AR Network Members


Fiona Macpherson

PI on the Augmented Reality Network
Professor of Philosophy and Director of the Centre for the Study of Perceptual Experience, University of Glasgow

My research concerns the nature of consciousness, perception, hallucination and illusion, introspection, imagination and the metaphysics of mind. I work in an interdisciplinary manner spanning philosophy, psychology and neuroscience. I am interested in virtual and augmented reality and have worked together with Neil McDonnell on previous projects: Philosophy of Virtual and Augment Realty, and Project Mobius which  lead to VR product Edify.

photo of Fiona Macpherson: headshot of a younger white woman with long brown hair, a black choker and black blouse, smiling against the backdrop of a full bookshelf

Derek Brown 

Co-I on the Augmented Reality Network
Senior Lecturer Philosophy, University of Glasgow

I work primarily in philosophy of perception and philosophy of mind more broadly. I work in an interdisciplinary manner spanning philosophy, psychology and neuroscience and have successfully collaborated with artists and musicians on various aspects of perceptions.



Ben Colburn

Co-I on the Augmented Reality Network
Professor of Political Philosophy, University of Glasgow

My research interests are in political philosophy and ethics, with a particular interest in the nature and value of autonomy and its importance in liberal political philosophy. He is currently writing on various questions in this area, and also some topics in the theory of responsibility, including coercion, vicarious responsibility, and the role of responsibility in the autonomous life.


Neil McDonnell

Co-I on the Augmented Reality Network
Lord Kelvin Adam Smith Research Fellowship in Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality (Philosophy)

I am an LKAS Fellow for VR and AR at the University of Glasgow. I specialise in the metaphysics of causation and the ontology of virtual worlds. I have worked in industry and academia on a range of projects concerning the deployment of VR and AR technology.

Jessica Begon

I joined Durham in 2018 as an Assistant Professor in Political Theory. Before that I was a Postdoctoral Prize Research Fellow at Nuffield College, University of Oxford. I completed my PhD, entitled ‘Policy without Paternalism: A Capability Approach to Legitimate State Action’, at the University of Sheffield in 2013, supervised by Dr Daniel Viehoff and Dr Chris Bennett.

My research interests are in moral and political philosophy, with a particular focus on justice and inequality, disability, paternalism, and epistemic injustice. Currently, I am working on a book manuscript investigating how disability should be understood, the role that should be given to disabled individuals' testimony, and the nature of disabled individuals' distributive entitlements.


Franz Berto

Franz Berto is Chair of Logic and Metaphysics at the Department of Philosophy and the Arché Research Centre at the University of St Andrews, and also works at the Institute for Logic, Language and Computation (ILLC) of the University of Amsterdam. He has worked and taught at the Universities of Notre Dame, Aberdeen, Venice, Padua, Milan-San Raffaele, Lugano, and at the Sorbonne-Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris. He writes on ontology, logic, epistemology, and the philosophy of computation, and currently serves as the editor-in-chief of The Philosophical Quarterly. He likes impossible worlds, nonexistent objects, and scholars who don’t take themselves too seriously.


Fergus Bruce

Fergus is Director at immersive EdTech company Edify and has over 15 years of experience in commercial, strategic, and project development roles in the design and creative industries. His work has focused particularly on applied use of new visualization technologies like VR and AR, and on harnessing their immense potential as communication, engagement, and learning tools. Besides his role at Edify, he was also recently industry project lad for 'Project Mobius', a 3 year funded VR for Education R&D partnership between Sublime and the University of Glasgow. Fergus is also co-founder of the social initiative After the Pandemic; a founding trustee of UK charity Covid:Aid.

Adam Carter

J Adam Carter is a Reader in Epistemology at the University and deputy director of the COGITO Epistemology Research Centre. He has published widely in epistemology, especially on virtue epistemology, know-how, relativism and extended epistemology. His latest monograph Autonomous Knowledge: Radical Enhancement, Autonomy, and the Future of Knowing is forthcoming in February 2022 with Oxford University Press. On the topic of augmented reality specifically, he is interested in connections between augmented reality, expertise, scepticism, know-how, and (extended) cognitive ability.

David Chalmers

David Chalmers is University Professor of Philosophy and Neural Science and co-director of the Center for Mind, Brain, and Consciousness at New York University. He is the author of 'The Conscious Mind; and more recently of 'Reality+: Virtual Worlds and the Problems of Philosophy'.


