Postgraduate research 

Physics & Astronomy PhD/EngD/MPhil/MSc (Research)

Start dates for incoming postgraduate research students

1 October 2020 is the preferred date to start your PhD [or the date on your offer letter].

We will run a full on-line induction and training programme that may be taken remotely for the first month. Most of our doctoral researcher training programme will also be available online and we will offer many remote opportunities to help you become part of the Graduate School and wider University community.  

Research that involves laboratory work may start following the completion of induction (all labs are currently up and running).

Some types of research (such as non-laboratory work) and supervision can be carried out entirely remotely and this may be the most appropriate way for you to work at the moment.  Contact your supervisor, if you believe this applies to your research to discuss requirements for home/remote working. You may also require the agreement of the subject, school or institute convener if you wish to carry out your PhD remotely for a fixed period. You may not continue remotely unless an adequate plan is agreed to ensure sufficient work can be undertaken prior to starting the experimental work. It is important that starting remotely does not affect the overall PhD timescale.

Delayed start dates

We understand there may be good reasons to delay:

  • If it is necessary to travel to Glasgow to begin your research, but there are restrictions preventing travel at this time, then a delay to 5 January 2021 is encouraged [when we will run full on-line induction and training programme]. You may also delay to another start time with the agreement of your supervisor and Graduate School.
  • For subjects where laboratory work is required to commence immediately following on-line induction and training and you are unable to come to Glasgow, you should consider delaying your start-date. Contact your supervisor or the Graduate School in this instance.
  • If your research involves objects, artefacts, archives or fieldwork, you should discuss this with your supervisor. Some kinds of work may be able to be started remotely; in other cases, it may be advisable to delay the start-date.
  • External government sponsors may prefer a delay and the University is happy to support this.

From our point of view, there is no disadvantage in deferring your PhD to a later agreed start date. Scholarship holders should check that this can still be provided with a delayed start.

Office and study space

At present, current staff and research students are not using office spaces on campus. We do not have a confirmed date for the return to office use, but all work that can be undertaken off-campus (ie is not lab-based) should be done at home or remotely at present.

Some study spaces are becoming available on campus with a booking system in place, such as the postgraduate study space in the University Library.

International/EU students remotely starting a funded PhD

You should check with your funder that you can be paid a stipend if you are not in the UK. If you are in receipt of a scholarship, you should contact the Graduate School for advice on opening a bank account to allow stipend payments.

Horse Head and Flame Nebula in the Hubble Palette

Current funded studentships

Applcation deadline for all studentships is 30 July 2020


Microscopy with Quantum Illumination

Miles Padgett (

Digital cameras rely upon detector arrays positioned in the focal plane of an imaging system to record the light intensity. For low-light imaging applications the question exists as to how many photons does it take to form an image? For spatially coherent transverse modes, the phase/amplitude functions are orthogonal which means the modes can be distinguished from one another with only a single-photon, indeed this is the basis of spatial mode multiplexing in optical communications.

By contrast, spatially incoherent images are rarely orthogonal to one another and hence, fundamentally require more photons to differentiate between them. By using entangled, or heralded, photons and a time-gated camera it has been shown that recognisable images can be inferred with the order of one recorded photon per image pixel. However, for direct imaging with classical light sources even this one photon per pixel bound is very hard to reach since the readout noise from even the best cameras exceed this level.

In this project we seek to pioneer a new form of low light, photon-sparse imaging using spatially resolved homodyne or heterodyne detection of a weak image whilst ensuring the camera signal is well above its noisefloor.

It is a curious phenomenon within optics that the interference between two beams has a higher contrast ratio than the ratio of the two beam intensities (e.g. when the beam intensities are 100:1, the fringe contrast is still ≈10%). This means that it is possible to boost the weak signal such that it is above the noise floor of the detector (i.e. one can measure a single photon, or less, even though the detector noise floor is the equivalent of many photons).

The spatially resolved homodyne imaging system will be formed from a weak probe beam that illuminates the object and a much stronger reference beam. The two beams will be combined on a sCMOS camera to create interference fringes, revealing the intensity and phase of the probe beam. Performing local Fourier transforms (or a wavelet analysis) on the fringe pattern gives both the intensity (from the fringe contrast) and phase (from the fringe phase) of the object.

