Dr Christa Roodt

  • Lecturer in Art Law and Business (History of Art)

telephone: 0141 3306713
email: Christa.Roodt@glasgow.ac.uk

Research interests

Research Interests

  • Art law
  • Nazi-era Art Claims
  • Provenance Research
  • Restitution and Recovery of Art | Cultural Property
  • Forgery, Misattribution and the Art Market
  • Ethics in Art Dealing
  • Legal Aspects of the Protection of Cultural Heritage
  • Private International Law, Art and Cultural Heritage
  • Alternative Dispute Resolution involving Cultural Objects
  • Commercial Private International Law | International Civil Procedure in Business Litigation
  • Confluence of Public International Law and Private International Law


Biography

I specialize in Art Law and the legal protection of cultural heritage. My research focuses on aspects of restitution and recovery of cultural property, material heritage and provenance. Before my appointment to the University of Glasgow, I lectured law at the University of Aberdeen. Prior to that, I held various senior academic positions and non-academic positions in South Africa. 

Qualifications:

  • BLC (1985)
  • LLB (1986)
  • LLM (1991)
  • PhD (2001)
  • FHEA (2014)


Research Projects

Private International Law, Art and Cultural Objects (Elgar Publishers 2015) provides an original account of the relationship between private international law and cultural heritage law. This relationship has not been the focus of research that prioritises a value-based approach before. The book offers a rigorous study of the standard of legal protection that private international law inspired by the ethical standards that underlie cultural heritage law can achieve. The satisfactory settlement of claims based on ownership and the restitution of art and cultural objects requires improvements in the approaches and methods of dispute resolution that prevail today. I make the argument that the hidden dimensions of private international law can help re-script these approaches and methods to better tailor them to the illicit trade in cultural objects, title laundering, the suppression of policy considerations and ethical concerns that support the restitution of Nazi spoliated art. The principal methodology of the book is an extensive comparative study of supranational and international instruments (for instance, European legislation and the relevant UNESCO and UNIDROIT treaties) and domestic legal systems located on the continents of Africa, Australasia, Eurasia and North and South America. The reader is guided on the essential function of private international law and challenged by the demonstrable need for, and far-reaching implications of best practice, in this area of law.

I am now working on the development of a research programme focused on cross-disciplinary approaches to art authentication curriculum development, which aims to harness the considerable potential for cross-disciplinary approaches and methods applied in Art History, Archaeology, Art Conservation, Ethics and Law. The Project addresses the knowledge gap existing between and among disciplines with regard to authenticity and authorial ethics. 


Grants

  • Funded by the School of Historical and Philosophical Studies, Faculty of Arts, University of Melbourne, to work with the Grimwade Conservation Centre for Cultural Materials Conservation to develop a research programme focused on cross-disciplinary approaches to art authentication curriculum development in 2017 (value $6350)
  • Funded by the China University of Political Science and Law in July 2017 to teach a Summer School Course in International Transactions involving Cultural Property
  • Small grant from Carnegie Trust in 2011 to support arbitration project Border Skirmishes between EU Courts and Arbitral Tribunals: Finality in Conflicts of Competence in the US (value £640)
  • Funded by the National Research Foundation for Conference Attendance (own choice) (2008-2012)(value R 100 000.00)
  • Funded by the International Cooperation Division of the Overseas Korean Cultural Heritage Foundation to participate in the Sixth International Conference of Experts on the Return of Cultural Property
  • Funded by State Administration of Cultural Heritage of People's Republic China in 2014 to participate in the Fourth International Conference of Experts on the Return of Cultural Property
  • Grant from Chinese government in 2006 to participate in Law and Socio- Economic Development China Seminar (value R80 000)
  • National Research Foundation ISL grant (2004) to do course at the Summer School of the Hague Academy for International Law
  • Recipient of several CRC Grants from UNISA for Foreign Research and Foreign Conference Attendance (Greece, Netherlands, Canada, Malaysia, Singapore)(2003-2007)
  • Research grant from University of Fort Hare in 2004 for project titled Legal Aspects of African Indigenous Knowledge Systems (value R 5000)

Supervision

    I welcome PhD applications from students in the areas of Art and Cultural Heritage Law, Dispute Resolution in Art Claims, Provenance Research and Forgeries, Misattribution and the Art Market.

