Low carbon and sustainable computing
The Low Carbon and Sustainable Computing (LOCOS) Theme groups the research in the School related to the sustainability of computing. The main focus is on reduction of emissions from computing. However, research in computing science can help in many other ways with reducing of greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation of the effects of climate change.
By 2040 emissions from computing alone will more than to half the emissions level acceptable to keep global warming below 1.5°C. This growth in computing emissions is unsustainable. The emissions from production of computing devices far exceed the emissions from operating them, so even if devices are more energy efficient producing more of them will make the emissions problem worse. Therefore we must extend the useful life of our computing devices.
The vision for Low Carbon and Sustainable Computing Theme is simple but ambitious:
- Imagine we can extend the useful life of our devices and even increase their capabilities without any increase in energy consumption, purely through advances in Computing Science: better algorithms, better software design, better programming languages and compilers etc.
- Meanwhile, we will develop the science and technologies for the next generation of devices, designed for energy efficiency as well as long life through pervasive hardware-software co-design.
- Every subsequent cycle will last longer, leading to computing resources that last virtually forever and use very little energy.
For more details on the context of Low Carbon and Sustainable Computing, please read the position paper.
Stephen is a Professor of Human-Computer Interaction in the School of Computing Science at the University of Glasgow. He is a member of the GIST research section and within that, he leads the Multimodal Interaction Group doing world-leading research in human-computer interaction (mig.dcs.gla.ac.uk). His research focuses on multimodal HCI, or using multiple sensory modalities and control mechanisms (particularly audio, haptics and gesture) to create a rich, natural interaction between human and computer.
José Cano Reyes is a Lecturer (Assistant Professor) in the School of Computing Science at the University of Glasgow and a visiting member of ICSA in the School of Informatics at The University of Edinburgh. His research interests are in the broad areas of Computer Architecture, Computer Systems, Compilers, Interconnection Networks, Machine Learning and Security. His current research is focused on hardware/software co-designed approaches to efficiently deploy Deep Learning applications on mobile/embedded edge devices (e.g. IoT boards, phones, drones, mobile robots).
Yehia is a Reader (Associate Professor) at the School of Computing Science, Univeristy of Glasgow, UK, and is a visiting professor at École de Technologie Supérieure, Montreal. His work aims to enable distributed systems to traverse infrastructural boundaries, and to make the development and deployment of distributed systems easier. He also works on border-free network architectures in intent-driven systems, systems of systems, and information centric networks.
Jonathan is a Lecturer / Assistant Professor of Computing Science at the University of Glasgow and a member of their Information, Data and Analysis (IDA) research section. He received my PhD from INRIA (French National Institute for Research in Digital Science and Technology) in France for my work on self-calibration interfaces. He then was a research associate within Lee Cronin’s group at the University of Glasgow, where I led a team of nine researchers developing tools for assisting chemists in their discovery process. This involved creating a multidisciplinary mindset at the intersection of Robotics, AI, and Chemistry. I then joined the Center for Research and Interdisciplinarity (CRI) in Paris as a Research Fellow.
Marwa is a Lecturer in Socially Intelligent Technologies in the School of Computing Science at University of Glasgow, and a Visiting Fellow in the Department of Computer Science and Technology at University of Cambridge, UK. Her research interests focus on computer vision for social signal processing and multimodal signal processing, especially within the context of aﬀective computing, behaviour analytics, human behaviour understanding and animal behaviour understanding. She applied her research in the areas of automotive applications, mental healthcare, and animal welfare.
Waqar’s research focus is on investigating tools and compilers for accessible heterogeneous computing, which involves working closely with a variety of languages and parallel programming frameworks. He is also interested in computing education research, where he’s been investigating work-based and competency-based learning, and also looking at ways to improve quality of CS education in developing countries.
Tim’s research interests are in the practice of software engineering. With respect to programming languages, a key area of interest for his research group is the practice of behaviour driven development and the expression and maintenance of specifications and automated test suites in the Gherkin specification language. His research group have investigated the practice of behaviour driven development in industry and in open source projects, as well as designing, implementing and evaluating novel tools that support software engineers engaged in this practice.
Lauritz is a Lecturer in Computer Systems in the School of Computing Science at University of Glasgow. He is keen on making computing more accessible and sustainable. To this end, Lauritz works on easy-to-use, yet resource-efficient and resilient distributed computer systems, focusing especially on resource management and data-intensive applications.