The only drawback of this approach is that each of the super pixels on which the FT is performed comprise multiple sensor pixels and hence the number of effective image pixels is far fewer than the number of pixels on the array. However, high-magnification images are typically over-sampled and so this reduction in pixel number is not an issue.

Our modelling has shown that even with a sensor noise of order 10 readout electrons per pixel, a probe beam of one photon per super pixel is sufficient to give a unity signal to noise, even prior to any image de-noising or application of priors to the reconstruction.

  • Mirhosseini, M. et al. High-dimensional quantum cryptography with twisted light. New J Phys 17,033033–12 (2015).
  • Morris, P. A., Aspden, R. S., Bell, J. E. C., Boyd, R. W. & Padgett, M. J. Imaging with a smallnumber of photons. Nat Commun 6, 5913 (2015)
  • Imaging through noise with quantum illumination, T Gregory, P-A Moreau, E Toninelli, M JPadgett. Sci. Advances



Intelligent Imaging Solutions for Infectious Disease Monitoring in Homes of the Future

Jon Cooper (, Daniele Faccio (

By way of background, Professors Cooper and Faccio have recently been funded as part of a £5.6m, 5 year, EPSRC Healthcare Technologies 2050 Programme Grant on the use of the quantum sensor technology and quantum-inspired imaging, combined with artificial intelligence (AI), to provide new sensors systems for future “intelligent homes”. The main focus of the Programme grant is around using quantum inspired imaging for the diagnosis and screening for non-communicable chronic diseases, such as dementia, stroke and heart disease.

The aim of this PhD project is to build upon on the key technologies, concepts and collaborations, already established within this Programme Grant, but to adapt the proposed quantum sensor technologies and quantum-inspired for the identification/early diagnosis of infectious diseases. The PhD student will produce a minimal viable technology, built around SPAD sensors, with an appropriate form factor and low cost so that the systems can be deployed in households or community settings (such as care homes).

The successful applicant would combine the imaging technologies with AI in order that they can continuously monitor the health of one or more individuals as they move, eat, and sleep. We propose that analysis of these data streams, based upon small but statistically relevant changes in trends in physiological outputs and behaviour will provide proxies for the presence/insurgence of infectious disease. For example, increased skin temperature, changes in blood distribution/flow, increased heart rate, changes in breathing, micromovements and physical agitation, as well alterations in sleep patterns and bathroom visits may be proxies for likely onset of infectious disease.

Although this project is timely in terms of the COVID-19 pandemic, such methods would be equally relevant in providing intelligent early warning in care homes for the annual flu episodes or for non-specific urethritis, where physiological proxies can be linked with behavioural change to provide markers for disease. Appropriate early interventions may halt the spread of disease in a community, by enabling timely medical interventions.

Coupled to these objectives is a longer-term aim that, through demonstration of cloud connectivity, the student will also be able to show how such systems can be used to monitor disease progression, including its spread within a community. The future vision is that of networked houses and homes that continuously monitor health based on the measurement of these small but statistically relevant “markers”. In the longer term, nationwide connectivity could then provide an additional dimension to the data and its statistical relevance (e.g. as a flu season progresses across a region).



Towards All-Optical Neural Networks

Alex Turpin (, Daniele Faccio (, Rod Murray-Smith (

Scientific Question

Is it possible to develop an optical neural network that can be both trained optically and used for data and image processing?


Machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) algorithms are nowadays used in a wide variety of different scenarios such as autonomous vehicles, healthcare technologies, and computer vision.

However, these algorithms require largescale data processing and an increasingly demand for computational resources. The main consequence is the big amount of energy resources used by ML and DL algorithms, which, together with the limitations brought by Moore’s law for electronic computing where the scale of an electronic transistor is already approaching its physical limit encourages the community to look for energy-efficient scalable alternatives.

Research aim

With this project the student will investigate new routes for scalable and energy efficient all-optical neural networks (ONNs) based on optical computing. Optical computing offers low power consumption, processing at the speed of light, and high-throughput capability, which is a basic requirement for high-performance computing.

Optics also paves the way naturally to fundamental operations, such as differentiation, multiplication, integration, Fourier transforms, and convolutions, either via linear (e.g. diffractive optics) or non-linear (e.g. sum frequency generation) optical operations.

However, all optical computing proposals to date have used algorithms pre-calculated digitally on a computer and then implemented experimentally, which weakens the low power consumption promises of using optics for computing.


