31: title-page of another incunable edition of the Regimen sanitatis of Magninus ([Paris:]  Félix Baligault, for Claude Jaumar & Thomas Julian, [ca. June 1500] i.e. ISTC im00055000) mounted on a blank sheet and inserted before leaf a1; Mu11-y.1: front pastedown - now detached from board - is leaf m3 (printer’s waste) from the edition of Bonifacius VIII, Liber sextus Decretalium, printed at Nuremberg by Koberger, 12 Mar. 1482

Index tabs

77723 (parchment); 160836 (leather); 167505 (leather); 167530 (leather)

Printer's pin-holes visible

An-y.23 (item 1) (four throughout)
An-y.23 (item 2) (four throughout)
BD7-c.1 (item 1)
BD7-c.1 (item 2)
BD7-c.3 (occasionally visible)
BD7-c.7 (item 1)
BD7-c.7 (item 2)
BD7-d.21 (throughout)
BD7-d.23 (occasionally visible)
BD9-b.2 (in quires)
Be.1.12 (item 1)
Be.1.12 (item 2)
Be.2.8 (item 1)
Be.2.8 (item 2)
Be.2.10 (two throughout, regularly positioned towards the top and lower edges of the outer margin)
Be.2.12 (throughout)
Be.2.15 (frequently)

Be.3.4 (in lower margin of many leaves)
Bg.1.8 (in lower margins of many leaves)

Bh.1.2 (item 1)
Bh.1.2 (item 2)
Bh.1.3 (occasional evidence)

Bw.1.2, 3
Bw.1.8, 9 

Bw.2.16 (occasionally visible)
Bx.2.3 (throughout)
Bx.2.11 (item 1) (in upper and lower margins)
Bx.2.11 (item 2) (in upper and lower margins)
Bx.2.11 (item 3) (in upper and lower margins)
By.1.6  (in some quires)
By.1.9, 10
By.1.12, 13
By.2.13 (in lower margins)
By.2.19 (in some quires)
By.2.20 (throughout at the top outer corner of each leaf)
By.3.7: (two on the fore-edge of some leaves, and two on the lower edge of other leaves)
By.3.18 (item 1)
By.3.24 (item 1) (four)
By.3.24 (item 2) (two on lower edge of some leaves)
Cm.1.3 (in upper and lower margins throughout)
Cn.2.21 (item 1) (in lower margins)
Cn.2.21 (item 2) (in lower margins)
Da-a.13, 14 (occasionally visible)
T.C.L. e2 
T.C.L. f2


