Molecular Pharmacology & Cellular Signalling

Our research looks at the molecular mechanisms that underpin the basis of physiology and the development of disease.




Milligan, G. (2024) Editorial for GPR84 Pharmacology. British Journal of Pharmacology, 181, pp. 1497-1499. (doi: 10.1111/bph.16340)

Pal, S., Nare, Z., Rao, V. A., Smith, B. O., Morrison, I., Fitzgerald, E. A., Scott, A., Bingham, M. J., Pesnot, T. (2024) Accelerating BRPF1b hit identification with BioPhysical and Active Learning Screening (BioPALS) ChemMedChem, 19, (doi: 10.1002/cmdc.202300590)

Nguyen, T.-H., Blatt, M. R. (2024) Surrounded by luxury: the necessities of subsidiary cells. Plant, Cell and Environment, (doi: 10.1111/pce.14872)

Baena, G., Xia, L., Waghmare, S., Yu, Z., Guo, Y., Blatt, M. R., Zhang, B., Karnik, R. (2024) Arabidopsis SNARE SYP132 impacts on PIP2;1 trafficking and function in salinity stress. Plant Journal, (doi: 10.1111/tpj.16649)

Tikhonova, I., Zhang, X., Guseinov, A.-A., Jenkins, L., Li, K., Milligan, G., Zhang, C. (2024) Structural basis for the ligand recognition and signaling of free fatty acid receptors. Science Advances, 10, (doi: 10.1126/sciadv.adj2384)

Blatt, M. R. (2024) A charged existence: a century of transmembrane ion transport in plants. Plant Physiology, (doi: 10.1093/plphys/kiad630)


Barki, N., Jenkins, L., Marsango, S., Dedeo, D., Bolognini, D., Dwomoh, L., Abdelmalik, A. M., Nilsen, M., Stoffels, M., Nagel, F., Schulz, S., Tobin, A. B., Milligan, G. (2023) Phosphorylation bar-coding of free fatty acid receptor 2 is generated in a tissue-specific manner. eLife, 12, (doi: 10.7554/eLife.91861)

Kalita, M., Park, J. H., Kuo, R. C., Hayee, S., Marsango, S., Straniero, V., Alam, I. S., Rivera-Rodriguez, A., Pandrala, M., Carlson, M. L., Reyes, S. T., Jackson, I. M., Suigo, L., Luo, A., Nagy, S. C., Valoti, E., Milligan, G., Habte, F., Shen, B., James, M. L. (2023) PET imaging of innate immune activation using 11C radiotracers targeting GPR84. JACS Au, 3, pp. 3297-3310. (doi: 10.1021/jacsau.3c00435)

Jaffery, H., Huesa, C., Chilaka, S., Cole, J., Doonan, J., Akbar, M., Dunning, L., Tanner, K. E., van 't Hof, R. J., McInnes, I. B., Carmody, R. J., Goodyear, C. S. (2023) IĸB Protein BCL3 as a controller of osteogenesis and bone health. Arthritis and Rheumatology, 75, pp. 2148-2160-2148-2160. (doi: 10.1002/art.42639)

Silva-Alvim, F. A.L., Alvim, J. C., Harvey, A., Blatt, M. R. (2023) Speedy stomata of a C4 plant correlate with enhanced K+ channel gating. Plant, Cell and Environment, (doi: 10.1111/pce.14775)

Nguyen, T.-H., Silva-Alvim, F. A. L., Hills, A., Blatt, M. R. (2023) OnGuard3e: a predictive, ecophysiology‐ready tool for gas exchange and photosynthesis research. Plant, Cell and Environment, 46, pp. 3644-3658. (doi: 10.1111/pce.14674)

Irshad, Z., Lund, J., Sillars, A., Løvsletten, N. G., Gharanei, S., Salt, I. P., Freeman, D. J., Gill, J. M.R., Thoresen, G. H., Rustan, A. C., Zammit, V. A. (2023) The roles of DGAT1 and DGAT2 in human myotubes are dependent on donor patho-physiological background. FASEB Journal, 37, (doi: 10.1096/fj.202300960RR)

Ganguly, A., Quon, T., Jenkins, L., Joseph, B., Al-awar, R., Chevigne, A., Tobin, A. B., Uehling, D. E., Hoffmann, C., Drube, J., Milligan, G. (2023) G protein-receptor kinases 5/6 are the key regulators of G protein-coupled receptor 35-arrestin interactions. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 299, (doi: 10.1016/j.jbc.2023.105218)

Zhang, X., Wang, Y., Supekar, S., Cao, X., Zhou, J., Dang, J., Chen, S., Jenkins, L., Marsango, S., Li, X., Liu, G., Milligan, G., Feng, M., Fan, H., Gong, W., Zhang, C. (2023) Pro-phagocytic function and structural basis of GPR84 signaling. Nature Communications, 14, (doi: 10.1038/s41467-023-41201-0)

Ciba, M., Dibnah, B., Hudson, B. D., Ulven, E. R. (2023) Development and characterization of potent succinate receptor fluorescent tracers. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 66, pp. 8951-8974. (doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.3c00552)

Nguyen, T. B.-A., Lefoulon, C., Nguyen, T.-H., Blatt, M. R., Carroll, W. (2023) Engineering stomata for enhanced carbon capture and water-use efficiency. Trends in Plant Science, (doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2023.06.002)

Karnik, R., Blatt, M. R. (2023) Analyzing protein–protein interactions using the split-ubiquitin system. Humana Press

Dowsett, L., Duluc, L., Higgins, E., Alghamdi, F., Fast, W., Salt, I. P., Leiper, J. (2023) Asymmetric dimethylarginine positively modulates calcium-sensing receptor signalling to promote lipid accumulation. Cellular Signalling, 107, (doi: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2023.110676)

Deni, I. et al. (2023) Mitigating the risk of antimalarial resistance via covalent dual-subunit inhibition of the Plasmodium proteasome. Cell Chemical Biology, 30, pp. 470-485.e6. (doi: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2023.03.002)

Valentini, A., Schultz-Knudsen, K., Højgaard Hansen, A., Tsakoumagkou, A., Jenkins, L., Christensen, H. B., Manandhar, A., Milligan, G., Ulven, T., Rexen Ulven, E. (2023) Discovery of potent tetrazole free fatty acid receptor 2 antagonists. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 66, pp. 6105-6121. (doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.2c01935)

Milligan, G. (2023) GPR35: from enigma to therapeutic target. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 44, pp. 263-273. (doi: 10.1016/

Javitt, A. et al. (2023) The proteasome regulator PSME4 modulates proteasome activity and antigen diversity to abrogate antitumor immunity in NSCLC. Nature Cancer, 4, pp. 629-647. (doi: 10.1038/s43018-023-00557-4)

Marsango, S., Milligan, G. (2023) Regulation of the pro-inflammatory G protein-coupled receptor GPR84. British Journal of Pharmacology, (doi: 10.1111/bph.16098)

Adam, S., Zheng, D., Klein, A., Volz, C., Mullen, W., Shirran, S. L., Smith, B. O., Kalinina, O. V., Müller, R., Koehnke, J. (2023) Unusual peptide-binding proteins guide pyrroloindoline alkaloid formation in crocagin biosynthesis. Nature Chemistry, 15, pp. 560-568. (doi: 10.1038/s41557-023-01153-w)

Meda Venkata, S. P., Li, H., Xu, L., Koh, J. Y., Nguyen, H., Minjares, M., Li, C., Kowluru, A., Milligan, G., Wang, J.-M. (2023) Inhibition of GPR39 restores defects in endothelial cell–mediated neovascularization under the duress of chronic hyperglycemia: evidence for regulatory roles of the sonic hedgehog signaling axis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120, pp. e2208541120. (doi: 10.1073/pnas.2208541120)


Seale, M., Zhdanov, O., Soons, M. B., Cummins, C., Kroll, E., Blatt, M. R., Zare-Behtash, H., Busse, A., Mastropaolo, E., Bullock, J. M., Viola, I. M., Nakayama, N. (2022) Environmental morphing enables informed dispersal of the dandelion diaspore. eLife, 11, (doi: 10.7554/eLife.81962)

Kowalczyk, D., Nakasone, M. A., Smith, B. O., Huang, D. T. (2022) Bivalent binding of p14ARF to MDM2 RING and acidic domains inhibits E3 ligase function. Life Science Alliance, 5, (doi: 10.26508/lsa.202201472)