In contrast to previous approaches, in this project the student will train and implement ML algorithms (specifically neural networks) in experiments using optical elements.

The student will use digital holography with spatial light modulators (SLMs) and diffractive optics to tackle this ambitious goal. SLMs consist in arrays of pixels that can modify the phase of the light’s electric field, which allows spatial engineering of a coherent light beam. SLMs will allow to process light-encoded data-sets and to transform them towards analysing and extracting information, in the same way as electronic neural networks do.

The combination of complex media, such as multimode optical fibres (MMFs) with SLMs brings the opportunity to build completely tuneable elements that perform optical computations for both classical and quantum light, something we have world-leading expertise on in both our group and QuantIC. Using cameras and other sensing technologies will allow us to measure and update the response of the system in real time when changing the SLMs pixels (weights) of the ONNs, thus providing real-time optical ML, where most of the computations are performed at the speed of light.


The main deliverable of the PhD project will be a new technology combining optics and other optoelectronic elements allowing for designing, training, and implementing neural networks in a reconfigurable manner.

The idea is to encode data in the light field, pass it through one or more reconfigurable optical elements (such as SLMs), and use diffractive optics and sensing elements to update the SLM pixels, that will act as weights of the ONN. This will allow developing intelligent optical systems performing data-processing and image-processing tasks directly on the hardware.



Superlattice Detectors for MWIR Single Photon Detection

David Cumming (, Richard Hogg (, Chris Phillips (

In the visible wavelength range, cheap and high performing cameras are widely available. In the mid-infrared (MIR) imaging market however, most available imagers need cryogenic cooling, and uncooled MIR sensing and imaging technologies are of much interest. Type-II superlattice (T2SL) detectors have been proposed as suitable candidates for MIR uncooled detection, and other structures are also under investigation. Using semiconductor material design and growth to realise new MIR imaging and sensing devices the project will advance the state-of-the-art to investigate MWIR single photon detection.

The student will join a team of researchers with expertise in semiconductor device engineering, infrared imaging and sensing, and material design, fabrication, and characterisation. Wafers will be grown by either MBE or MOVPE according to the most suitable methods for the materials in use. Materials will be III-V semi conductors based on but not limited to alloys on Ga, As, In, and Sb, grown using the most appropriate epitaxial method.

The student will carry out device fabrication in world-class James Watt Nanofabrication Centre at the University of Glasgow and will characterise the devices that they make in the laboratories of Imperial College or the University of Glasgow to access an excellent range of equipment.

The project is multidisciplinary in nature and you will have the opportunity to work with industry and academia. The project will also provide opportunities to publish your research in leading journals and to attend international conferences in the field.

This challenging and exciting project is suitable for a highly motivated UK student with a first class degree in electronic engineering, physics or a related subject. Prior research experience is particularly valued.



Biphotons for nonlinear imaging (BINI)

Matteo Clerici Doug Paul (

We are looking for a talented and passion-driven candidate to fulfil a 3.5-years PhD Scholarship at the University of Glasgow. The ideal candidate is a Physics or Engineering graduate, with 2:1 or higher (or equivalent) degree. The PhD student will work in the UNO (Ultrafast Nonlinear Optics) group, led by Dr Clerici, will have access to state-of-the-art research infrastructures, and will enjoy the active student life of the Glasgow West End.

Nonlinear imaging delivered transformative results to our science and technology. One example is multiphoton microscopy, which is used to study biological structures with 3D resolution. Now, quantum optics may deliver yet another improvement to our ability to look at the microscopic world. With this PhD you will discover how biphoton fields can enhance nonlinear imaging.

It has been predicted that the temporal correlations between twin photons generated by parametric downconversion can significantly increase the two-photon absorption cross-section. In the presence of a resonant nonlinearity, such as two-photon absorption in a fluorophore or a semiconductor, biphoton states are absorbed with a cross-section orders of magnitude higher than classical radiation at the same wavelength. This concept is currently being tested experimentally and is one of the most exciting topics in quantum imaging also due to the possibility it entails of improving bioimaging.

