The Hunterian is home to one of the most distinguished public art collections in Scotland. It includes over 900 paintings, 40,000 works on paper and modest holdings of applied and decorative art (Mackintosh, Scottish ceramics, Whistler memorabilia) and sculpture.Painting of Ben More with sand and sea 

Important historically because of its origins in William Hunter's collection, which included works by Rembrandt, Chardin, Stubbs, it has developed particular strengths in Whistler, Mackintosh and Scottish Art, especially the Glasgow Boys and Scottish Colourists.

The Mackintosh House is an integral part of the Gallery and comprises the meticulously reassembled interiors from the house occupied by Charles Rennie Mackintosh and his artist-wife Margaret Macdonald from 1906 to 1914. The interiors are furnished with Mackintosh's original furniture and fitments and decorated as closely as was possible to the original.

The Hunterian is also home to the largest collection of works on paper in Scotland, with four principal strengths: artist's prints covering all major masters from 1450 to the present; drawings and watercolours by Charles Rennie Mackintosh; prints, watercolours, pastels and drawings by James McNeill Whistler; and a collection of mainly British drawings and watercolours.

Although sculpture makes up only a small part of the collection, there are a number of important portrait sculptures and a small display of modern works by British artists in the outdoor Sculpture Courtyard.

The Hunterian illuminated manuscripts and printed books are in the care of the University Library.