Bremner, S. K., Al Shammari, W. O., Milligan, R. S., Hudson, B. D., Sutherland, C., Bryant, N. J., Gould, G. W. (2022) Pleiotropic effects of Syntaxin16 identified by gene editing in cultured adipocytes. Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, 10, (doi: 10.3389/fcell.2022.1033501)

Horaruang, W., Klejchová, M., Carroll, W., Silva-Alvim, F. A.L., Waghmare, S., Papanatsiou, M., Amtmann, A., Hills, A., Alvim, J. C., Blatt, M. R., Zhang, B. (2022) Engineering a K+ channel 'sensory antenna' enhances stomatal kinetics, water use efficiency and photosynthesis. Nature Plants, 8, pp. 1262-1274. (doi: 10.1038/s41477-022-01255-2)

Gracie, J., Zamberlan, F., Andrews, I. B., Smith, B. O., Peveler, W. J. (2022) Growth of plasmonic nanoparticles for aging cask-matured whisky. ACS Applied Nano Materials, 5, pp. 15362-15368. (doi: 10.1021/acsanm.2c03406)

Alharbi, A. G., Tobin, A. B., Milligan, G. (2022) How arrestins and GRKs regulate the function of long chain fatty acid receptors. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 23, (doi: 10.3390/ijms232012237)

Ryan, S. M., Ruscher, R., Johnston, W. A., Pickering, D. A., Kennedy, M. W., Smith, B. O., Jones, L., Buitrago, G., Field, M. A., Esterman, A. J., McHugh, C. P., Browne, D. J., Cooper, M. M., Ryan, R. Y. M., Doolan, D. L., Engwerda, C. R., Miles, K., Mitreva, M., Croese, J., Rahman, T., Alexandrov, K., Giacomin, P. R., Loukas, A. (2022) Novel antiinflammatory biologics shaped by parasite–host coevolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119, (doi: 10.1073/pnas.2202795119)

Mahindra, A., Jenkins, L., Marsango, S., Huggett, M., Huggett, M., Robinson, L., Gillespie, J., Rajamanickam, M., Morrison, A., McElroy, S., Tikhonova, I. G., Milligan, G., Jamieson, A. G. (2022) Investigating the structure–activity relationship of 1,2,4-triazine G-protein-coupled receptor 84 (GPR84) antagonists. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 65, pp. 11270-11290. (doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.2c00804)

Kjeldsen, A., Kay, J. E., Baxter, S., McColm, S., Serrano-Amatriain, C., Parker, S., Robb, E., Arnold, S. A., Gilmour, C., Raper, A., Robertson, G., Fleming, R., Smith, B. O., Fotheringham, I. G., Christie, J. M., Magneschi, L. (2022) The fluorescent protein iLOV as a reporter for screening of high‐yield production of antimicrobial peptides in Pichia pastoris. Microbial Biotechnology, 15, pp. 2126-2139. (doi: 10.1111/1751-7915.14034)

Marsango, S., Barki, N., Jenkins, L., Tobin, A. B., Milligan, G. (2022) Therapeutic validation of an orphan G protein-coupled receptor: the case of GPR84. British Journal of Pharmacology, 179, pp. 3529-3541. (doi: 10.1111/bph.15248)

Marsango, S., Jenkins, L., Pediani, J. D., Bradley, S. J., Ward, R. J., Hesse, S., Biener, G., Stoneman, M. R., Tobin, A. B., Raicu, V., Milligan, G. (2022) The M1 muscarinic receptor is present in situ as a ligand-regulated mixture of monomers and oligomeric complexes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119, (doi: 10.1073/pnas.2201103119)

Caspar, B., Cocchiara, P., Melet, A., Van Emelen, K., Van der Aa, A., Milligan, G., Herbeuval, J.-P. (2022) CXCR4 as a novel target in immunology: moving away from typical antagonists. Future Drug Discovery, 4, (doi: 10.4155/fdd-2022-0007)

Torres Cabán, C. C., Yang, M., Lai, C., Yang, L., Subach, F. V., Smith, B. O., Piatkevich, K. D., Boyden, E. S. (2022) Tuning the sensitivity of genetically encoded fluorescent potassium indicators through structure-guided and genome mining strategies. ACS Sensors, 7, pp. 1336-1346. (doi: 10.1021/acssensors.1c02201)

Marsango, S., Ward, R. J., Jenkins, L., Butcher, A. J., Al Mahmud, Z., Dwomoh, L., Nagel, F., Schulz, S., Tikhonova, I. G., Tobin, A. B., Milligan, G. (2022) Selective phosphorylation of threonine residues defines GPR84-arrestin interactions of biased ligands. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 298, (doi: 10.1016/j.jbc.2022.101932)

Thu, N. B.A., Amtmann, A., Blatt, M. R., Nguyen, T.-H. (2022) Stomata under salt stress—what can mechanistic modeling tell us? Academic Press

Živković, D., Sanchez Dafun, A., Menneteau, T., Schahl, A., Lise, S., Kervarrec, C., Toste Rêgo, A., da Fonseca, P. C. A., Chavent, M., Pineau, C., Burlet-Schiltz, O., Marcoux, J., Bousquet, M.-P. (2022) Proteasome complexes experience profound structural and functional rearrangements throughout mammalian spermatogenesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119, pp. e2116826119. (doi: 10.1073/pnas.2116826119)

Tibbo, A. J., Mika, D., Dobi, S., Ling, J., McFall, A., Tejeda, G. S., Blair, C., MacLeod, R., MacQuaide, N., Gök, C., Fuller, W., Smith, B. O., Smith, G. L., Vandecasteele, G., Brand, T., Baillie, G. S. (2022) Phosphodiesterase type 4 anchoring regulates cAMP signaling to Popeye domain-containing proteins. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, 165, pp. 86-102. (doi: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2022.01.001)

Barki, N., Bolognini, D., Börjesson, U., Jenkins, L., Riddell, J., Hughes, D. I., Ulven, T., Hudson, B. D., Rexen Ulven, E., Dekker, N., Tobin, A. B., Milligan, G. (2022) Chemogenetics defines the roles of short chain fatty acid receptors within the gut-brain axis. eLife, 11, (doi: 10.7554/eLife.73777)

Divorty, N., Jenkins, L., Ganguly, A., Butcher, A. J., Hudson, B. D., Schulz, S., Tobin, A. B., Nicklin, S. A., Milligan, G. (2022) Agonist-induced phosphorylation of orthologues of the orphan receptor GPR35 functions as an activation sensor. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 298, (doi: 10.1016/j.jbc.2022.101655)

Blatt, M. R., Jezek, M., Lew, V. L., Hills, A. (2022) What can mechanistic models tell us about guard cells, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency? Trends in Plant Science, 27, pp. 166-179. (doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2021.08.010)

Nakasone, M. A., Majorek, K. A., Gabrielsen, M., Sibbet, G. J., Smith, B. O., Huang, D. T. (2022) Structure of UBE2K-Ub/E3/polyUb reveals mechanisms of K48-linked Ub chain extension. Nature Chemical Biology, 18, pp. 422-431. (doi: 10.1038/s41589-021-00952-x)

Neckebroeck, A., Kelly, S. M., Smith, B. O., Clark, J. S. (2022) Synthesis of the prototypical cyclopropyl dipeptide mimic and evaluation of its turn-inducing capability. Journal of Organic Chemistry, 87, pp. 258-270. (doi: 10.1021/acs.joc.1c02344)

Zhdanov, O., Blatt, M. R., Zare-Behtash, H., Busse, A. (2022) Unidirectional versus bidirectional brushing: simulating wind influence on Arabidopsis thaliana. Quantitative Plant Biology, 3, (doi: 10.1017/qpb.2021.14)


Scarpa, M., Molloy, C., Jenkins, L., Strellis, B., Budgett, R. F., Hesse, S., Dwomoh, L., Marsango, S., Tejeda, G. S., Rossi, M., Ahmed, Z., Milligan, G., Hudson, B. D., Tobin, A. B., Bradley, S. J. (2021) Biased M1 muscarinic receptor mutant mice show accelerated progression of prion neurodegenerative disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118, pp. e2107389118. (doi: 10.1073/pnas.2107389118)

Lin, L.-C., Quon, T., Engberg, S., Mackenzie, A. E., Tobin, A. B., Milligan, G. (2021) G protein-coupled receptor GPR35 suppresses lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. ACS Pharmacology and Translational Science, 4, pp. 1835-1848. (doi: 10.1021/acsptsci.1c00224)

Blatt, M. (2021) Ae fond fareweel. Plant Physiology, 187, pp. 2341-2343. (doi: 10.1093/plphys/kiab467)

