Machine Learning

Machine Learning (ML), also known as Artificial Intelligence (AI), is the use of computer algorithms to find and extract patterns in large data sets and using these patterns to predict outcomes.  




Mayne, K. J., Staplin, N., Keane, D. F., Wanner, C., Brenner, S., Cejka, V., Stegbauer, J., Judge, P. K., Preiss, D., Emberson, J., Trinca, D., Dayanandan, R., Lee, R., Nolan, J., Omata, A., Green, J. B., Cherney, D. Z.I., Hooi, L. S., Pontremoli, R., Tuttle, K. R., Lees, J. S., Mark, P. B., Davies, S. J., Hauske, S. J., Steubl, D., Brückmann, M., Landray, M. J., Baigent, C., Haynes, R., Herrington, W. G. (2023) Effects of empagliflozin on fluid overload, weight and blood pressure in chronic kidney disease Journal of the American Society of Nephrology,

Jani, B. D., Sullivan, M. K., Hanlon, P., Nicholl, B. I., Lees, J. S., Brown, L., MacDonald, S., Mark, P. B., Mair, F. S., Sullivan, F. M. (2023) Personalised lung cancer risk stratification and lung cancer screening: do general practice electronic medical records have a role? British Journal of Cancer, (doi: 10.1038/s41416-023-02467-9)

Lees, J. S., Mark, P. B. (2023) GFR slope as a surrogate marker for future kidney failure Nature Reviews Nephrology, 19, pp. 625-626. (doi: 10.1038/s41581-023-00748-3)

Lees, J. S., De La Mata, N. L., Sullivan, M. K., Wyld, M. L., Rosales, B. M., Cutting, R., Hedley, J. A., Rutherford, E., Mark, P. B., Webster, A. C. (2023) Sex differences in associations between creatinine and cystatin C-based kidney function measures with stroke and major bleeding European Stroke Journal, 8, pp. 756-768. (doi: 10.1177/23969873231173282)

Lees, J. S., Dobbin, S. J.H., Elyan, B. M.P., Gilmour, D. F., Tomlinson, L. P., Lang, N. N., Mark, P. B. (2023) A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of intravitreal VEGF inhibitors on cardiorenal outcomes Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 38, pp. 1666-1681. (doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfac305)

Grant, C. H., Salim, E., Lees, J. S., Stevens, K. I. (2023) Deprivation and chronic kidney disease—a review of the evidence Clinical Kidney Journal, 16, pp. 1081-1091. (doi: 10.1093/ckj/sfad028)

Elyan, B. M.P., Rankin, S., Jones, R., Lang, N. N., Mark, P. B., Lees, J. S. (2023) Kidney disease patient representation in trials of combination therapy with VEGF-signaling pathway inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors: a systematic review Kidney Medicine, 5, (doi: 10.1016/j.xkme.2023.100672)

Mayne, K. J., Sullivan, M. K., Lees, J. S. (2023) Sex and gender differences in the management of chronic kidney disease and hypertension Journal of Human Hypertension, (doi: 10.1038/s41371-023-00843-9)

Stevens, K. I., Lees, J. S. (2023) Measure and risk: cystatin C, creatinine and controversy in CKD Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, (doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfad113)

Lees, J. S., Elyan, B. M.P., Hermann, S. M., Lang, N. N., Jones, R. J., Mark, P. B. (2023) The ‘other’ big complication: how chronic kidney disease impacts on cancer risks and outcomes Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 38, pp. 1071-1079. (doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfac011)

Mayne, K. J., Lees, J. S., Herrington, W. G. (2023) Bioimpedance in CKD: an untapped resource? Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 38, pp. 583-585. (doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfac275)

Mayne, K. J., Lees, J. S., Mark, P. B. (2023) Cardiovascular complications of chronic kidney disease Medicine, 51, pp. 190-195. (doi: 10.1016/j.mpmed.2022.12.008)