Joshua Cohen

Joshua Cohen is a political philosopher. He has written on issues of democratic theory, freedom of expression, religious freedom, political equality, democracy and digital technology, good jobs, and global justice. His books include On Democracy; Democracy and Associations; Philosophy, Politics, Democracy; Rousseau: A Free Community of Equals; and The Arc of the Moral Universe and Other Essays. He is co-editor of the Norton Introduction to Philosophy. Cohen taught at MIT (1977-2005), Stanford (2005-2014), is currently on the faculty at Apple University, and is Distinguished Senior Fellow in Law, Philosophy, and Political Science at Berkeley. Cohen held the Romanell-Phi Beta Kappa Professorship in 2002-3; was Tanner Lecturer at UC Berkeley in 2007; and gave the Comte Lectures at LSE in 2012. Since 1991, he has been editor of Boston Review.

Alexandre Declos

Alexandre Declos is a postdoctoral researcher at Collège de France, Paris. He specializes in metaphysics and aesthetics, and has a strong interest in the philosophy of games. His recent research focuses on the nature and value of virtual worlds, where he spends a fair amount of time. Alexandre Declos is particularly interested in the ontology of videogames and VR environments, in the epistemic potential of these digital artifacts, and in the artistic possibilities offered by games and VR.


Sylvie Delacroix

I am a professor in Law & Ethics, University of Birmingham.
My work focuses on the intersection between law and ethics, with a particular interest in data trusts, machine ethics, agency and the role of habit within moral decisions. I am currently based at the University of Birmingham.

Katalin Farkas

Katalin Farkas is a professor of philosophy in the Central European University in Vienna. She studied mathematics and philosophy at the Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest. She is interested in the philosophy of mind, the nature of knowledge, scepticism, and Descartes. In her book, The Subject's Point of View (Oxford University Press, 2008) she defended an uncompromising internalism about the mental, and an equally uncompromising conception of the phenomenal availability of mental features. Perhaps unsurprisingly, she has great admiration for Descartes, and hopes to make a modest contribution to restoring his reputation after a century or so of bad press. She has also defended a constructivist view of perceptual experience.

In recent years, she has written a series of papers on the nature of knowledge. And jointly with Tim Crane, on the nature of belief. She is currently working on a book called The Unity of Knowledge.


Carl Fox 

I am a Lecturer at the IDEA Centre in the University of Leeds. My main research interest is in the ethics of the public sphere and trying to work out how it might be arranged to facilitate democratic goals. I co-edited 'Media Ethics, Free Speech and the Requirements of Democracy', which was released in 2019, and even further back in the mists of time (2015) I won the Robert Papazian Essay Prize for an article on 'Political Authority, Practical Identity, and Binding Citizens'. I am also currently a co-investigator on an AHRC-funded project examining media regulation and the role of press codes of ethics across a number of European countries.


Craig French

I am an Associate Professor of Philosophy at the University of Nottingham. I specialise in the philosophy of mind and psychology, including the philosophy of perception, and the philosophy of mental health. In the philosophy of perception I am a proponent of naïve realism, and am interested in questions about the nature of perceptual experience, and its epistemic role. I am keen to learn more about how the philosophy of augmented reality, and broader issues of virtual reality impact on these matters. 

Steve Holmes

After spending a lifetime working in technology research and electronics manufacturing, with the final 5 years spent with Meta (Facebook) building augmented reality research teams researching display hardware technology and systems integration methodologies, Steve Holmes has retired. Steve is now an Affiliate of the University of Glasgow having fun working with managers and academics on innovation commercialization, technology, diversity and inclusion, and global soil health.

Maximilian Kiener

Max is a Leverhulme Early Career Fellow in Philosophy at the University of Oxford. In addition, h is an Associate Research Fellow of the ERC-Project Roots of Responsibility, based at UCL, the Oxford institute of Ethics in AI, and the Oxford Uehiro Centre for Practical Ethics. Max obtained his DPhil (PhD) in Philosophy from the University of Oxford in 2020 and was Extraordinary Junior Research Fellow at Oxford until September 2021. 
Max Specialises in moral and legal philosophy, especially the topics of consent, responsibility and artificial intelligence.
In addition to his philosophical research, Max is also committed to public engagement and policy-making. He is Teaching Fellow on the Europaeum Scholars Programme and a member of the clinical research ethics committee Oxford C South Central.


Imants Latkovskis

Dr Imants Latkovskis is a Research Assistant at the University of Glasgow working to support the adoption of the Edify VR teaching platform in University teaching. He is a recent Philosophy PhD graduate working in the fields of political philosophy and philosophy of education. He has a particular interest in the capability approach and individual autonomy.