Kok, F. O., Wang, H., Riedlova, P., Goodyear, C. S., Carmody, R. J. (2021) Defining the structure of the NF-ĸB pathway in human immune cells using quantitative proteomic data. Cellular Signalling, 88, (doi: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2021.110154)

Brown, A. J.H. et al. (2021) From structure to clinic: design of a muscarinic M1 receptor agonist with potential to treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Cell, 184, pp. 5886-5901.e22. (doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2021.11.001)

Mahindra, A., Tejeda, G., Rossi, M., Janha, O., Herbert, I., Morris, C., Morgan, D. C., Beattie, W., Montezano, A. C., Hudson, B., Tobin, A. B., Bhella, D., Touyz, R. M., Jamieson, A. G., Baillie, G. S., Blair, C. M. (2021) Peptides derived from the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding motif bind to ACE2 but do not block ACE2-mediated host cell entry or pro-inflammatory cytokine induction. PLoS ONE, 16, (doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0260283)

Somma, D., Kok, F. O., Kerrigan, D., Wells, C. A., Carmody, R. J. (2021) Defining the role of nuclear factor NF-κB p105 subunit in human macrophage by transcriptomic analysis of NFKB1 knockout THP-1 cells. Frontiers in Immunology, 12, (doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.669906)

Milligan, G., Jenkins, L., Marsango, S., Mancini, S., Mahmud, Z. A., Morrison, A., McElroy, S., Bennett, K., Barnes, M., Tobin, A., Tikhonova, I. (2021) Discovery and characterization of novel antagonists of the proinflammatory orphan receptor GPR84. ACS Pharmacology and Translational Science, 4, pp. 1598-1613. (doi: 10.1021/acsptsci.1c00151)

Prabhakar, A. T., James, C. D., Das, D., Otoa, R., Day, M., Burgner, J., Fontan, C. T., Wang, X., Wieland, A., Donaldson, M. M., Bristol, M. L., Li, R., Oliver, A. W., Pearl, L. H., Smith, B. O., Glass, S., Morgan, I. M. (2021) CK2 phosphorylation of human papillomavirus 16 E2 on serine 23 promotes interaction with TopBP1 and is critical for E2 interaction with mitotic chromatin and the viral life cycle. mBio, 12, (doi: 10.1128/mbio.01163-21)

Jezek, M., Silva-Alvim, F. A.L., Hills, A., Donald, N., Ishka, M. R., Shadbolt, J., He, B., Lawson, T., Harper, J. F., Wang, Y., Lew, V. L., Blatt, M. R. (2021) Guard cell endomembrane Ca2+-ATPases underpin a ‘carbon memory’ of photosynthetic assimilation that impacts on water-use efficiency. Nature Plants, 7, pp. 1301-1313. (doi: 10.1038/s41477-021-00966-2)

Buist, H. K., Luchowska-Stańska, U., van Basten, B., Valli, J., Smith, B. O., Baillie, G. S., Rickman, C., Ricketts, B., Davidson, A., Hannam, R., Sunderland, J., Yarwood, S. J. (2021) Identification and characterization of an affimer affinity reagent for the detection of the cAMP sensor, EPAC1. Cells, 10, (doi: 10.3390/cells10092307)

Ahwazi, D., Neopane, K., Markby, G. R., Kopietz, F., Ovens, A. J., Dall, M., Hassing, A. S., Graesle, P., Alshuweishi, Y. A. I., Treebak, J. T., Salt, I., Göransson, O., Zeqiraj, E., Scott, J. W., Sakamoto, K. (2021) Investigation of the specificity and mechanism of action of the ULK1/AMPK inhibitor SBI-0206965. Biochemical Journal, 478, pp. 2977-2997. (doi: 10.1042/BCJ20210284)

Palmer, T. M., Salt, I. P. (2021) Nutrient regulation of inflammatory signalling in obesity and vascular disease. Clinical Science, 135, pp. 1563-1590. (doi: 10.1042/CS20190768)

Morgan, D. C., Morris, C., Mahindra, A., Blair, C. M., Tejeda, G., Herbert, I., Turnbull, M. L., Lieber, G., Willett, B. J., Logan, N., Smith, B., Tobin, A. B., Bhella, D., Baillie, G. S., Jamieson, A. G. (2021) Stapled ACE2 peptidomimetics designed to target the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein do not prevent virus internalisation. Peptide Science, 113, (doi: 10.1002/pep2.24217)

Boleij, A., Fathi, P., Dalton, W., Park, B., Wu, X., Huso, D., Allen, J., Besharati, S., Anders, R. A., Housseau, F., Mackenzie, A. E., Jenkins, L., Milligan, G., Wu, S., Sears, C. L. (2021) G-protein coupled receptor 35 (GPR35) regulates the colonic epithelial cell response to enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis. Communications Biology, 4, (doi: 10.1038/s42003-021-02014-3)

Salt, I. P., Nunes, J. R.C., Fullerton, M. D. (2021) Metformin again? Atheroprotection mediated by macrophage AMPK and ATF1. Cardiovascular Research, 117, pp. 1233-1234. (doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvab065)

Morris, E. P., da Fonseca, P. C.A. (2021) How to build a proteasome. Nature Structural and Molecular Biology, 28, pp. 409-410. (doi: 10.1038/s41594-021-00592-8)

Klejchova, M., Silva-Alvim, F. A.L., Blatt, M. R., Alvim, J. C. (2021) Membrane voltage as a dynamic platform for spatio-temporal signalling, physiological and developmental regulation. Plant Physiology, 185, pp. 1523-1541. (doi: 10.1093/plphys/kiab032)

Milligan, G., Barki, N., Tobin, A. (2021) Chemogenetic approaches to explore the functions of Free Fatty Acid Receptor 2. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 42, pp. 191-202. (doi: 10.1016/

Zhdanov, O., Blatt, M. R., Zare-Behtash, H., Busse, A. (2021) Wind-evoked anemotropism affects the morphology and mechanical properties of Arabidopsis. Journal of Experimental Botany, 72, pp. 1906-1918. (doi: 10.1093/jxb/eraa541)

Kopietz, F., Alshuweishi, Y., Bijland, S., Alghamdi, F., Degerman, E., Sakamoto, K., Salt, I. P., Göransson, O. (2021) A-769662 inhibits adipocyte glucose uptake in an AMPK-independent manner. Biochemical Journal, 478, pp. 633-646. (doi: 10.1042/BCJ20200659)

Bolognini, D., Dedeo, D., Milligan, G. (2021) Metabolic and inflammatory functions of short-chain fatty acid receptors. Current Opinion in Endocrine and Metabolic Research, 16, pp. 1-9. (doi: 10.1016/j.coemr.2020.06.005)

Knuhtsen, A., Whiting, R., McWhinnie, F. S., Whitmore, C., Smith, B. O., Green, A. C., Timperley, C. M., Kinnear, K. I., Jamieson, A. G. (2021) μ-conotoxin KIIIA peptidomimetics that block human voltage-gated sodium channels. Peptide Science, 113, (doi: 10.1002/pep2.24203)

Ward, R. J., Pediani, J. D., Marsango, S., Jolly, R., Stoneman, M. R., Biener, G., Handel, T. M., Raicu, V., Milligan, G. (2021) Chemokine receptor CXCR4 oligomerization is disrupted selectively by the antagonist ligand IT1t. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 296, (doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA120.016612)


Zhdanov, O., Blatt, M. R., Cammarano, A., Zare-Behtash, H., Busse, A. (2020) A new perspective on mechanical characterisation of Arabidopsis stems through vibration tests. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 112, (doi: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2020.104041)

Alghamdi, F., Alshuweishi, Y., Salt, I. P. (2020) Regulation of nutrient uptake by AMP-activated protein kinase. Cellular Signalling, 76, (doi: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2020.109807)

Marti-Solano, M., Crilly, S. E., Malinverni, D., Munk, C., Harris, M., Pearce, A., Quon, T., Mackenzie, A. E., Wang, X., Peng, J., Tobin, A. B., Ladds, G., Milligan, G., Gloriam, D. E., Puthenveedu, M. A., Babu, M. M. (2020) Combinatorial expression of GPCR isoforms affects signalling and drug responses. Nature, 587, pp. 650-656. (doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2888-2)

Labéguère, F. et al. (2020) Discovery of 9-Cyclopropylethynyl-2-((S)-1-[1,4]dioxan-2-ylmethoxy)-6,7-dihydropyrimido[6,1-a]isoquinolin-4-one (GLPG1205), a unique GPR84 negative allosteric modulator undergoing evaluation in a phase II clinical trial. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 63, pp. 13526-13545. (doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c00272)