Professor Trinder's research interest is in designing, implementing, and evaluating high-level distributed and parallel programming models. Functional languages are a particular focus, so parallel Haskells, Erlang and friends.
Professor Wim Vanderbauwhede's research interest is in how programming languages, compilation and use of heterogeneous systems can reduce emissions from computing. He is also working on acceleration of scientific computing with a specific focus in simulation of severe weather evens.
Martin is Professor of Computer Science and Director of the School of Computing and Informatics at the University of Louisiana in Lafayette, Endowed Chair of Computer Science Eminent Scholar and Fulbright Distinguished Chair. His research interests are Digital & Mixed-Signal VLSI Design & VLSI Testing, Design for Reliability, Secure Reconfigurable Architectures and Heterogeneous Computing Architectures.
Pieter is Universitair Docent (assistant Professor) at the Model based System Depatment department of the Institute for Computing and Information Sciences, in the Faculty of Science of the Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands. His research is related to functional programming, especially the functional programming language Clean , and embedded domain specific languages.
Hans-Wolfgang is an Associate Professor (Reader) in the School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences at Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh. His research interests cover programming languages, parallel computation, foundations of programming, and symbolic computation. His focus area is the implementation of parallel functional languages.
William is interested in complexity theory, the theoretical efficiency of an algorithm, as well as the practical running-time efficiency of an algorithm or approach. Currently he is using integer programming to solve large and complex matching problems under the guidance of Dr David Manlove, and funded by EPSRC grant IP-MATCH. The goal of such research is to allow the best possible allocation of resources. For instance, one outcome of the project is an allocation of kidney donors to patients, or the allocation of student doctors to hospitals.
Ruairidh MacGregor, Phil Trinder, and Hans-Wolfgang Loidl. Improving ghc haskell numa profiling. In Proceedings of the 9th ACM SIGPLAN International Workshop on Functional High-Performance and Numerical Computing, FHPNC 2021, pages 1–12, New York, NY, USA, 2021. Association for Computing Machinery.
Abdessalam Elhabbash and Yehia Elkhatib. Energy-aware placement of device-to-device mediation services in iot systems. In International Conference on Service-Oriented Computing, pages 335–350. Springer, 2021.
Cristian Urlea, Wim Vanderbauwhede, and Syed Waqar Nabi. Efficient fpga cost-performance space exploration using type-driven program transformations. In 2019 International Conference on ReConFigurable Computing and FPGAs (ReConFig), pages 1–2. IEEE, 2019.
Stefanos Sagkriotis, Christos Anagnostopoulos, and Dimitrios P. Pezaros. Energy usage profiling for virtualized single board computer clusters. In 2019 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC), pages 1–6, 2019.
Valentin Radu, Kuba Kaszyk, Yuan Wen, Jack Turner, José Cano, Elliot J. Crowley, Bjoern Franke, Amos Storkey, and Michael O’Boyle. Performance aware convolutional neural network channel pruning for embedded gpus. In 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Workload Characterization (IISWC), pages 24–34, 2019.
Manolis Loukadakis, Jose Cano, and Michael O’Boyle. Accelerating deep neural networks on low power heterogeneous architectures. In 11th International Workshop on Programmability and Architectures for Heterogeneous Multicores (MULTIPROG-2018), January 2018. 11th International Workshop on Programmability and Architectures for Heterogeneous Multicores (MULTIPROG-2018), MULTIPROG-2018 ; Conference date: 24-01-2018.
W. Vanderbauwhede, L. Azzopardi, and M. Moadeli. Fpga-accelerated information retrieval: High-efficiency document filtering. In 2009 International Conference on Field Programmable Logic and Applications, pages 417–422, 2009.