    Current PhD students: 

    • YinCheng Hsu - Underwater Cultural Heritage and International Law: Conflicts, Gaps and Future Directions
    • Huong Mai - The issue of cultural heritage protection in international investment: Investor – State disputes and other claims in the mining and construction sectors
    • Chavale, Areti
      Artists' Resale Right and the Art Market: Evidence from British Art Auctions
    • Hsu, Yin-Cheng
      Underwater Cultural Heritage and International Law: Conflicts, Gaps and Future Directions
    • Mai, Minh Huong
      The issue of cultural heritage protection in international investment: Investor ? State disputes and other claims in the mining and construction sectors
    • Zhao, Haoyang

Teaching

MSc in Art, Law and Business (Title, Ownership and Restitution module)

MSc in Collecting and Provenance Studies in an International Context (Programme Convenor, Level 5)

Objects in Motion I: Provenance (Course Co-ordinator, Level 5)

Objects in Motion III: Restitution (Course Co-ordinator, Level 5)

Forgeries, Attributions and the Art Market (Honours, Convenor, Level 4)

Discourses of Cultural Property (Honours, Convenor, Level 3)

The Auction House and Provenance (Component Tutor, Level 2)

Culture, Conflict and Notions of the 'Universal' Museum (Component Tutor, Level 1) 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Additional Information

Roles in the School and in external institutions

  • Erasmus Officer for History of Art, University of Glasgow (2016 ongoing)
  • Subject representative for International Matters (2017 ongoing)
  • Research Integrity Advisor, School of Culture and Creative Arts, University of Glasgow (2016 ongoing)
  • External Examiner, Law School, University of Northumbria (2013-2017)
  • Research Fellow, Department of Jurisprudence, University of South Africa (since 2011)
  • Professor Extraordinaria, Department of Jurisprudence, University of South Africa (2013-2016)
  • Mentor of Recipient of the Vision Keepers Award, University of South Africa (2015-2017)  

Affiliation

  • British Art Network
  • Socio-Legal Studies Association
  • UK Private International Law Group 

Selected publications

  • C Roodt, ‘International Regulation of Cultural Objects: The Options Facing South Africa’ SA Public Law (1997) 99
  • C Roodt, ‘Language Policy in Higher Education: Multilingualism as a Requirement of the Constitutional and Legislative Framework’ 2001 vol 29 Anvil 15-20
  • C Roodt, ‘Cultural Heritage Jurisprudence and Strategies for Retention and Recovery’ 35 Comparative and International Law Journal for Southern Africa (2002) 57-181
  • C Roodt, ‘Jurisdiction of the South African Labour Court: Employer Identity and Party Autonomy’ SA Mercantile Law Journal (2003) 15 135-149.
  • C Roodt, ‘Legal Aspects of African Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Curriculum Design in Higher Education’ South African Journal of Higher Education (2004) 18(3) 161-173
  • C Roodt, ‘The Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments, Maintenance Orders and Arbitral Awards: A Proposal for Structural Reform’ 2004 vol 45 no 2 Codicillus 64-76
  • C Roodt, ‘Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments: Still a Hobson’s Choice among Competing Theories?’ Comparative and International Law Journal for Southern Africa (2005) 38 15-31
  • C Roodt, ‘Conflict of Laws as a Tool in the Trade of Works of Art’ Journal for South African Law (2005) 4 690-707
  • C Roodt, ‘A Critical Look at the Legal Framework for Arts, Culture and Heritage’ 2006 vol 47 no 1 Codicillus 47-59
  • C Roodt, ‘Cultural Policy and the Landscape of the Law in South Africa’ Fundamina (2006) 12(1) 203-222
  • C Roodt, ‘Conflicts of Procedure between Courts and Arbitral Tribunals in Africa: An Argument for Harmonization’ Tulane European and Civil Law Forum (2010) 25 65-101
  • C Roodt ‘Conflicts of Procedure between Courts and Arbitral Tribunals with Particular Reference to the Right of Access to Court’ 2011 19 (2) African Journal of Comparative and International Law 236-282
  • C Roodt, ‘Autonomy and Due Process in Arbitration: Recalibrating the Balance’ European Journal of Law Reform 2011-3 (Special Issue) 413-434
  • C Roodt ‘Autonomy and Due Process in Arbitration: Recalibrating the Balance’ 2011 XLIV Comparative and International Law Journal for Southern Africa 311-339   
  • C Roodt ‘Border Skirmishes between EU Courts and Arbitral Tribunals: Finality in Conflicts of Competence’ 2011 (13) Yearbook of Private International Law 91-143