This PhD project expands on such concept exploring the impact of biphotons on the real, rather than the imaginary part of optical nonlinearities. The down-converted field is composed only of photon pairs (biphotons) that are strongly correlated in space and time. For this reason, under proper conditions, they effectively behave as a single particle for the light-matter interaction. As a consequence, they can be absorbed with a cross-section approaching that of one-photon processes yet being in a transparent spectral region of the material. The very same concept is expected to hold also for other two-photon processes, such as those underpinning parametric interactions in third-order nonlinear media, such as self and cross-phase modulation, parametric amplification, and Raman scattering.

With this PhD project you will investigate the biphotoninduced enhancement of Kerr nonlinearities for nonlinear imaging applications.


The Scholarship covers the student fees for UK residents (see EPSRC definition) and provides a stipend at the UKRI/EPSRC rate for 3.5 years.

To apply, please send your CV and a brief personal statement to After a pre-selection, successful applicants will be interviewed (either in person or via conference call). The Scholarship is available from October 1st, 2020. We encourage you to get in contact with us as soon as possible. This is an exciting opportunity to develop complementary skills in optics and photonics sponsored by QuantIC, the Quantum Hub for Imaging.


For further information at UNO, the ultrafast nonlinear optics lab

Do not hesitate to contact us ( We are happy to discuss your questions.


Our research groups include Astronomy & astrophysics, Extreme Light, Imaging concept, Institute for Gravitational Research, Materials & condensed matter physics, Nuclear physics, Optics, Quantum theory and Experimental & theoretical particle physics.


Our strong collaborations with UK and international institutions contribute to an excellent environment for top quality research.

Research groups

Astronomy and astrophysics 

We cover a wide range of topics, including solar and plasma physics, cosmology and radio astronomy. Much of our research in solar physics concentrates on the theory, diagnostics and observation of solar flares, complementing our work in more general plasma theory and atmospheric plasmas.

Our research in radio astronomy and cosmology ranges from low frequency astronomy in space to probing the distribution of dark matter with galaxy surveys.

More information: Astronomy and AstrophysicsContact: for enquiries about your application and potential research projects

Extreme Light

What could you do if you had a camera so fast that is can freeze light in motion? Or a quatum sensing device that can measure the path taken by a single photon with a precision of a single atom? We are developing the techonlogies that will enable new forms of imaging with applications ranging from seeing behind and through walls to quantum microscopy.

More information: Extreme Light
Contact: for enquiries about your application and potential research projects

Imaging concepts

We conduct research into new imaging techniques at optical and radio-frequency wavelengths and work closely with collaborators in industry, biology and medicine to apply these techniques in real-world applications.  Our main research fields are computational imaging, spectral imaging and biomedical imaging, particularly in the retina.

More information: Imaging ConceptsContact: for enquiries about your application and potential research projects

Institute for Gravitational Research

Our work includes a broad spectrum of research in and around the field of gravitational wave astronomy and cosmology. This includes:

  • the analysis and astrophysical interpretation of gravitational wave signals from the ground-based network of interferometric gravitational wave detectors including the LIGO observatories.
  • studies of precision novel interferometric sensing techniques to allow detectors to operate at and beyond the Standard Quantum Limit and the development of systems of ultra -low optical and mechanical loss for the suspensions of mirror test masses.

The group is also involved in the space-based LISA mission.

More information: Institute for Gravitational ResearchContact: for enquiries about your application and potential research projects

Materials and condensed matter physics 

We study fundamental phenomena and find solutions for critical issues such as energy, healthcare and information technology. Our research is underpinned by our capabilities in advanced characterisation, theoretical modelling, computational simulation, and a long-standing reputation for the development of transmission electron microscopy techniques. The group facilities include: advanced materials preparation and characterisation, ferromagnetic resonance, scanning probe microscopy, and state of the art high resolution electron microscopy.

More information: Materials and Condensed Matter PhysicsContact: for enquiries about your application and potential research projects

Nuclear physics 

The group undertakes fundamental research into the structure of matter and understanding the processes of Quantum Chromodynamics (the strong nuclear interaction). We study the structure of nucleons (protons and neutrons) and also the spectrum of strongly interacting particles (hadrons). The group is involved at the highest level of international research in hadronic and nuclear physics, and in development of the latest detector technologies and analysis techniques for use in experiments. Our experimental programme is based in the US and Germany.

We also have a programme of applying nuclear physics techniques to applications in radioactive waste disposal, healthcare diagnostics and environmental monitoring.