Philipp Wiesner, Ilja Behnke, Dominik Scheinert, Kordian Gontarska, and Lauritz Thamsen. “Let's Wait Awhile: How Temporal Workload Shifting Can Reduce Carbon Emissions in the Cloud”. In 22nd ACM/IFIP International Middleware Conference (Middleware). ACM. 2021
Seminar slides and recordings
Seminars in 2021-2022
Seminar #1 2022-02-03: Wim Vanderbauwhede "Low carbon computing: Context, vision and challenges"
Seminar #2 2022-03-17: Lauritz Thamsen "Scheduling and Placement for Low-Carbon Edge/Cloud Computing"
Seminar #3 2022-03-24: Joseph Doyle "Mobile-Kube: Mobility-aware and Energy- efficient Service Orchestration on Kubernetes Edge Servers"
Seminar #4 2022-04-21: Kelly Widdicks "The Climate Impacts of ICT"
Seminar #5 2022-04-28: Devine Lu Linvega "Salt Water Computers"
- Seminar #5 2022-04-28 Content discussed in the talk
- Seminar #5 2022-04-28 Recording
- Seminar #5 2022-04-28 Transcript
Seminar #6 2022-05-12: Gözel Shakeri, "Envirofy: A Techno-Fix for Sustainable Online Grocery Shopping"
Seminar #7 2022-12-12: Roel Roscam Abbing "A Design Inquiry into Degrowth and ICT"
- Seminar #5 2022-05-12 LIMITS 2021 paper
- Seminar #5 2022-05-12 Detailed explanation of the low-tech web site
- Seminar #5 2022-05-12 Recording
Seminar #8 2022-06-30: Ah Lian Kor, "Quality Green IT Education: First Hand Experience from Erasmus Mundi Joint Master programmes"
- Seminar #8 2022-06-30 Recording (of same talk give at UN Institute for Training and Research)
Seminars in 2022-2023
Seminar #9 2022-09-01: Anish Jindal "Electric vehicles as an enabler for low carbon in smart and sustainable cities"
Seminar #10 2022-09-2: Esther Payne "IoT Software Updates over IPv6 Multicast: lessons in experimentation"
- Seminar #10 2022-09-22 Recording
- Librecast project report
- Librecast project web site
- Fed4FIRE+ project web site
Seminar #11 2022-10-06: Tim Storer "What do software practitioners think about sustainability?"
Seminar #12 2022-10-13: Monica Vitali "Making IT Green: Awareness-Driven Service Design and Management"
Seminar #13 2022-10-20: Ivona Brandić "Edge Computing as a Missing Link in the Post Moore Era"
Seminar #14 2022-11-03: Noman Bashir "Ecovisor: A Virtual Energy System for Carbon-Efficient Applications"
Events this week
There are currently no events scheduled this week
There are currently no upcoming events
Use-of-System approaches for Electricity Footprinting of Digital Media (17 November, 2022)
Speaker: Daniel Schien
Electricity footprints are the basis to estimate the carbon emissions from use of electricity. The current metrics suggested by carbon footprinting standards such as the Greenhouse Gas Protocol ICT sector guidance have shortcomings that undermine their effectiveness to support decision making with the goal to decarbonise the sector. In this talk I will be discussing these some of these shortcomings and present an idea how to move forward.
Most of my research aims at improving our understanding of the environmental impact from information and communication technologies (ICT) and the reduction of such impact.
My most significant research contributions, so far, have been in the area of the quantifying the direct impact of ICT. I have a deep understanding of the principles that affect energy consumption in Internet-based services. Based on this, my research has pioneered new methods and tools to assess the carbon footprint of digital media which have been applied by major international media companies. I am currently leading the technical development of the DIMPACT tool (http://www.dimpact.org).
A growing area of my research focusses on the complex system of interactions between use of ICT services, use of infrastructure and design of ICT services, and in response I apply multidisciplinary methods from software engineering, human computer interaction and environmental science.
Ecovisor: A Virtual Energy System for Carbon-Efficient Applications (03 November, 2022)
Speaker: Noman Bashir
Talk Abstract: Cloud platforms' rapid growth is raising significant concerns about their carbon emissions. To reduce emissions, future cloud platforms will need to increase their reliance on renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind, which have zero emissions but are highly unreliable. Unfortunately, today's energy systems effectively mask this unreliability in hardware, which prevents applications from optimizing their carbon-efficiency, or work done per kilogram of carbon emitted. To address this problem, we designed an ``ecovisor,'' which virtualizes the energy system and exposes software-defined control of it to applications. An ecovisor enables each application to handle clean energy's unreliability in software based on its own specific requirements. We implemented a small-scale ecovisor prototype that virtualizes a physical energy system to enable software-based application-level i) visibility into variable grid carbon-intensity and renewable generation and ii) control of server power usage and battery charging/discharging. We evaluated the ecovisor approach by showing how multiple applications can concurrently exercise their virtual energy system in different ways to better optimize carbon-efficiency based on their specific requirements compared to a general system-wide policy.