 
Selected conference papers and key note speeches

  • 'The Ghent Altarpiece and the Rules for War', Staff Symposium on the Object in Question (Art History/Hunterian), 24 April 2017, University of Glasgow  
  • 'Databases of Stolen Art and Due Diligence', 6th International Conference of Experts of The Return of Cultural Property, hosted by the Cultural Heritage Administration and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Korea, 18 October 2016, Gyeongju (invited)
  • Convenor of Session on Provenance and Due Diligence in a Global Context, Celebrating 250 years of Christie's Conference: Creating Markets, Collecting Art, London, 14-15 July 2016
  • 'What Is It to Me: Relevance and Impact of Provenance and Due Diligence for Illicit Trafficking' Fall 2015 seminar series, Trafficking Culture Society, University of Glasgow, 29 October 2015 (invited)
  • 'Interrogating History: Restitution of Nazi Spoliated Art', Fund-raising event for the Art Fund, Robert Burns Centre, Dumfries, 6 October 2015 (invited)
  • 'Forgers, Connoisseurs and the Nazi Past' paper presented at the Socio-Legal Studies Association Conference, University of Warwick, 31 March-2 April 2015
  • 'Attribution, De-attribution, Debate: Spotlight on the 19th Century', paper presented at the 19th Century Art, Architecture & Design Group, University of Glasgow, 21 January 2015 (invited)
  • 'Acquisition Ethics in the Art and Antiquities Trade: Raising the Standard for a More Secure Society', paper presented at the 4th International Conference of Experts of The Return of Cultural Property, Dunhuang, China, 10 September 2014 (invited)
  • 'Acquisition Ethics and Standards in the Art Market', paper presented at the Socio-Legal Studies Association Conference, RGU, Aberdeen, 9-11 April 2014
  • 'Acquisition Ethics and Standards in the Art Market', paper presented at the Centre for Cultural Policy Research at the University of Glasgow, 23 April 2014
  • 'Nazi-looted Art and Restitution in a Digital Era', paper presented at the Conference on Media Analysis: Methods and Ethics at the University of Glasgow, 25 April 2014
  • ‘Stolen Cultural Property: Implications of Vitium Reale in Private Law and Private International Law’ paper co-presented with Emeritus Professor David Carey Miller at the Art and Heritage Disputes Conference, Maastricht, 24-25 March 2013
  • ‘Brussels I: Claims involving Art and Cultural Objects’, paper presented at the First Jean Monnet workshop hosted by the Centre of Private International Law, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, 5 October 2012
  • ‘Trends in the Resolution of Disputes involving Nazi Spoliated Art’, departmental lecture of the Department of Jurisprudence, UNISA, 17 August 2012 (invited)
  • ‘Border Skirmishes between EU Courts and Arbitral Tribunals: Finality in Conflicts of Competence’ Works-in-Progress Conference at the University of Missouri, Columbia, US, 20 October 2011
  • ‘Autonomy and Due Process in Arbitration: Recalibrating the Balance’, First African Conference on International Commercial Law hosted by the University of Basel, Switzerland and the University of Buéa, Douala, Cameroon 14-15 January 2011 (invited)
  • ‘Harmonization of Commercial Arbitration in Africa: What Stands in the Way?’, Colloquium on Mixed Jurisdictions as Models? Perspectives from Southern Africa and Beyond, jointly hosted by the International Academy for Legal Science and the World Society of Mixed Jurisdiction Jurists in Stellenbosch, 14-15 May 2009 (invited)
  • ‘Cultural Policy Formulation and the Landscape of the Law’, Conference on Law in a Transforming Society 24-26 January 2006
  • ‘Review of Legal Framework for Arts, Culture and Heritage’, Third Consultative Conference on Department of Arts and Culture Policy Review, Sun City, 2-3 March 2006
  • ‘Language as a Human Right and Language Rights Violations’, Department of Linguistics and Literary Theory, University of Johannesburg, 31 July 2006
  • ‘The Shifting Theoretical Bases of Conflict of Laws in the Third Millennium: In pursuit of Global Welfare’, Law Faculty of the University of Kebangsaan, Malaysia, 16 August 2006 (invited)
  • ‘Conflict of Laws as a Tool in the Trade of Works of Art’, Institute for Private International Law in South Africa, University of Johannesburg, 19 January 2005
  • Legal Framework for Cultural Policy Formulation: A Unique Project in South Africa’, Consultative Workshops 28 - 31 October 2005 and 15 November 2005
  • ‘Legal aspects of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Course Content for Purposes of Higher Learning’, Joint Conference of the South African Association for Research and Development in Higher Education and the Productive Learning Cultures Project, Durban, 10 June 2004
  • Key note ‘Theory, Practice and Challenges for Language Policy on Tertiary Level’, Vaal Triangle Campus of the PU for CHE, Vanderbijlpark, 24 August 2000
  • Key note ‘Multilingualism as a Requirement of the Constitutional and Legislative Framework’, TSA Conference Centre, Johannesburg, 24 May 2002
  • Key note ‘Legal pluralism in South Africa: The common law in the context of Islamic law’, seminar on Shariah and Common Law, Kolej University Islam, Malaysia, 20 September 2006