More information: Nuclear PhysicsContact: for enquiries about your application and potential research projects


We are best known for our work on optical angular momentum (where light beams can spin microscopic objects) and our development of optical tweezers (which use laser beams to manipulate the microscopic world). We also study how tiny prisms and lenses can create strange optical transformations and how optical beams interact with cold atoms and gases.

More information: OpticsContact: for enquiries about your application and potential research projects

Quantum theory 

Our research covers a range of topics in quantum theory, centred mostly on quantum information and quantum optics. We are interested in the foundations of quantum theory and especially he ways in which these appear in light-matter interactions. We work on:

  • quantum-limited measurements
  • the mechanical effects of light
  • the optics of chiral molecules
  • open systems
  • quantum thermodynamics.

We are theoretical physicists but we also enjoy working with experimentalists.

More information: Quantum TheoryContact: for enquiries about your application and potential research projects

Experimental and theoretical particle physics

As part of several major international collaborations, we perform world-class research into fundamental particles and their interactions.

We are interested in phenomena that can be probed at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN as well as at future facilities. The theorists use the current Standard Model of particle physics, as well as credible extensions of it, to make predictions that can be tested by the experimentalists.

Theoretical work has a focus on the behaviour of the strong force as described by Quantum Chromodynamics, using both perturbation theory and nonperturbative methods of lattice QCD; the physics of the Higgs boson and the top quark, and the phenomenology of exotic new physics beyond the Standard Model.

The experimental group is a key member of both the ATLAS and LHCb experiments as well as leading work on the computing grid used for data analysis and detector developments for future collider and neutrino experiments.

More information

Study options

Phd 3-4 6-8
EngD 4-5 8*
MSc (Res) 1-2 2-3
MPhil 2-3 3-4

* Part-time study is only available at EngD level in Optics and Photonics

Entry requirements

2.1 Honours degree or equivalent

Required documentation

Applicants should submit:

  • Transcripts/degree certificate 
  • Two references
  • CV
  • Name of potential Supervisor

English Language requirements for applicants whose first language is not English.

Fees and funding



  • UK fee to be confirmed by (2020/21 fee was £4,407)
  • International & EU: £23,000

Prices are based on the annual fee for full-time study. Fees for part-time study are half the full-time fee.

Additional fees for all students:

  • Re-submission by a research student £540
  • Submission for a higher degree by published work £1,355
  • Submission of thesis after deadline lapsed £350
  • Submission by staff in receipt of staff scholarship £790

Depending on the nature of the research project, some students will be expected to pay a bench fee (also known as research support costs) to cover additional costs. The exact amount will be provided in the offer letter.

Alumni discount

We offer a 10% discount to our alumni on all Postgraduate Research and full Postgraduate Taught Masters programmes. This includes University of Glasgow graduates and those who have completed Junior Year Abroad, Exchange programme or International Summer School with us. The discount is applied at registration for students who are not in receipt of another discount or scholarship funded by the University. No additional application is required.


2020/21 fees

  • £4,407 UK/EU
  • £21,920 outside EU

Prices are based on the annual fee for full-time study. Fees for part-time study are half the full-time fee.

Additional fees for all students:

  • Re-submission by a research student £525
  • Submission for a higher degree by published work £1,315
  • Submission of thesis after deadline lapsed £340
  • Submission by staff in receipt of staff scholarship £765

Depending on the nature of the research project, some students will be expected to pay a bench fee (also known as research support costs) to cover additional costs. The exact amount will be provided in the offer letter.

Alumni discount

We offer a 20% discount to our alumni commencing study in Academic session 2020/21, on all Postgraduate Research and full Postgraduate Taught Masters programmes. This includes University of Glasgow graduates and those who have completed a Study Abroad programme or the Erasmus Programme at the University of Glasgow. This discount can be awarded alongside other University scholarships. 

Funding for EU students

The Scottish Government has confirmed that fees for EU students commencing their studies 2020/21 will be at the same level as those for UK student.






We are a member of the Scottish Universities Physical Alliance (SUPA), a research alliance in physics between six Scottish Universities (Glasgow, Edinburgh, Heriot-Watt, St. Andrews, Strathclyde, West of Scotland). The SUPA graduate school gives Glasgow students access to expertise from all the SUPA institutes through the various courses.

The school has a vibrant research colloquia programme delivered by recognised experts.