Chatrin, C., Gabrielsen, M., Buetow, L., Nakasone, M. A., Ahmed, S. F., Sumpton, D., Sibbet, G. J., Smith, B. O., Huang, D. T. (2020) Structural insights into ADP-ribosylation of ubiquitin by Deltex family E3 ubiquitin ligases. Science Advances, 6, (doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abc0418)

Lefoulon, C., Boxall, S. F., Hartwell, J., Blatt, M. R. (2020) Crassulacean acid metabolism guard cell anion channel activity follows transcript abundance and is suppressed by apoplastic malate. New Phytologist, 227, pp. 1847-1857. (doi: 10.1111/nph.16640)

Larson, E. R., Ortmannová, J., Donald, N. A., Alvim, J., Blatt, M. R., Žárský, V. (2020) Synergy among exocyst and SNARE interactions identifies a functional hierarchy in secretion during vegetative growth. Plant Cell, 32, pp. 2951-2963. (doi: 10.1105/tpc.20.00280)

Prihandoko, R., Kaur, D., Wiegman, C. H., Alvarez-Curto, E., Donovan, C., Chachi, L., Ulven, T., Tyas, M. R., Euston, E., Dong, Z., Alharbi, A. G. M., Kim, R. Y., Lowe, J. G., Hansbro, P. M., Chung, K. F., Brightling, C. E., Milligan, G., Tobin, A. B. (2020) Pathophysiological regulation of lung function by the free fatty acid receptor FFA4. Science Translational Medicine, 12, (doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aaw9009)

Mitxitorena, I., Somma, D., Mitchell, J. P., Lepistö, M., Tyrchan, C., Smith, E. L., Kiely, P. A., Walden, H., Keeshan, K., Carmody, R. J. (2020) The deubiquitinase USP7 uses a distinct ubiquitin-like domain to deubiquitinate NF-ĸB subunits. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 295, pp. 11754-11763. (doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA120.014113)

Jezek, M., Hills, A., Blatt, M. R., Lew, V. L. (2020) A constraint-relaxation-recovery mechanism for stomatal dynamics. Plant, Cell and Environment, 42, pp. 2399-2410. (doi: 10.1111/pce.13568)

Quon, T., Lin, L.-C., Ganguly, A., Tobin, A. B., Milligan, G. (2020) Therapeutic opportunities and challenges in targeting the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR35. ACS Pharmacology and Translational Science, 3, pp. 801-812. (doi: 10.1021/acsptsci.0c00079)

Flütsch, S., Wang, Y., Takemiya, A., Vialet-Chabrand, S. R., Klejchova, M., Nigro, A., Hills, A., Lawson, T., Blatt, M. R., Santelia, D. (2020) Guard cell starch degradation yields glucose for rapid stomatal opening in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell, 32, pp. 2325-2344. (doi: 10.1105/tpc.18.00802)

Sarrou, E., Richmond, L., Carmody, R. J., Gibson, B., Keeshan, K. (2020) CRISPR gene editing of murine blood stem and progenitor cells induces MLL-AF9 chromosomal translocation and MLL-AF9 leukaemogenesis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21, (doi: 10.3390/ijms21124266)

Klejchová, M., Hills, A., Blatt, M. R. (2020) Predicting the unexpected in stomatal gas exchange: not just an open-and-shut case. Biochemical Society Transactions, 48, pp. 881-889. (doi: 10.1042/BST20190632)

Crecente Garcia, S., Neckebroeck, A., Clark, J. S., Smith, B. O., Thomson, A. R. (2020) β-turn mimics by chemical ligation. Organic Letters, 22, pp. 4424-4428. (doi: 10.1021/acs.orglett.0c01427)

Rexen Ulven, E., Quon, T., Sergeev, E., Barki, N., Brvar, M., Hudson, B. D., Dutta, P., Højgaard Hansen, A., Bielefeldt, L. Ø., Tobin, A. B., McKenzie, C. J., Milligan, G., Ulven, T. (2020) Structure-activity relationship studies of tetrahydroquinolone free fatty acid receptor 3 modulators. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 63, pp. 3577-3595. (doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b02036)

Horaruang, W., Hills, A., Blatt, M. R. (2020) Communication between the plasma membrane and tonoplast is an emergent property of ion transport. Plant Physiology, 182, pp. 1833-1835. (doi: 10.1104/pp.19.01485)

Sencio, V., Barthelemy, A., Tavares, L. P., Machado, M. G., Soulard, D., Cuinat, C., Queiroz-Junior, C. M., Noordine, M. L., Salomé-Desnoulez, S., Deryuter, L., Foligné, B., Wahl, C., Frisch, B., Vieira, A. T., Paget, C., Milligan, G., Ulven, T., Wolowczuk, I., Faveeuw, C., Le Goffic, R., Thomas, M., Ferreira, S., Teixeira, M. M., Trottein, F. (2020) Gut dysbiosis during influenza contributes to pulmonary pneumococcal superinfection through altered short-chain fatty acid production. Cell Reports, 30, pp. 2934-2947.e6. (doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.02.013)


Collins, P. E., Somma, D., Kerrigan, D., Herrington, F., Keeshan, K. R., Nibbs, R. J.B., Carmody, R. J. (2019) The IκB-protein BCL-3 controls toll-like receptor-induced MAPK activity by promoting TPL-2 degradation in the nucleus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 116, pp. 25828-25838. (doi: 10.1073/pnas.1900408116)

Heuninck, J., Perpina Viciano, C., Işbilir, A., Caspar, B., Capoferri, D., Briddon, S. J., Durroux, T., Hill, S. J., Lohse, M. J., Milligan, G., Pin, J.-P., Hoffmann, C. (2019) Context-dependent signaling of CXC chemokine receptor 4 and atypical chemokine receptor 3. Molecular Pharmacology, 96, pp. 778-793. (doi: 10.1124/mol.118.115477)

Smith, E. L., Somma, D., Kerrigan, D., McIntyre, Z., Cole, J. J., Liang, K. L., Kiely, P. A., Keeshan, K., Carmody, R. J. (2019) The regulation of sequence specific NF-ĸB DNA binding and transcription by IKKβ Phosphorylation of NF-ĸB p50 at Serine 80. Nucleic Acids Research, 47, pp. 11151-11161. (doi: 10.1093/nar/gkz873)

Waghmare, S., Lefoulon, C., Zhang, B., Lileikyte, E., Donald, N., Blatt, M. (2019) K+ channel and SEC11 binding exchange regulates SNARE assembly for secretory traffic. Plant Physiology, 181, pp. 1096-1113. (doi: 10.1104/pp.19.00919)

Zhdanov, O., Busse, A., Cammarano, A., Zare-Behtash, H., Blatt, M. (2019) Effect of Wind on Morphology and Mechanical Properties of Arabidopsis Thaliana.

Toste Rêgo, A., da Fonseca, P. C.A. (2019) Characterization of fully recombinant human 20S and 20S-PA200 proteasome complexes. Molecular Cell, 76, pp. 138-147.e5. (doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2019.07.014)

Jurić, I., Hibberd, J. M., Blatt, M., Burroughs, N. J. (2019) Computational modelling predicts substantial carbon assimilation gains for C3 plants with a single-celled C4 biochemical pump. PLoS Computational Biology, 15, (doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1007373)

Ibáñez-Shimabukuro, M., Rey-Burusco, M. F., Gabrielsen, M., Franchini, G. R., Riboldi-Tunnicliffe, A., Roe, A. J., Griffiths, K., Cooper, A., Córsico, B., Kennedy, M. W., Smith, B. O. (2019) Structure and ligand binding of As-p18, an extracellular fatty acid binding protein from the eggs of a parasitic nematode. Bioscience Reports, 39, (doi: 10.1042/BSR20191292)

Katwan, O. J., Alghamdi, F., Almabrouk, T. A., Mancini, S. J., Kennedy, S., Oakhill, J. S., Scott, J. W., Salt, I. P. (2019) AMP-activated protein kinase complexes containing the β2 regulatory subunit are upregulated during and contribute to adipogenesis. Biochemical Journal, 476, pp. 1725-1740. (doi: 10.1042/BCJ20180714)

Blackman, M. J., Stokes, B. H., Yoo, E., Murithi, J. M., Luth, M. R., Afanasyev, P., da Fonseca, P. C.A., Winzeler, E. A., Ng, C. L., Bogyo, M., Fidock, D. A. (2019) Covalent Plasmodium falciparum-selective proteasome inhibitors exhibit a low propensity for generating resistance in vitro and synergize with multiple antimalarial agents. PLoS Pathogens, 15, (doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007722)