Publications

List by: Type | Date

Jump to: 2016 | 2015 | 2014 | 2013
Number of items: 11.

2016

Roodt, C. (2016) State courts or ADR in Nazi-era art disputes: a choice "more apparent than real"? In: Carruthers, J. M. (ed.) Transfer of Property and Private International Law, Volume II. Series: Private international law series (3). Edward Elgar Publishers: Cheltenham. ISBN 9781785361173 (doi:10.4337/9781785361180)

Roodt, C. and Carey Miller, D. (2016) Stolen cultural property: implications of Vitium Reale in private law and private international law. In: Carruthers, J. (ed.) Transfer of Property and Private International Law, Volume II. Series: Private international law series (3). Edward Elgar Publishers: Cheltenham. ISBN 9781785361173 (doi:10.4337/9781785361180)

2015

Roodt, C. (2015) Forgers, connoisseurs, and the Nazi past. Journal of Information Ethics, 24(2), pp. 43-62.

Roodt, C. and Benson, B. (2015) Databases for stolen art: progress, prospects and limitations. South African Crime Quarterly, 52, pp. 5-14. (doi:10.4314/sacq.v52i1.1)

Roodt, C. (2015) Private International Law, Art and Cultural Heritage. Edward Elgar Publishing: Cheltenham. ISBN 9781781002155 (doi:10.4337/9781781002162)

2014

Roodt, C. (2014) Richard Garnett, Substance and Procedure in Private International Law Oxford. Edinburgh Law Review, 18(1), pp. 161-163. (doi:10.3366/elr.2014.0195) [Book Review]

2013

Roodt, C. and Carey-Miller, D. (2013) Stolen cultural property: implications of Vitium Reale in private law and private international law. Transnational Dispute Management, 5(2013), pp. 1-10.