You will be part of a Graduate School which provides the highest level of support to its students. The overall aim of our Graduate School is to provide a world-leading environment for students which is intellectually stimulating, encourages them to contribute to culture, society and the economy and enables them to become leaders in a global environment.

We have a diverse community of over 750 students from more than 50 countries who work in innovative and transformative disciplinary and interdisciplinary fields. An important part of our work is to bring our students together and to ensure they consider themselves an important part of the University’s academic community.

Being part of our Graduate School community will be of huge advantage to you in your studies and beyond and we offer students a number of benefits in addition to exceptional teaching and supervision, including:

  • A wide-ranging and responsive research student training programme which enables you to enhance your skills and successfully complete your studies.
  • Mobility scholarships of up to £4000 to enable you to undertake work in collaboration with an international partner.
  • A diverse programme of activities which will ensure you feel part of the wider-research community (including our biannual science slam event).
  • A residential trip for all new research students.
  • The opportunity to engage with industry-partners through training, placements and events.
  • Professionally accredited programmes.
  • Unique Masters programmes run in collaboration with other organisations.
  • State-of-the-art facilities including the James Watt Nanofabrication Centre and the Kelvin Nanocharacterisation Centre.
  • Highly-rated support for international students.



Our research groups work with a range of international collaborators and students have the opportunity to visit and work at a range of international institutes and laboratories including:

  • CERN (European Laboratory for Particle Physics, Switzerland)
  • Jefferson Laboratory (USA)
  • Ligo lab (USA)
  • ICRR (Japan). 


Our in-house research facilities include:

  • The Glasgow Laboratory for Advanced Detector Development (GLADD) developing the next generation of advanced sensor systems for particle physics experiments, medical applications and security systems.
  • The SRDG Materials Characterisation Laboratory, developing materials for gravitational wave detectors.
  • The Kelvin Nanocharacterisation Centre, researching the atomic, electric and magnetic structure of materials using one of the world's highest performance electron microscopes.
  • ScotGrid, providing leading edge e-science facilities.
  • The Optics group provides world-class facilities in structured light and quantum imaging.

Our research teams are also partners in many major national and international research projects including:

  • The ATLAS experiment at the LHC at CERN, studying the fundamental structure of matter at unprecedented energies.
  • LHCb at the LHC in CERN, studying the origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry.
  • The GEO660, LIGO and Virgo Scientific Collaborations, seeking to detect gravitational waves and use these as an additional probe of major astrophysical phenomena.
  • Jefferson Lab, the top nuclear physics research facility in the United States.
  • The SuperSTEM facility (the EPSRC National Facility for Aberration-Corrected Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy) running one of the highest resolution electron microscopes in the world, and accessible to scientists from all round the UK and the rest of the world.
  • The award winning NASA RHESSI X-ray mission, studying solar flares and several other forthcoming international space missions such as ESA's Solar Orbiter.
  • The F-CHROMA project, focusing on space-based and ground-based multi-mode, multi-wavelength study of solar flares.

Our staff and students have the opportunity to use these facilities, and PhD students are in some cases seconded to external facilities for a significant part of their research.

Graduates leave with numeracy, problem-solving skills, a capacity for logical thought and the capability to apply abstract concepts to the real world, as well as experience of working in teams. Career opportunities for physicists can be found in research in universities or in many areas of industry: high tech manufacturing, semiconductor, materials, finance, consultancy and teaching.

How to apply

Identify potential supervisors

All Postgraduate Research Students are allocated a supervisor who will act as the main source of academic support and research mentoring. You may want to identify a potential supervisor and contact them to discuss your research proposal before you apply. Please note, even if you have spoken to an academic staff member about your proposal you still need to submit an online application form.

You can find relevant academic staff members with our staff research interests search.

Gather your documents

Before applying please make sure you gather the following supporting documentation:

  1. Final or current degree transcripts including grades (and an official translation, if needed) – scanned copy in colour of the original document.
  2. Degree certificates (and an official translation, if needed): scanned copy in colour of the original document.
  3. Two references on headed paper and signed by the referee. One must be academic, the other can be academic or professional. References may be uploaded as part of the application form or you may enter your referees contact details on the application form. We will then email your referee and notify you when we receive the reference.  We can also accept confidential references direct to, from the referee’s university or business email account.
  4. Research proposal, CV, samples of written work as per requirements for each subject area.

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