Speaker Bio: Noman Bashir is a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the Laboratory for Advanced System Software (LASS), University of Massachusetts (UMass) Amherst working with Prof. Prashant Shenoy. He completed his Ph.D. in Computer Engineering at Sustainable Computing Lab in June 2022, UMass Amherst where he was advised by Prof. David Irwin. His research focuses on designing sustainable, carbon-efficient systems and leverages systems’ design, rapid prototyping, and data-driven machine learning techniques. He also has worked at Google and VMware Research Group as a student researcher during his Ph.D. His research has been published in top-tier venues, including ASPLOS, EuroSys, Supercomputing, SoCC, HotCarbon, BuildSys, e-Energy, and COMPASS. He has served on technical and organization committees of leading conferences in the field, including PC at SoCC'22, e-Energy'23, and CCAI-NeurIPs'22 and chair at WeCan'22. His publications are available at https://noman-bashir.github.io/ and he can be reached at email@example.com.
Edge Computing as a Missing Link in the Post Moore Era (20 October, 2022)
Speaker: Ivona Brandic
Title: Edge Computing as a Missing Link in the Post Moore Era
Ivona Brandic, Vienna University of Technology
In the first part of this talk talk we discuss the concept of extreme performance HPC where the applications often include latencies below 100 ms or even below 10 ms. To facilitate low latency computation has to be placed in the vicinity of the end users by utilizing the concept of Edge Computing. We present the novel failure resilience mechanisms applied to Edge systems considering timeliness, hyper-heterogeneity and resource scarcity. We discuss our machine learning based mechanism that evaluates the failure resilience of a service deployed redundantly on the Edge infrastructures. Our approach learns the spatiotemporal dependencies between Edge server failures and combines them with the topological information to incorporate link failures by utilizing the concept of the Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs). Eventually, we infer the probability that a certain set of servers fails or disconnects concurrently during service runtime. The robustness of the approach has been evaluated using the concept of code offloading.
In the second part we discuss the potential impact of Edge Computing in the current rise of highly specialized architectures ranging from neuromorphic to quantum computing. As we experience the paradigm shift from generalized architectures of the Von Neumann era to highly specialized architectures in the Post-Moore’s law era we expect the coexistence of multiple types of architectures specialized for different types of computation. We define the two of the architectures that attracted the most interest in the research community, where we witness not only theoretical developments but also first implementations and practical use cases. Afterward, we discuss the first ideas but also challenges in the integration of identified architectures into existing HPC systems.
About the speaker Univ. Prof. Dr. Ivona Brandić
Head of the Research Group on High Performance Computing Systems
During the last years, my research agenda comprised the development of QoS methods for different generations of distributed systems like Grids, Web Services, Workflows, Clouds, Multi Clouds and Edge infrastructures. During my PhD I developed novel QoS mechanisms for scientific Grid workflows such as maxillo facial surgery simulation (eScience 2005). My visit to the University of Melbourne triggered my research on SLA guaranteeing in Clouds and later on energy efficient management of ultra-scale systems (FGCS 2009). My research style is systems based. In 2012, I devised strategies for the utilization of SLAs for delivering non-trivial QoS in Clouds (FGCS 2012). Later, I have utilized control theory for the energy efficient resource allocation in IaaS Clouds and I devised novel algorithms for the energy efficient deployment of ultra-scale applications in geographically distributed massive multi Clouds (TCC 2016a, TCC 2016b). The focus of my recent work is the utilization of probabilistic and statistical methods for energy efficient resource allocation in different near-real time systems such as Edge/Cloud systems (CCGrid 2018, TPDS 2021, SIGMETRICS 2020). Furthermore, I am currently working on the decomposition of applications for the execution on hybrid systems (e.g., classic/quantum) (eScience 2022).
Making IT Green: Awareness-Driven Service Design and Management (13 October, 2022)
Speaker: Monica Vitali
What do software engineers think about sustainability? (06 October, 2022)
Speaker: Tim Storer
What do software engineers think about sustainability?