Stoneman, M. R., Biener, G., Ward, R. J., Pediani, J. D., Badu, D., Eis, A., Popa, I., Milligan, G., Raicu, V. (2019) A general method to quantify ligand-driven oligomerization from fluorescence-based images. Nature Methods, 16, pp. 493-496. (doi: 10.1038/s41592-019-0408-9)

Bolognini, D., Barki, N., Butcher, A. J., Hudson, B. D., Sergeev, E., Molloy, C., Moss, C. E., Bradley, S. J., Le Gouill, C., Bouvier, M., Tobin, A. B., Milligan, G. (2019) Chemogenetics defines receptor-mediated functions of short chain free fatty acids. Nature Chemical Biology, 15, pp. 489-498. (doi: 10.1038/s41589-019-0270-1)

Zhang, B., Karnik, R., Alvim, J., Donald, N., Blatt, M. R. (2019) Dual sites for SEC11 on the SNARE SYP121 implicate a binding exchange during secretory traffic. Plant Physiology, 180, pp. 228-239. (doi: 10.1104/pp.18.01315)

Milligan, G., Ward, R. J., Marsango, S. (2019) GPCR homo-oligomerization. Current Opinion in Cell Biology, 57, pp. 40-47. (doi: 10.1016/

Mackenzie, A. E., Quon, T., Lin, L.-C., Hauser, A. S., Jenkins, L., Inoue, A., Tobin, A. B., Gloriam, D. E., Hudson, B. D., Milligan, G. (2019) Receptor selectivity between the G proteins Gα12 and Gα13 is defined by a single leucine-to-isoleucine variation. FASEB Journal, 33, pp. 5005-5017. (doi: 10.1096/fj.201801956R)

Papanatsiou, M., Petersen, J., Henderson, L., Wang, Y., Christie, J.M., Blatt, M.R. (2019) Optogenetic manipulation of stomatal kinetics improves carbon assimilation, water use, and growth. Science, 363, pp. 1456-1459. (doi: 10.1126/science.aaw0046)

Zhao, C. et al. (2019) Evolution of chloroplast retrograde signaling facilitates green plant adaptation to land. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 116, pp. 5015-5020. (doi: 10.1073/pnas.1812092116)

Knuhtsen, A., Whitmore, C., McWhinnie, F. S., McDougall, L., Whiting, R., Smith, B. O., Timperley, C. M., Green, A. C., Kinnear, K. I., Jamieson, A. G. (2019) α-conotoxin GI triazole-peptidomimetics: potent and stable blockers of a human acetylcholine receptor. Chemical Science, 10, pp. 1671-1676. (doi: 10.1039/C8SC04198A)

Mancini, S., Mahmud, Z. A., Jenkins, L., Bolognini, D., Newman, R., Barnes, M., Edye, M. E., McMahon, S. B., Tobin, A. B., Milligan, G. (2019) On-target and off-target effects of novel orthosteric and allosteric activators of GPR84. Scientific Reports, 9, (doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-38539-1)

Liao, X., Zhang, B., Blatt, M. R., Jenkins, G. I. (2019) A FRET method for investigating dimer/monomer status and conformation of the UVR8 photoreceptor. Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, 18, pp. 367-374. (doi: 10.1039/C8PP00489G)

Müskens, F. M., Ward, R. J., Herkt, D., van de Langemheen, H., Tobin, A. B., Liskamp, R. M.J., Milligan, G. (2019) Design, synthesis and evaluation of a diazirine photoaffinity probe for ligand-based receptor capture targeting G protein-coupled receptors. Molecular Pharmacology, 95, pp. 196-209. (doi: 10.1124/mol.118.114249)

Petrie, J. R., Salt, I. P. (2019) Diabetes and vascular disease. Springer

Rezig, I. M., Bremner, S. K., Bhutta, M. S., Salt, I. P., Gould, G. W., McInerny, C. J. (2019) Genetic and cytological methods to study ESCRT cell cycle function in fission yeast. Humana Press


Strembitska, A., Mancini, S. J., Gamwell, J. M., Palmer, T. M., Baillie, G. S., Salt, I. P. (2018) A769662 inhibits insulin-stimulated Akt activation in human macrovascular endothelial cells independent of AMP-activated protein kinase. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 19, (doi: 10.3390/ijms19123886)

Waghmare, S., Lileikyte, E., Karnik, R., Goodman, J. K., Blatt, M. R., Jones, A. M.E. (2018) SNAREs SYP121 and SYP122 mediate the secretion of distinct cargo subsets. Plant Physiology, 178, pp. 1679-1688. (doi: 10.1104/pp.18.00832)

Kennedy, A. J., Ballante, F., Johansson, J. R., Milligan, G., Sunström, L., Nordqvist, A., Carlsson, J. (2018) Structural characterization of agonist binding to protease-activated receptor 2 through mutagenesis and computational modeling. ACS Pharmacology and Translational Science, 1, pp. 119-133. (doi: 10.1021/acsptsci.8b00019)

Hansen, A. H., Sergeev, E., Bolognini, D., Sprenger, R. R., Ekberg, J. H., Ejsing, C. S., McKenzie, C. J., Rexen Ulven, E., Milligan, G., Ulven, T. (2018) Discovery of a potent thiazolidine free fatty acid receptor 2 agonist with favorable pharmacokinetic properties. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 61, pp. 9534-9550. (doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.8b00855)

Lefoulon, C., Waghmare, S., Karnik, R., Blatt, M. R. (2018) Gating control and K+ uptake by the KAT1 K+ channel leaveraged through membrane anchoring of the trafficking protein SYP121. Plant, Cell and Environment, 41, pp. 2668-2677. (doi: 10.1111/pce.13392)

Drew, J. E., Reichardt, N., Williams, L. M., Mayer, C.-D., Walker, A. W., Farquharson, A. J., Kastora, S., Farquharson, F., Milligan, G., Morrison, D. J., Preston, T., Flint, H. J., Louis, P. (2018) Dietary fibers inhibit obesity in mice, but host responses in the cecum and liver appear unrelated to fiber-specific changes in cecal taxonomic composition. Scientific Reports, 8, (doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-34081-8)

Zhang, B., Karnik, R., Donald, N., Blatt, M. R. (2018) A GPI signal peptide-anchored split-ubiquitin (GPS) system for detecting soluble bait protein interactions at the membrane. Plant Physiology, 178, pp. 13-17. (doi: 10.1104/pp.18.00577)

Divorty, N., Milligan, G., Graham, D., Nicklin, S. A. (2018) The orphan receptor GPR35 contributes to angiotensin II–induced hypertension and cardiac dysfunction in mice. American Journal of Hypertension, 31, pp. 1049-1058. (doi: 10.1093/ajh/hpy073)

Feroz, H., Ferlez, B., Lefoulon, C., Ren, T., Baker, C. S., Gajewski, J. P., Lugar, D. J., Gaudana, S. B., Butler, P. J., Hühn, J., Lamping, M., Parak, W. J., Hibberd, J. M., Kerfeld, C. A., Smirnoff, N., Blatt, M. R., Golbeck, J. H., Kumar, M. (2018) Light-driven chloride transport kinetics of halorhodopsin. Biophysical Journal, 115, pp. 353-360. (doi: 10.1016/j.bpj.2018.06.009)

Marsango, S., Ward, R. J., Alvarez-Curto, E., Milligan, G. (2018) Muscarinic receptor oligomerization. Neuropharmacology, 136, pp. 401-410. (doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2017.11.023)

Binti Mohd Amir, N. A.S., Mackenzie, A. E., Jenkins, L., Boustani, K., Hillier, M. C., Tsuchiya, T., Milligan, G., Pease, J. E. (2018) Evidence for the existence of a CXCL17 receptor distinct from GPR35. Journal of Immunology, 201, pp. 714-724. (doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1700884)

Milligan, G. (2018) G protein-coupled receptors not currently in the spotlight: free fatty acid receptor 2 and GPR35. British Journal of Pharmacology, 175, pp. 2543-2553. (doi: 10.1111/bph.14042)

Zhdanov, O., Busse, A., Blatt, M., Zare-Behtash, H. (2018) A specialised wind tunnel for investigation of ecophysiological response of plants to wind.