Mayne, K. J., Lees, J. S., Rutherford, E., Thomson, P. C., Traynor, J. P., Dey, V., Lang, N. N., Mark, P. B. (2023) Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios: associations with mortality in a haemodialysis cohort Clinical Kidney Journal, 16, pp. 512-520. (doi: 10.1093/ckj/sfac248)

Chen, D. C., Lees, J. S., Lu, K., Scherzer, R., Rutherford, E., Mark, P. B., Kanaya, A. M., Shlipak, M. G., Estrella, M. M. (2023) Differential associations of cystatin C versus creatinine‐based kidney function with risks of cardiovascular event and mortality among South Asian individuals in the UK Biobank Journal of the American Heart Association, 12, (doi: 10.1161/JAHA.122.027079)

Sullivan, M. K., Jani, B. D., Rutherford, E., Welsh, P., McConnachie, A., Major, R. W., McAllister, D., Nitsch, D., Mair, F. S., Mark, P. B., Lees, J. S. (2023) Potential impact of NICE guidelines on referrals from primary care to nephrology: a primary care database and prospective research study British Journal of General Practice, 73, pp. e141-e147. (doi: 10.3399/BJGP.2022.0145)

Stevens, K. I., Graham-Brown, M., Lees, J. S. (2023) Let's get physical: considering and overcoming the barriers to physical activity in CKD Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, (doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfad002)


Lithgow, H., Johnston, L., Ho, F. K., Celis-Morales, C., Cobley, J., Raastad, T., Hunter, A. M., Lees, J. S., Mark, P. B., Quinn, T. J., Gray, S. R. (2022) Protocol for a randomised controlled trial to investigate the effects of vitamin K2 on recovery from muscle-damaging resistance exercise in young and older adults—the TAKEOVER study Trials, 23, (doi: 10.1186/s13063-022-06937-y)

Lees, J. S., Shlipak, M. G. (2022) Age-adapted eGFR thresholds underestimate the risks beyond kidney failure associated with CKD in older populations Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 70, pp. 3660-3664. (doi: 10.1111/jgs.18046)

Mayne, K. J., Shemilt, R., Keane, D. F., Lees, J. S., Mark, P. B., Herrington, W. G. (2022) Bioimpedance indices of fluid overload and cardiorenal outcomes in heart failure and chronic kidney disease: a systematic review Journal of Cardiac Failure, 28, pp. 1628-1641. (doi: 10.1016/j.cardfail.2022.08.005)

Lees, J. S., Rutherford, E., Stevens, K. I., Chen, D. C., Scherzer, R., Estrella, M. M., Sullivan, M. K., Ebert, N., Mark, P. B., Shlipak, M. G. (2022) Assessment of Cystatin C level for risk stratification in adults with chronic kidney disease JAMA Network Open, 5, (doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.38300)

Sullivan, M. K., Lees, J. S., Drake, T. M., Docherty, A. B., Oates, G., Hardwick, H. E., Russell, C. D., Merson, L., Dunning, J., Nguyen-Van-Tam, J. S., Openshaw, P., Harrison, E. M., Baillie, J. K., ISARIC4C Investigators, , Semple, M. G., Ho, A., Mark, P. B., Scott, J. T., Davis, C. (2022) Acute kidney injury in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 from the ISARIC WHO CCP-UK Study: a prospective, multicentre cohort study Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 37, pp. 271-284. (doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfab303)

Lees, J. S., Mark, P. B. (2022) Insights into vitamin K metabolism in chronic kidney disease: more complicated than kale deficiency Kidney International, 101, pp. 216-219. (doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2021.11.022)

Lees, J. S., Mark, P. B. (2022) Vitamin K supplementation and vascular health after kidney transplantation: authors' response American Journal of Transplantation, 22, pp. 320-321. (doi: 10.1111/ajt.16769)

