Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Scotland Study

HBSC Scotland logo on turquoise background with health graphics

HBSC Scotland National Report 2022

HBSC Scotland 2022 Executive Summary

Launch event presentations

Briefings for young people/classroom resources

About the study

For over 30 years the Scottish HBSC study has investigated the health and wellbeing of school children in Scotland and the social contexts in which they are growing up. The HBSC survey is conducted every four years and collects data from Primary 7, Secondary 2 and Secondary 4 pupils in Scotland. The study is funded by Public Health Scotland, with whom we work closely to develop the survey and ensure that the data collected is as useful as possible. The latest survey took place between March and June 2022.

The Scottish HBSC study is part of a larger cross-national study which is conducted in collaboration with the World Health Organisation (WHO) Regional Office for Europe. The study currently covers 50 countries and regions in Europe and North America. For more information on the international HBSC study please visit the International HBSC website

The study is based at the MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit (SPHSU), University of Glasgow and undertaken in collaboration with the School of Medicine, University of St Andrews.

The University of Glasgow also hosts the International Coordinating Centre (ICC) for the HBSC study and research network. Dr Jo Inchley is the Principal Investigator for the Scottish HBSC study as well as the elected International Coordinator of the study.

Survey Population

Data are collected through school-based surveys in each country, using the HBSC international standard questionnaire. The target population of the study is young people attending school, aged 11, 13 and 15 years. Each participating country samples around 1500-2000 young people in each age group.

How is HBSC data collected?

In Scotland, data collection takes place following the necessary ethical approvals and consent from local authorities, schools, parents and pupils. Pupils are asked to complete a survey online in the classroom under exam conditions, which takes on average 40 minutes.


The 2022 HBSC Scotland survey has been approved by The College of Medical, Veterinary & Life Sciences Ethics Committee of the University of Glasgow.

Survey Questions

The HBSC survey covers a wide range of health and wellbeing topics including physical activity, eating behaviours, oral health, smoking, alcohol consumption, self-reported health and symptoms, life satisfaction, spirituality, mental wellbeing, bullying, fighting, injuries, family life, school environment, electronic media use and peer relationships. Additional questions are included for the older age groups on cannabis use (15-year olds only) and sexual health (15-year olds only). New topics included in the national report for the first time in 2022 include: GAD 7 anxiety score, self-efficacy, leisure activities, gaming, gender identity, sexual orientation and school-related stress. New questions on COVID-19 were also included to measure the impact of the pandemic on different aspects of young people’s lives.

How are HBSC data used?

The data collected by HBSC are used to provide population-level statistics; none of the results from the study can be used to identify individuals. These statistics are used to inform the development of policies and programmes tailored to the needs of young people at local, national and international levels.

A particular strength of the HBSC study is its longevity, with surveys conducted every four years in Scotland since 1990. This provides unparalleled insight into trends in young people’s health and its determinants, which is essential as we experience cultural, economic and technological changes in our society.”

Eileen Scott, Public Health Intelligence Principal, Public Health Scotland

“The [HBSC International] report provides a strong evidence base to support national and international efforts to strengthen initiatives that affect young people’s health and well-being. All government departments can use it to reflect health needs in their policies to define and achieve primary targets and to promote the precious resource that is young people’s health.”

Zsuzsanna Jakab, WHO Regional Director for Europe


Dr Jo Inchley (Principal Investigator)

Dr Judith Brown (Project Manager)

Ms Judith Mabelis (Research Fellow)

Dr Malachi Willis (Research Associate)

Ms Dorothy Currie (Senior Statistician)


These briefings from the HBSC Scotland 2018 study summarise key findings on a range of indicators, including trends over time. They are intended to be used as a classroom based resource with a number of questions included to stimulate discussion within the class setting. 

MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit logo 800 wide