Tiffany Babey, Catherine Happer and *Tim Storer*
Abstract: Over at least the last 25 years, the key consideration in the practice of software engineering has been the maintainability and readability of code. Seminal practitioner texts such as the GoF’s Design Patterns, Fowler’s Refactoring and Martin’s Clean Code, and Hunt and Thomas’ The Pragrammatic Programmer have all emphasised the organisation of code to enhance it’s readability to make change easier. Software sustainability has also been largely discussed in these terms, for example the (excellent!) Software Sustainability Institute’s manifesto emphasises sustainability entirely in terms of reproducibility and reusability. However, there are early signs that both researchers and practitioners are realising that sustainability in software practice should be conceived more widely. For example, the Karlskrona Manifesto for Sustainability Design identifies five dimensions of sustainability, spanning economic, social, individual, technical and environmental considerations. Sustainability as an urgent priority then, can be expected to require significant change in how software engineers practice their profession, the methods and tools they use and the choices they make for the construction and operation of software systems. However, little is known about what software engineers themselves think about the impact that sustainability considerations is having and will have on their practice. We have begun a research project to understand these perspectives. In this talk I will report on results of our initial survey to understand the perceptions, thinking and priorities of ~70 software engineers and the organisations they work for.
IoT Software updates over IPv6 multicast: lessons in experimentation (22 September, 2022)
Speaker: Esther Payne
The Librecast Project believes that multicast is an underutilized and
misunderstood network technology.
We want to make the argument that in today's interconnected world
multicast is vital to scale up and meet the requirements of a modern
Internet. Multicast is better for the environment than unicast. But
how do we demonstrate this use case beyond the normal use case for
streaming audio and video locally in real time? We believe Multicast is
even better suited to non-streaming applications than to it's
To prove our claims we needed to create some experiments to compare
Unicast and Multicast. Librecast decided to simulate one particular
usecase: Software Updates.
Utilising a POC IoT software updater was only the start.
We aimed to demonstrate just how differently multicast designed systems
are compared to unicast. Unicast systems depend on spreading of the
load to deliver updates. The load will spike, so with unicast load
needs to be spread. Multicast does the opposite of this. For one
thing, because multicast is pull not push. At scale the advantages of
multicast really shine through. The load on a multicast node does not
increase, no matter how many clients connect to it.
Using Fed4fires federated Testbeds, Librecast aimed to simulate this and
design a series of experiments to show the differences in simulating
unicast software updates and multicast software updates.
There are stark differences in how these two types of networking work.
Which has real world implications for reducing the Software Carbon
Footprint of our existing internet and beyond as more systems get
connected. Designing our networks to use multicast could mean less
servers need to be available. Which in the current energy crisis and
beyond could lead to financial and environmental benefits.
About the speaker:
Esther Payne - Privacy Advocate & Community Manager at Librecast
Esther is an IT professional with over twenty years of experience and a
BSc (Hons) in Computer Science from The Robert Gordon University. She
then discovered she preferred people rather than programming.
Esther's interest has always been in making computing more accessible to
the masses. She believes that no matter what your age you can use Linux
and free software.
She works with hosting and IT support companies as well as interesting
Open Source projects. Having been in Open Source for over a decade she
believes that anyone can contribute to a project as everyone has a
different skill to bring to a project. The more, the merrier.
Having been an internet user since the 1990s, Esther is looking forward
to the next stage of the internet and to help bring it back to its
She also believes in the importance of Privacy and is interested in how
to safeguard it.
Esther enjoys meeting new people and discovering exciting new Open
Source Projects and the communities behind them.
Electric vehicles as an enabler for low carbon in smart and sustainable cities (01 September, 2022)
Speaker: Anish Jindal
The increased adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) in the transportation sector have led towards the emergence of greener smart cities. However, the problem of energy stability, i.e., balancing the demand and supply, remains persistent. This talk will discuss how the EVs can act as an enabler for low carbon emissions in smart and sustainable smart cities. Moreover, the future plan to create carbon-intelligent data centres would also be discussed briefly.
LOCOS Seminar: Quality Green IT Education: First Hand Experience from Erasmus Mundi Joint Master programmes (30 June, 2022)
Speaker: Ah Lian Kor
This talk will discuss the Erasmus Mundus Joint Master Degree (EMJMD) in Pervasive Computing and Communications for Sustainable Development (PERCCOM) and Green NetworkIng And Cloud Computing (GENIAL). It will cover the following: How do PERCCOM and Genial address the UN Sustainable Development Goals? What is the PERCCOM and Genial Internationalisation Strategy? What is the successful operational framework for PERCCOM and Genial? What is the impact of PERCCOM and Genial?