Butcher, S. K., O'Carroll, C. E., Wells, C. A., Carmody, R. J. (2018) Toll-like receptors drive specific patterns of tolerance and training on restimulation of macrophages. Frontiers in Immunology, 9, (doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.00933)

Salomé, M., Magee, A., Yalla, K., Chaudhury, S., Sarrou, E., Carmody, R. J., Keeshan, K. (2018) A Trib2-p38 axis controls myeloid leukaemia cell cycle and stress response signalling. Cell Death and Disease, 9, (doi: 10.1038/s41419-018-0467-3)

Milligan, G., Inoue, A. (2018) Genome editing provides new insights into receptor-controlled signalling pathways. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 39, pp. 481-493. (doi: 10.1016/

Blatt, M. R. (2018) Concepts and techniques in plant membrane physiology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

Blatt, M.R., Thiel, G. (2018) SNARE components and mechanisms of exocytosis in plants. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

Mancini, S. J., Boyd, D., Katwan, O. J., Strembitska, A., Almabrouk, T. A., Kennedy, S., Palmer, T. M., Salt, I. P. (2018) Canagliflozin inhibits interleukin-1β-stimulated cytokine and chemokine secretion in vascular endothelial cells by AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Scientific Reports, 8, (doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-23420-4)

Almabrouk, T. A.M., White, A. D., Ugusman, A. B., Skiba, D. S., Katwan, O. J., Alganga, H., Guzik, T. J., Touyz, R. M., Salt, I. P., Kennedy, S. (2018) High fat diet attenuates the anticontractile activity of aortic PVAT via a mechanism involving AMPK and reduced adiponectin secretion. Frontiers in Physiology, 9, (doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00051)

Speirs, C., Williams, J. J.L., Riches, K., Salt, I. P., Palmer, T. M. (2018) Linking energy sensing to suppression of JAK-STAT signalling: a potential route for repurposing AMPK activators? Pharmacological Research, 128, pp. 88-100. (doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2017.10.001)

Pediani, J. D., Ward, R. J., Marsango, S., Milligan, G. (2018) Spatial intensity distribution analysis: studies of G Protein-coupled receptor oligomerization. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 39, pp. 175-186. (doi: 10.1016/

Pantin, F., Blatt, M. R. (2018) Stomatal response to humidity: blurring the boundary between active and passive movement. Plant Physiology, 176, pp. 485-488. (doi: 10.1104/pp.17.01699)

Mancini, S. J., Salt, I. P. (2018) Investigating the role of AMPK in inflammation. Humana Press

Mitchell, J. P., Carmody, R. J. (2018) NF-κB and the Transcriptional Control of Inflammation. Elsevier

Reichardt, N., Vollmer, M., Holtrop, G., Farquharson, F. M., Wefers, D., Bunzel, M., Duncan, S. H., Drew, J. E., Williams, L. M., Milligan, G., Preston, T., Morrison, D., Flint, H. J., Louis, P. (2018) Specific substrate-driven changes in human faecal microbiota composition contrast with functional redundancy in short-chain fatty acid production. ISME Journal, 12, pp. 610-622. (doi: 10.1038/ismej.2017.196)


Mahmud, Z. A., Jenkins, L., Ulven, T., Labéguère, F., Gosmini, R., De Vos, S., Hudson, B. D., Tikhonova, I. G., Milligan, G. (2017) Three classes of ligands each bind to distinct sites on the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR84. Scientific Reports, 7, (doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-18159-3)

Viskaitis, P., Irvine, E. E., Smith, M. A., Choudhury, A. I., Alvarez-Curto, E., Glegola, J. A., Hardy, D. G., Pedroni, S. M.A., Paiva Pessoa, M. R., Fernando, A. B.P., Katsouri, L., Sardini, A., Ungless, M. A., Milligan, G., Withters, D. J. (2017) Modulation of SF1 neuron activity coordinately regulates both feeding behaviour and associated emotional states. Cell Reports, 21, pp. 3559-3572. (doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2017.11.089)

Cooper, A., Vance, S. J., Smith, B. O., Kennedy, M. W. (2017) Frog foams and natural protein surfactants. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 534, pp. 120-129. (doi: 10.1016/j.colsurfa.2017.01.049)

Wang, Y., Hills, A., Vialet-Chabrand, S., Papanatsiou, M., Griffiths, H., Rogers, S., Lawson, T., Lew, V. L., Blatt, M. R. (2017) Unexpected connections between humidity and ion transport discovered using a model to bridge guard cell-to-leaf scales. Plant Cell, 29, pp. 2921-2939. (doi: 10.1105/tpc.17.00694)

Sergeev, E., Hansen, A. H., Bolognini, D., Kawakami, K., Kishi, T., Aoki, J., Ulven, T., Inoue, A., Hudson, B. D., Milligan, G. (2017) A single extracellular amino acid in Free Fatty Acid Receptor 2 defines antagonist species selectivity and G protein selection bias. Scientific Reports, 7, (doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-14096-3)

Gabrielsen, M., Buetow, L., Nakasone, M. A., Ahmed, S. F., Sibbet, G. J., Smith, B. O., Zhang, W., Sidhu, S. S., Huang, D. T. (2017) A general strategy for discovery of inhibitors and activators of RING and U-box E3 ligases with ubiquitin variants. Molecular Cell, 68, pp. 456-470.e10. (doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2017.09.027)

Larson, E. R., Van Zelm, E., Roux, C., Marion-Poll, A., Blatt, M. R. (2017) Clathrin Heavy Chain subunits coordinate endo- and exocytic traffic and affect stomatal movement. Plant Physiology, 175, pp. 708-720. (doi: 10.1104/pp.17.00970)

Almabrouk, T. A. M., Ugusman, A. B., Katwan, O. J., Salt, I. P., Kennedy, S. (2017) Deletion of AMPKα1 attenuates the anticontractile effect of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) and reduces adiponectin release. British Journal of Pharmacology, 174, pp. 3398-3410. (doi: 10.1111/bph.13633)

Kennedy, S., Salt, I. P. (2017) Molecular mechanisms regulating perivascular adipose tissue - potential pharmacological targets? British Journal of Pharmacology, 174, pp. 3385-3387. (doi: 10.1111/bph.13969)

Magennis, S., Toulmin, A., Baltierra-Jasso, L. E., Morten, M. J., Sabir, T., McGlynn, P., Schröder, G. F., Smith, B. O., Magennis, S. W. (2017) Conformational heterogeneity in a fully-complementary DNA three-way junction with a GC-rich branchpoint. Biochemistry, 56, pp. 4985-4991. (doi: 10.1021/acs.biochem.7b00677)

Milligan, G., Alvarez-Curto, E., Hudson, B. D., Prihandoko, R., Tobin, A. B. (2017) FFA4/GPR120: pharmacology and therapeutic opportunities. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 38, pp. 809-821. (doi: 10.1016/

(2017) G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Dimers. (doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-60174-8)

Ward, R. J., Marsango, S., Pediani, J. D., Milligan, G. (2017) The use of spatial intensity distribution analysis to examine G protein-coupled receptor oligomerization. Humana Press

Prokop, S., Perry, N. A., Vishnivetskiy, S. A., Toth, A. D., Inoue, A., Milligan, G., Iverson, T. M., Hunyady, L., Gurevich, V. V. (2017) Differential manipulation of arrestin-3 binding to basal and agonist-activated G protein-coupled receptors. Cellular Signalling, 36, pp. 98-107. (doi: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2017.04.021)

Spies, M., Smith, B. O. (2017) Protein-nucleic acids interactions: new ways of connecting structure, dynamics and function. Biophysical Reviews, 9, pp. 289-291. (doi: 10.1007/s12551-017-0284-4)

Lopez-Gimenez, J., Alvarez-Curto, E., Milligan, G. (2017) M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor facilitates the endocytosis of mu opioid receptor mediated by morphine independently of the formation of heteromeric complexes. Cellular Signalling, 35, pp. 208-222. (doi: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2017.04.006)

Cai, S., Papanatsiou, M., Blatt, M. R., Chen, Z.-H. (2017) Speedy grass stomata: emerging molecular and evolutionary features. Molecular Plant, 10, pp. 912-914. (doi: 10.1016/j.molp.2017.06.002)

Riedelsberger, J., Blatt, M. R. (2017) Editorial: Roots—the hidden provider. Frontiers in Plant Science, 8, (doi: 10.3389/fpls.2017.01021)

Shaw, A., Jeromson, S., Watterson, K. R., Pediani, J. D., Gallagher, I., Whalley, T., Dreczkowski, G., Brooks, N., Galloway, S., Hamilton, D. L. (2017) Multiple AMPK activators inhibit L-Carnitine uptake in C2C12 skeletal muscle myotubes. American Journal of Physiology: Cell Physiology, 312, pp. C689-C696. (doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00026.2016)

