LHC experiments' upgrades
The LHCb VELO replacement (expected 2011) and the sLHC upgrades of ATLAS and LHCb (expected after 2016) are key elements of the group’s detector strategy over the next decade. The group will build on its strong track record in silicon detector development and the successful build of the ATLAS and LHCb experiments to play a major role in these new initiatives.
LHCb replacement and upgrade
The LHCb VELO's silicon sensors are expected to require replacement due to radiation damage after approximately three years of operation in the LHC. The building of the replacement has already begun which will be very close to the existing VELO except that the silicon sensors will be p-type Float Zone (FZ) silicon rather than n-type. Glasgow will contribute to the replacement with the detector burn-in, as with the original VELO.
The upgrade of LHCb, required to be compatible with sLHC running, has a very strong Scottish involvement. Glasgow has a leading role in the development of radiation hard technologies for the upgrade of the VELO detector. These developments benefit from the strong Glasgow involvement in RD50, as well as two innovative technology grants for radiation hard silicon research, and a further research grant for 3D detectors.
The upgrade will place even higher radiation hardness criteria on the VELO sensors and therefore research on potential radiation hard upgrade solutions (including Czochralski silicon, pixel sensors and 3D detectors), are being considered. After the discovery that Magnetic Czochralski (MCz) silicon sensors do not suffer type inversion under high radiation doses, a programme of research on the comparison of Czochralski with Oxygenated Float Zone (FZ) sensors under different irradiation conditions has begun. Sensor characterization measurements on strip and pixel modules with both planar and 3D detectors are ongoing to enable the best sensor solution for a potential VELO upgrade.
A high luminosity upgrade of the LHCb detector will need a higher throughput readout rate and more sophisticated online triggering. There is consensus in the collaboration that this requires the readout of the detector at a 40 MHz rate. The LHCb electronic readout boards (TELL1) need to be upgraded to cope with this more demanding data rate. Collaboration with CERN will allow Glasgow to develop the optimal readout strategy for the new LHCb readout boards.