Roodt, C. (2013) Restitution of art and cultural objects and its limits. Comparative and International Law Journal of Southern Africa, 46, pp. 286-307.

Schoeman, E., Roodt, C. and Wethmar-Lemmer, M. (2013) South Africa. In: Verschraegen, B. (ed.) International Encyclopaedia of Laws: Private International Law. Series: International Encyclopaedia of Laws. Wolters Kluwer Law and Business: Alphen aan den Rijn, The Netherlands. ISBN 9789041115553

Roodt, C. (2013) State courts or ADR in Nazi-era art disputes: a choice "more apparent than real"? Cardozo Journal of Conflict Resolution, 14(2), pp. 421-463.

Roodt, H. C. (2013) Review of Janet Ulph and Ian Smith, The Illicit Trade in Art and Antiquities: International Recovery and Civil and Criminal Liability. Edinburgh Law Review, 17, pp. 266-267. (doi:10.3366/elr.2013.0158) [Book Review]

This list was generated on Tue Oct 17 09:08:26 2017 BST.
Number of items: 11.

Articles

Roodt, C. (2015) Forgers, connoisseurs, and the Nazi past. Journal of Information Ethics, 24(2), pp. 43-62.

Roodt, C. and Benson, B. (2015) Databases for stolen art: progress, prospects and limitations. South African Crime Quarterly, 52, pp. 5-14. (doi:10.4314/sacq.v52i1.1)

Roodt, C. and Carey-Miller, D. (2013) Stolen cultural property: implications of Vitium Reale in private law and private international law. Transnational Dispute Management, 5(2013), pp. 1-10.

Roodt, C. (2013) Restitution of art and cultural objects and its limits. Comparative and International Law Journal of Southern Africa, 46, pp. 286-307.

Roodt, C. (2013) State courts or ADR in Nazi-era art disputes: a choice "more apparent than real"? Cardozo Journal of Conflict Resolution, 14(2), pp. 421-463.

Books

Roodt, C. (2015) Private International Law, Art and Cultural Heritage. Edward Elgar Publishing: Cheltenham. ISBN 9781781002155 (doi:10.4337/9781781002162)

Book Sections

Roodt, C. (2016) State courts or ADR in Nazi-era art disputes: a choice "more apparent than real"? In: Carruthers, J. M. (ed.) Transfer of Property and Private International Law, Volume II. Series: Private international law series (3). Edward Elgar Publishers: Cheltenham. ISBN 9781785361173 (doi:10.4337/9781785361180)

Roodt, C. and Carey Miller, D. (2016) Stolen cultural property: implications of Vitium Reale in private law and private international law. In: Carruthers, J. (ed.) Transfer of Property and Private International Law, Volume II. Series: Private international law series (3). Edward Elgar Publishers: Cheltenham. ISBN 9781785361173 (doi:10.4337/9781785361180)

Schoeman, E., Roodt, C. and Wethmar-Lemmer, M. (2013) South Africa. In: Verschraegen, B. (ed.) International Encyclopaedia of Laws: Private International Law. Series: International Encyclopaedia of Laws. Wolters Kluwer Law and Business: Alphen aan den Rijn, The Netherlands. ISBN 9789041115553

Book Reviews

Roodt, C. (2014) Richard Garnett, Substance and Procedure in Private International Law Oxford. Edinburgh Law Review, 18(1), pp. 161-163. (doi:10.3366/elr.2014.0195) [Book Review]

Roodt, H. C. (2013) Review of Janet Ulph and Ian Smith, The Illicit Trade in Art and Antiquities: International Recovery and Civil and Criminal Liability. Edinburgh Law Review, 17, pp. 266-267. (doi:10.3366/elr.2013.0158) [Book Review]

This list was generated on Tue Oct 17 09:08:26 2017 BST.