Dr Ah-Lian Kor is a member of the Leeds Beckett MSc Sustainable Computing Curriculum Development Team. She has been involved in several EU projects for Green Computing, Innovative Training Model for Social Enterprises Professional Qualifications, and Integrated System for Learning and Education Services. https://www.leedsbeckett.ac.uk/research/centre-for-research-in-computer-science-and-applications/sustainable-it/
LC&SC Seminar: A design inquiry into degrowth and ICT (12 May, 2022)
Speaker: Roel Roscam Abbing
Roel Roscam Abbing (1990, NL) is currently a PhD candidate at Malmö University’s department of Interaction Design. There he researches alternative social media, on-line federation and community-owned digital infrastructure. Furthermore he works as an artist and designer with a practice engaged with network infrastructures, the politics of technology and do-it-yourself approaches.
He holds an MA Networked Media from the Piet Zwart Institute in Rotterdam and a Fine Arts BA from the Willem De Kooning Academy. In the past he has worked as a lecturer in Digital Media at the department of Graphic Design in Artez, Arnhem and as a lecturer in the Hacking and Digital Craft programmes of Willem de Kooning Academy.
LC&SC Seminar: Envirofy: A Techno-Fix for Sustainable Online Grocery Shopping (05 May, 2022)
Speaker: Dr Gözel Shakeri
Two thirds of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of Western countries are attributable to consumption and commerce, however a behavioural shift could reduce this by 49%. Many people intend to make sustainable choices, but fail to do so at the point-of-purchase. Educating consumers on the environmental impact of their choices during their shop may be a powerful approach to tackling climate change. In this talk I will present Envirofy, an eco-friendly e-commerce grocery tool for real shoppers. I will share how we use the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) and multidisciplinary evidence to maximise the likely effectiveness of Envirofy. I will discuss how the Human-Computer Interaction community can help to develop and evaluate real-time tools to close intention-behaviour gaps and ultimately reduce GHG emissions. Finally, I conclude with a short opinion piece on Envirofy's role (a techno-fix) in the politicised debate around climate change.
Dr Gözel Shakeri is a post-doctoral research associate in Human-Computer Interaction at the Carl Ossietzky University, Oldenburg. Her research interests focus on Sustainable Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), using behaviour change intervention science to create interfaces that support online shoppers in purchasing sustainable products
LC&SC Seminar: Salt Water Computing (28 April, 2022)
Speaker: Devine Lu Linvega
LC&SC Seminar: The Climate Impacts of ICT (21 April, 2022)
Speaker: Dr Kelly Widdicks
The Climate Impacts of ICT
Information Communication Technology (ICT, including devices, networks and data centres) has environmental impacts associated with each stage of its lifecycle, with current studies estimating that the world’s ICT forms 1.8-2.8% of global greenhouse gas emissions. However, this share is likely underestimated as the full supply chain impacts of ICT are not considered, meaning ICT’s true share of global greenhouse gas emissions actually forms between 2.1-3.9%. Current studies’ estimates vary even further for the future environmental impact of ICT as experts take varying underlying assumptions that are not always made explicit. In this talk, Dr Kelly Widdicks will discuss the research she conducted with colleagues at Lancaster University and Small World Consulting (published in Patterns) on the climate impact of ICT. Specifically, she will reveal why current estimates vary and detail the underlying assumptions that impact estimates of ICT’s future environmental impacts. She will also discuss the threats that will likely increase ICT’s environmental impacts and the efforts required to align the ICT sector with global carbon targets.
Dr Kelly Widdicks is a Lecturer in Computer Science in the School of Computing and Communications at Lancaster University, researching the sustainable and responsible design of digital technology. She utilises quantitative and qualitative methods in the field of Human-Computer Interaction to explore how people’s use or innovation of digital technology affects its environmental impacts. She is currently a co-investigator for the EPSRC PARIS-DE project, exploring design principles for the responsible innovation of digital technology in line with Paris Agreement targets. Alongside this, she also researches how Computer Science as a discipline could be made more inclusive for women and underrepresented groups.