Mark McGill 

Mark McGill is an early career Lecturer in Human-Computer Interaction in the School of Computing Science at the University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK. His research interests revolve around the future impact of everyday augmented, virtual and mixed reality technology, focusing on their potential to transform passenger experiences (as part of our 5-year European Research Council project, ViAjeRo; their ability to augment and fundamentally alter our personal, private workspaces and peripherals; and the ethical and privacy challenges posed by the anticipated mass adoption of these technologies.


Chris Mills

Chris is an Associate Professor of Law at the University of Warwick. His research primarily concerns problems in moral, political, and legal philosophy. He has particular interests in normative questions concerning personal autonomy, choice, consent, promises, and the justification of coercion.



Alyssa Ney

I am Professor of Philosophy and Philosophy Graduate Advisor at the University of California, Davis, where I have taught since July 2015. I received my MA and PhD in Philosophy from Brown University, my MS in Physics from UC Davis, and my BS in Physics and Philosophy from Tulane University.

I am Associate Editor at The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science and past-President of the Society for the Metaphysics of Science. My research focuses primarily on the unity of science and the interpretation of quantum theories.


George Pavlakos

George Pavlakos is a Professor of Law and Philosophy at the School of Law, University of Glasgow. George works in the field of legal theory and philosophy with a focus on foundational issues which raise questions in political philosophy, the philosophy of language, metaphysics and metaethics. For the past ten years his work has focussed on understanding the existence of legal obligations outwith the context of state institutions or other particular institutional arrangements. An important aspect of this work focusses on legal and moral responsibility and how it relates to non-state actors, as well as collective and non-human agents. His work has appeared in journals and across law and philosophy and he is general co-editor of Jurisprudence, as well as an editor of the Cambridge Elements in Legal Philosophy.



Scott Sturgeon

Scott Sturgeon is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Birmingham. He was also Professor of Philosophy at the University of Oxford and Tutorial Fellow at Wadham College, Reader in Philosophy at Birkbeck College, London, Weinberg Distinguished Visiting Professor at the University of Michigan, and Inaugural Distinguished Visiting Professor at Brown University (where he delivered the Blackwell-Brown Lectures). He has been an editor of the British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, Mind, Nous, and Philosophical Studies. He is the author of Matters of Mind and The Rational Mind, and in 2023-2024 he will be President of the Aristotelian Society. His primary areas of study are epistemology, metaphysics, and philosophy of mind, with a keen interest in their interplay in a technologically advanced deliberative democracy.

Nathan Wildman

Nathan Wildman is an assistant professor of philosophy at Tilburg University, and a member of the Tilburg Center for Moral Philosophy, Epistemology, and Philosophy of Science (TiLPS). His research focuses on topics in metaphysics, philosophy of language, logic, and aesthetics. He is especially interested in the foundations of modality, the logic of fictional truth, and the nature/aesthetics of interactive fictions. In particular, he has published on the aesthetics of videogames (Wildman & Woodward 2018; Van de Mosselear & Wildman 2021), fictional truth (Wildman & Folde 2017, 2018, 2020; Wildman 2019), as well as fictionalist approaches to AR/VR (McDonnell & Wildman 2019; Wildman & McDonnell 2020) and sport (Wildman 2019).



Robbie Williams

Robbie is Professor of Theoretical Philosophy at the University of Leeds. He works on the metaphysics of representation in mind and language, on conditionals and vagueness, on logic and rationality. His current work focuses on the epistemology of attributing mental states to others, and on continuities and discontinuities between interpreting humans and interpreting other sorts of agents (especially group agents). He currently runs the H2020 ERC project Group Thinking: New Foundations. The output of his FP7 ERC project, The Metaphysics of Representation was published in 2020 and is a riproaring read available in all good bookshops.


Julie Williamson

Julie R. Williamson is a Senior Lecturer in Human Computer Interaction at the University of Glasgow. She works in the Glasgow Interactive Systems Group (GIST) and specialises in input techniques and social interactions for novel display form factors. She is a co-investigator on the H2020 FET-Open Levitate Project and part of the H2020 ERC ViAjeRo project. She is also actively involved in publication policy and advocacy as a member of the ACM Publications Board.



Annette Zimmermann

Dr. Annette Zimmermann is a political philosopher working on the ethics of algorithmic decision-making, machine learning, and artificial intelligence. Additional research interests include moral philosophy (particularly the ethics of risk and uncertainty) and legal philosophy (the philosophy of punishment), as well as the philosophy of science (models, explanation, abstraction).
Zimmermann’s current research project ("The Algorithmic Is Political") explores how disproportionate distributions of risk and uncertainty associated with the use of emerging technologies like AI and machine learning impact democratic values like equality and justice.