Ap-x.5, 6 & Bh5-a.15: hand-stamped signatures.BD7-c.2: a preliminary pen-and-ink sketch underneath the completed initial “I” is visible on cc10v.
BD7-d.11: [E3] and [E8] (leaves [267] and [272]) are cancels printed on a different, coarser paper and pasted to the stubs of the original pair; cut-outs pasted onto front pastedown.
BD7-d.19: decorated fore-edge.
BD7-e.2: marginal floral decoration sketched in pencil.
BD9-b.9: numerous pink-stained tabs.
BD12-a.5: illuminated initials excised on [a2r] (leaf [2r]), [l2r] (leaf [96r]), [o3v] (leaf [125v]), [o5r] (leaf [127r]).
Be.1.10: woodcuts irregular placing on the page shows that they were struck off, or perhaps hand-stamped, after the letterpress.
Be.2.11: printed signatures begin with n3, prior to that they are stamped by hand in extreme lower right-hand corner.
Be.2.13: copy of the first leaf is a cancel, containing a printed title prepared for the 1517 reissue. An early manuscript copy of this 1517 title-page is also loosely inserted.
Be.3.9 (item 1): the single leaf [92] inserted in quire [k] after [k7] is a half leaf with only 17 lines of type on each side.
Be.3.29 (item 2): signatures stamped in.
BE6-h.8: two apparently missing leaves A2 (Fo.ii.) and A8 (Fo.viii.) have been misbound - at least from the 19th century - between leaves a3 and a4 of another incunable in the Library’s collections:  Guilelmus de Lanicia, Diaeta salutis.  Paris:  Pierre Le Dru, 30 June 1498.
BE6-h.13 (item 1): Two leaves, A2 (Fo.ii.) and A8 (Fo.viii.), from the Library’s copy of Guido de Monte Rochen, Manipulus curatorum (Rouen:  1496), have been misbound - at least from the 19th century - between leaves a3 and a4 of this work.
Bf.1.9: in this as in all but one of the surviving copies, two columns of text have been printed upside down on [B8v].
Bf.1.14: woodcut initials pasted into initial spaces in several instances.
Bf.3.6, 7: early ownership stamped in blind with metal type.
Bf.3.19: a ten-line illuminated initial “Q” on [a2r] (leaf [4r]) - together with a portion of the text at its right - has been excised and later replaced with an inserted piece of paper containing a representation of the missing illumination and a manuscript copy of the missing text.
Bg.1.1: Stubs showing at [t10] and [v7].
Bg.1.14: signatures stamped in.
Bg.2.27: woodcut initials, probably stamped in.
: printed signature stamped in.
Bh.1.16: the signatures, which are hand-stamped, are set far down in the outer corner of the page.
Bh.2.4: annotations in dull gold in a humanist hand.
Bh.2.6: the blank leaf conjugate with the inserted leaf in quire PP has been cancelled (stub showing).
Bh.2.6 & Bh10-d.11: a line of text omitted at the foot of κκ10v has been printed on a separate slip and pasted in.
Bh.2.7, 8: annotations in dull gold in a humanist hand.
Bh.3.24: cropped 16th annotation from foliator, dating intervention. 
Bh.3.25: previously bound with MS Hunter 88, a 15th/16th-century manuscript, written in the Netherlands. The volume was disbound at some point in the 19th century.
Bh.3.26: 17th century (?) embroidered book jacket accompanying the book.
Bk5-g.13 (item 3): evidence of several puncture marks made by a sharp instrument in quires p onwards.
Bl7-e.2: text block has been removed (stolen?); contents reported missing in 1951.
Bn7-b.4: the lower outer corners of leaves [r6] and [s1-2] (leaves [104-106]) have been folded over and a design cut into the folded edge, which when unfolded reveals a cut-out resembling a dagger.
Bv.1.8: on [A9r] (leaf [227r]), col. 2, five lines - apparently originally omitted - have been inserted by a later impression in the lower margin; evidence of tabs (now mainly lost) separating the ‘distinctiones’.
Bv.1.9: remains of tabs visible.
Bv.2.7: early repairs with parchment strips to several marginal tears.
Bv.2.21: on [h5v] (leaf [61v]), the final two lines of type are reversed (as in all known copies) and the error is indicated with the manuscript letters “b” and “a” written before the respective lines (cf. BMC).
Bv.2.29: leaves 2/4 and 2/8 have lacerations made by a knife.
Bw.1.13: traces of stamped signatures referring to the folding of the sheets rather than to the quire sequence.
Bw.2.8 & Bh8-e.8: signatures individually stamped in the extreme lower right corner of leaves in quires a-z.
Bx.1.5: preserves (quire 1) the printed list of rubrics to be copied, which as a rule was destroyed when the rubrication was completed.
Bx.2.5: imposition error in quire B:  text of [B2v] (leaf [238v]), which is printed upside down, is that of [A3r] (leaf [229r]).
Bx.3.11: spurious colophon written and painted on.
By.3.19: top margins of all leaves in quires [a]-[b] appear to have been excessively trimmed and have been remargined; text of final leaf mounted.
: frequent use of parchment tabs.
Dn-b.7, 8 & Bv.1.10, 11: a paper strip with two additional lines of printed text is pasted onto the lower margin after the final line of col. 2 of [E10v] (leaf [282v]) - presumably in the printing office ; some leaves are of lesser width and have had their outer margins extended by the addition of a pasted-on strip of paper - probably in the printing office.
Dt-a.9: occasional evidence of early tabs.
Du-c.7: Note on the binder (Frantz Buchbender (fl. 1641)) and cost of the binding (2 Luxemburg Thaler); a few Parchment tabs remain in binding.
Dw-a.14: frequent parchment tabs stained pink.
Eg7-c.10: zodiacal sign for Leo impressed into top edge of text block at an early date.
Euing Add. f52: numerous leather tabs.
Mu43-a.4: cut-outs pasted onto front pastedown.
Mu51-b.16: presumably once bound with the now separated copy of Part III (Elenchi and Topica), which is in the Frank McClean collection at the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge.
T.C.L. e2: Commentary and Index bound at the beginning;  stubs showing for all inserted leaves.
T.C.L. f1: numerous red and green paper tabs, and several parchment tabs sealed at the outer end.
T.C.L. f5: this copy of the Hortus sanitatis, at the time it was acquired by the Free Church College Library, comprised two separate volumes, of which this is the first (see Imperfections above).   Its companion second volume is now in the Wellcome Library, London.