Cai, S., Chen, G., Wang, Y., Huang, Y., Marchant, B., Wang, Y., Yang, Q., Dai, F., Hills, A., Franks, P. J., Nevo, E., Soltis, D., Soltis, P., Sessa, E., Wolf, P. G., Xue, D., Zhang, G., Pogson, B. J., Blatt, M. R., Chen, Z.-H. (2017) Evolutionary conservation of ABA signaling for stomatal closure in ferns. Plant Physiology, 174, pp. 732-747. (doi: 10.1104/pp.16.01848)

Vialet-Chabrand, S., Hills, A., Wang, Y., Griffiths, H., Lew, V. L., Lawson, T., Blatt, M. R., Rogers, S. (2017) Global sensitivity analysis of OnGuard models identifies key hubs for transport interaction in stomatal dynamics. Plant Physiology, 174, pp. 680-688. (doi: 10.1104/pp.17.00170)

Morris, E. P., da Fonseca, P. C.A. (2017) High-resolution cryo-EM proteasome structures in drug development. Acta Crystallographica. Section D: Structural Biology, 73, pp. 522-533. (doi: 10.1107/S2059798317007021)

Watterson, K. R., Hansen, S. V.F., Hudson, B., Alvarez-Curto, E., Raihan, S. Z., Azevedo, C. M.G., Martin, G., Dunlop, J., Yarwood, S. J., Ulven, T., Milligan, G. (2017) Probe-dependent negative allosteric modulators of the long-chain free fatty acid receptor FFA4. Molecular Pharmacology, 91, pp. 630-641. (doi: 10.1124/mol.116.107821)

Ward, R. J., Pediani, J. D., Harikumar, K. G., Miller, L. J., Milligan, G. (2017) Spatial intensity distribution analysis quantifies the extent and regulation of homodimerization of the secretin receptor. Biochemical Journal, 474, pp. 1879-1895. (doi: 10.1042/BCJ20170184)

Kaspersen, M. H., Jenkins, L., Dunlop, J., Milligan, G., Ulven, T. (2017) Succinct synthesis of saturated hydroxy fatty acids and in vitro evaluation of all hydroxylauric acids on FFA1, FFA4 and GPR84. MedChemComm, 8, pp. 1360-1365. (doi: 10.1039/c7md00130d)

Vialet-Chabrand, S. R.M., Matthews, J. S.A., McAusland, L., Blatt, M. R., Griffiths, H., Lawson, T. (2017) Temporal dynamics of stomatal behavior: modeling and implications for photosynthesis and water use. Plant Physiology, 174, pp. 603-613. (doi: 10.1104/pp.17.00125)

Jezek, M., Blatt, M. R. (2017) The membrane transport system of the guard cell and its integration for stomatal dynamics. Plant Physiology, 174, pp. 487-519. (doi: 10.1104/pp.16.01949)

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Marsango, S., Caltabiano, G., Jiménez-Rosés, M., Millan, M. J., Pediani, J. D., Ward, R. J., Milligan, G. (2017) A molecular basis for selective antagonist destabilization of dopamine D3 receptor quaternary organization. Scientific Reports, 7, (doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-02249-3)

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Hansen, A. H., Sergeev, E., Pandey, S. K., Hudson, B. D., Christiansen, E., Milligan, G., Ulven, T. (2017) Development and characterization of a fluorescent tracer for the free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2/GPR43) Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 60, pp. 5638-5645. (doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.7b00338)

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Alvarez-Curto, E., Inoue, A., Jenkins, L., Raihan, S. Z., Prihandoko, R., Tobin, A. B., Milligan, G. (2016) Targeted elimination of G proteins and arrestins defines their specific contributions to both intensity and duration of G protein-coupled receptor signalling. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 291, pp. 27147-27159. (doi: 10.1074/jbc.M116.754887)

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Heathcote, H. R., Mancini, S. J., Strembitska, A., Jamal, K., Reihill, J. A., Palmer, T. M., Gould, G. W., Salt, I. P. (2016) Protein kinase C phosphorylates AMP-activated protein kinase α1 Ser487. Biochemical Journal, 473, pp. 4681-4697. (doi: 10.1042/BCJ20160211)

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Hawley, S. A., Ford, R. J., Smith, B. K., Gowans, G. J., Mancini, S., Pitt, R. D., Day, E. A., Salt, I. P., Steinberg, G. R., Hardie, D. G. (2016) The Na+ glucose co-transporter inhibitor canagliflozin activates AMP-activated protein kinase by inhibiting mitochondrial function and increasing cellular AMP levels. Diabetes, 65, pp. 2784-2794. (doi: 10.2337/db16-0058)

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Liang, K. L., Paredes, R., Carmody, R., Eyers, P. A., Meyer, S., McCarthy, T. V., Keeshan, K. (2016) Human TRIB2 oscillates during the cell cycle and promotes ubiquitination and degradation of CDC25C. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 17, (doi: 10.3390/ijms17091378)

Morris, R. J., Brandani, G. B., Desai, V., Smith, B. O., Schor, M., MacPhee, C. E. (2016) The conformation of interfacially adsorbed Ranaspumin-2 Is an arrested state on the unfolding pathway. Biophysical Journal, 111, pp. 732-742. (doi: 10.1016/j.bpj.2016.06.006)

Alvarez-Curto, E., Milligan, G. (2016) Metabolism meets immunity: the role of free fatty acid receptors in the immune system. Biochemical Pharmacology, 114, pp. 3-13. (doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2016.03.017)

Dean, A., Nilsen, M., Loughlin, L., Salt, I. P., MacLean, M. R. (2016) Metformin reverses development of pulmonary hypertension via aromatase inhibition. Hypertension, 68, pp. 446-454. (doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.116.07353)

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Pediani, J. D., Ward, R. J., Godin, A. G., Marsango, S., Milligan, G. (2016) Dynamic regulation of quaternary organization of the M1 muscarinic receptor by subtype-selective antagonist drugs. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 291, pp. 13132-13146. (doi: 10.1074/jbc.M115.712562)

Ashraf, K. U., Josts, I., Mosbahi, K., Kelly, S. M., Byron, O., Smith, B. O., Walker, D. (2016) The potassium binding protein Kbp is a cytoplasmic potassium sensor. Structure, 24, pp. 741-749. (doi: 10.1016/j.str.2016.03.017)

Nuber, S., Zabel, U., Lorenz, K., Nuber, A., Milligan, G., Tobin, A. B., Lohse, M. J., Hoffmann, C. (2016) β-Arrestin biosensors reveal a rapid, receptor-dependent activation/deactivation cycle. Nature, 531, pp. 661-664. (doi: 10.1038/nature17198)

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Grundmann, M., Tikhonova, I. G., Hudson, B. D., Smith, N. J., Mohr, K., Ulven, T., Milligan, G., Kenakin, T., Kostenis, E. (2016) A molecular mechanism for sequential activation of a G Protein-coupled receptor. Cell Chemical Biology, 23, pp. 392-403. (doi: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2016.02.014)

Pratt, A. G., Anderson, A. E., Carmody, R. J., Isaacs, J. D. (2016) B cell lymphoma 3 (Bcl-3) in CD4+ T cell mediated RA pathogenesis: Comment on the article by Meguro et al. Arthritis and Rheumatology, 68, pp. 770-771. (doi: 10.1002/art.39509)

Herrington, F. D., Carmody, R. J., Goodyear, C. S. (2016) Modulation of NF-κB signaling as a therapeutic target in autoimmunity. Journal of Biomolecular Screening, 21, pp. 223-242. (doi: 10.1177/1087057115617456)

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Bolognini, D., Tobin, A. B., Milligan, G., Moss, C. E. (2016) The pharmacology and function of receptors for short-chain fatty acids. Molecular Pharmacology, 89, pp. 388-398. (doi: 10.1124/mol.115.102301)

Li, H., O’Donoghue, A. J., van der Linden, W. A., Xie, S. C., Yoo, E., Foe, I. T., Tilley, L., Craik, C. S., da Fonseca, P. C.A., Bogyo, M. (2016) Structure- and function-based design of Plasmodium-selective proteasome inhibitors. Nature, 530, pp. 233-236. (doi: 10.1038/nature16936)

Blatt, M. R. (2016) Plant physiology: redefining the enigma of metabolism in stomatal movement. Current Biology, 26, pp. R107-R109. (doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2015.12.025)

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Minguet-Parramona, C., Wang, Y., Hills, A., Vialet-Chabrand, S., Griffiths, H., Rogers, S., Lawson, T., Lew, V. L., Blatt, M. R. (2016) An optimal frequency in Ca2+ oscillations for stomatal closure is an emergent property of ion transport in guard cells. Plant Physiology, 170, pp. 33-42. (doi: 10.1104/pp.15.01607)

Sergeev, E., Hansen, A. H., Pandey, S. K., MacKenzie, A. E., Hudson, B. D., Ulven, T., Milligan, G. (2016) Non-equivalence of key positively charged residues of the free fatty acid 2 receptor in the recognition and function of agonist versus antagonist ligands. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 291, pp. 303-317. (doi: 10.1074/jbc.M115.687939)

Christiansen, E., Hudson, B. D., Hansen, A. H., Milligan, G., Ulven, T. (2016) Development and characterization of a potent free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1) fluorescent tracer. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 59, pp. 4849-4858. (doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b00202)

Prihandoko, R., Alvarez-Curto, E., Hudson, B. D., Butcher, A. J., Ulven, T., Miller, A. M., Tobin, A. B., Milligan, G. (2016) Distinct phosphorylation clusters determines the signalling outcome of the free fatty acid receptor FFA4/GPR120. Molecular Pharmacology, 89, pp. 505-520. (doi: 10.1124/mol.115.101949)

McCallum, J. E., Mackenzie, A. E., Divorty, N., Clarke, C., Delles, C., Milligan, G., Nicklin, S. A. (2016) G protein-coupled receptor 35 mediates human saphenous vein vascular smooth muscle cell migration and endothelial cell proliferation. Journal of Vascular Research, 52, pp. 383-395. (doi: 10.1159/000444754)


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Mckinney, C.A., Kennedy, S., Baillie, G.S., Milligan, G., Nicklin, S.A. (2015) Angiotensin-(1-7) and angiotensin-(1-9) inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell growth and migration in vitro and vascular remodelling in vivo. Atherosclerosis, 241, pp. e44. (doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.04.158)

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Brown, J.H., Catterall, W.A., Conn, P.J., Cull-Candy, S.G., Dingledine, R., Harden, T.K., Insel, P.A., Milligan, G., Traynelis, S.F. (2015) The first 50 years of molecular pharmacology. Molecular Pharmacology, 88, pp. 139-140. (doi: 10.1124/mol.115.099564)

Collins, P. E., Grassia, G., Colleran, A., Kiely, P. A., Ialenti, A., Maffia, P., Carmody, R. J. (2015) Mapping the interaction of B cell Leukemia 3 (BCL-3) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p50 identifies a BCL-3-mimetic anti-inflammatory peptide. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 290, pp. 15687-15696. (doi: 10.1074/jbc.M115.643700)

Marsango, S., Caltabiano, G., Pou, C., Varela Liste, M. J., Milligan, G. (2015) Analysis of human dopamine D3 receptor quaternary structure. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 290, pp. 15146-15162. (doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.630681)

Milligan, G., Liste, M. J. V., Caltabiano, G. C., Alvarez-Curto, E., Marsango, S. (2015) Defining the organizational structure of dopamine and muscarninic acetylcholine receptors. SpringerPlus, 4, (doi: 10.1186/2193-1801-4-s1-l7)

Aslanoglou, D., Alvarez-Curto, E., Marsango, S., Milligan, G. (2015) Distinct agonist regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine M2-M3 heteromers and their corresponding homomers. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 290, pp. 14785-14796. (doi: 10.1074/jbc.M115.649079)

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Liste, M. J., Caltabiano, G., Ward, R. J., Alvarez-Curto, E., Marsango, S., Milligan, G. (2015) The molecular basis of oligomeric organization of the human m3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Molecular Pharmacology, 87, pp. 936-953. (doi: 10.1124/mol.114.096925)

Papanatsiou, M., Scuffi, D., Blatt, M. R., Garia-Mata, C. (2015) Hydrogen sulphide regulates inward-rectifying K+ channels in conjunction with stomatal closure. Plant Physiology, 168, pp. 29-35. (doi: 10.1104/pp.114.256057)

Ward, R. J., Pediani, J. D., Godin, A. G., Milligan, G. (2015) Regulation of oligomeric organization of the serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C (5-HT2C) receptor observed by spatial intensity distribution analysis. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 290, pp. 12844-12857. (doi: 10.1074/jbc.M115.644724)

Parnell, E., Smith, B. O., Yarwood, S. J. (2015) The cAMP sensors, EPAC1 and EPAC2, display distinct subcellular distributions despite sharing a common nuclear pore localisation signal. Cellular Signalling, 27, pp. 989-996. (doi: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2015.02.009)

Buetow, L., Gabrielsen, M., Anthony, N. G., Dou, H., Patel, A., Aitkenhead, H., Sibbet, G. J., Smith, B. O., Huang, D. T. (2015) Activation of a primed RING E3-E2–ubiquitin complex by non-covalent ubiquitin. Molecular Cell, 58, pp. 297-310. (doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2015.02.017)

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Karnik, R., Zhang, B., Waghmare, S., Aderhold, C., Grefen, C., Blatt, M. R. (2015) Binding of SEC11 indicates its role in SNARE recycling after vesicle fusion and identifies two pathways for vesicular traffic to the plasma membrane. Plant Cell, 27, pp. 675-694. (doi: 10.1105/tpc.114.134429)

Shigemitsu, Y., Ikeya, T., Yamamoto, A., Tsuchie, Y., Mishima, M., Smith, B. O., Güntert, P., Ito, Y. (2015) Evaluation of the reliability of the maximum entropy method for reconstructing 3D and 4D NOESY-type NMR spectra of proteins. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 457, pp. 200-205. (doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.12.088)

Franchini, G. R., Pórfido, J. L., Ibáñez Shimabukuro, M., Rey Burusco, M. F., Bélgamo, J. A., Smith, B. O., Kennedy, M. W., Córsico, B. (2015) The unusual lipid binding proteins of parasitic helminths and their potential roles in parasitism and as therapeutic targets. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids (PLEFA), 93, pp. 31-36. (doi: 10.1016/j.plefa.2014.08.003)

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Marsango, S., Varela, M. J., Milligan, G. (2015) Approaches to characterize and quantify oligomerization of GPCRs. Springer New York

Colleran, A., Collins, P. E., Carmody, R. J. (2015) Assessing sites of NF-κB DNA binding using chromatin immunoprecipitation. Humana Press

Collins, P. E., Colleran, A., Carmody, R. J. (2015) Control of NF-κB subunits by ubiquitination. Humana Press

Alvarez-Curto, E., Milligan, G. (2015) Defining the functional equivalence of wild-type and chemically engineered G protein-coupled receptors. Springer New York

Divorty, N., Mackenzie, A., Nicklin, S., Milligan, G. (2015) G protein-coupled receptor 35: an emerging target in inflammatory and cardiovascular disease. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 6, (doi: 10.3389/fphar.2015.00041)

Collins, P. E., O'Carroll, C., Carmody, R. J. (2015) Measurement of NF-κB transcriptional activity and identification of NF-κB cis-regulatory elements using luciferase assays. Humana Press

Mathes, T., Heilmann, M., Pandit, A., Zhu, J., Ravensbergen, J., Kloz, M., Fu, Y., Smith, B.O., Christie, J.M., Jenkins, G.I., Kennis, J.T.M. (2015) Proton-coupled electron transfer constitutes the photoactivation mechanism of the plant photoreceptor UVR8. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 137, pp. 8113-8120. (doi: 10.1021/jacs.5b01177)

Collins, P. E., Carmody, R. J. (2015) The regulation of endotoxin tolerance and its impact on macrophage activation. Critical Reviews in Immunology, 35, pp. 293-323. (doi: 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.2015015495)

Postgraduate research students

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Molecular Pharmacology and Cellular Signalling are core themes with our School. Focus is on the structure, function and regulation of members of the family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and how information deriving from detailed analysis of their mechanisms of action can be translated into the development of novel medicines and approaches to both understand and ameliorate disease.  Underpinned for many years by the work of Professor Graeme Milligan, the Molecular Pharmacology Group is currently undergoing substantial and rapid expansion. 

We use approaches ranging from classical pharmacological analyses to the development of biosensors based on biophysical methods and, linked to the generation of unique animal models to study disease development and the molecular mechanisms that underpin the basis of physiology, novel assay technologies allow better discrimination between ligand chemotypes to prioritise selection of candidate molecules for lead optimisation and development.

Close links have been established with both clinicians and basic science groups in other Schools within the College of Medical, Veterinary & Life Sciences with focus on cardiovascular and metabolic health, infection and immunity and dementia and neurodegeneration.