Lees, J. S., Hanlon, P., Butterly, E. W., Wild, S. H., Mair, F. S., Taylor, R. S., Guthrie, B., Gillies, K., Dias, S., Welton, N. J., McAllister, D. A. (2022) Effect of age, sex, and morbidity count on trial attrition: meta-analysis of individual participant level data from phase 3/4 industry funded clinical trials BMJ Medicine, 1, (doi: 10.1136/bmjmed-2022-000217)


Rankin, A. J., Mangion, K., Lees, J. S., Rutherford, E., Gillis, K. A., Edy, E., Dymock, L., Treibel, T. A., Radjenovic, A., Patel, R. K., Berry, C., Roditi, G., Mark, P. B. (2021) Myocardial changes on 3T cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in response to haemodialysis with fluid removal Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, 23, (doi: 10.1186/s12968-021-00822-4)

Sullivan, M. K., Jani, B. D., Lees, J. S., Welsh, C. E., McConnachie, A., Stanley, B., Welsh, P., Nicholl, B. I., Lyall, D. M., Carrero, J.-J., Nitsch, D., Sattar, N., Mair, F. S., Mark, P. B. (2021) Multimorbidity and the risk of major adverse kidney events: findings from the UK Biobank cohort Clinical Kidney Journal, 14, pp. 2409-2419. (doi: 10.1093/ckj/sfab079)

Rankin, A. J., Zhu, L., Mangion, K., Rutherford, E., Gillis, K. A., Lees, J. S., Woodward, R., Patel, R. K., Berry, C., Roditi, G., Mark, P. B. (2021) Global longitudinal strain by feature tracking cardiovascular MRI predicts mortality in patients with end stage kidney disease Clinical Kidney Journal, 14, pp. 2187-2196. (doi: 10.1093/ckj/sfab020)

Lees, J. S., Rankin, A. J., Gillis, K. A., Zhu, L. Y., Mangion, K., Rutherford, E., Roditi, G. H., Witham, M. D., Chantler, D., Panarelli, M., Jardine, A. G., Mark, P. B. (2021) The ViKTORIES trial: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin K supplementation to improve vascular health in kidney transplant recipients American Journal of Transplantation, 21, pp. 3356-3368. (doi: 10.1111/ajt.16566)

Lees, J. S., Ho, F., Parra -Soto, S., Celis-Morales, C., Welsh, P., Sullivan, M. K., Jani, B. D., Sattar, N., Lang, N. N., Pell, J. P., Webster, A. C., Mark, P. B. (2021) Kidney function and cancer risk: an analysis using creatinine and cystatin C in a cohort study EClinicalMedicine, 38, (doi: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.101030)

Li, K. K., Woo, Y. M., Stirrup, O., Hughes, J., Ho, A., Da Silva Filipe, A., Johnson, N., Smollett, K., Mair, D., Carmichael, S., Tong, L., Nichols, J., Aranday-Cortes, E., Brunker, K., Parr, Y. A., Nomikou, K., McDonald, S. E., Niebel, M., Asamaphan, P., Sreenu, V. B., Robertson, D. L., Taggart, A., Jesudason, N., Shah, R., Shepherd, J., Singer, J., Taylor, A. H.M., Cousland, Z., Price, J., Lees, J. S., Jones, T. P.W., Lopez, C. V., MacLean, A., Starinskij, I., Gunson, R., Morris, S. T.M., Thomson, P., Geddes, C., Traynor, J., Breuer, J., Thomson, E. C., Mark, P. B. (2021) Genetic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in renal dialysis units - a high risk community-hospital interface Journal of Infection, 83, pp. 96-103. (doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2021.04.020)

Lees, J. S., Mark, P. B., Witham, M. D. (2021) Vitamin K and vascular calcification Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension, 30, pp. 430-436. (doi: 10.1097/MNH.0000000000000712)

Edy, E., Rankin, A. J., Lees, J. S., Hall Barrientos, P., Woodward, R., Stoumpos, S., Koktzoglou, I., Edelman, R. R., Radjenovic, A., Mark, P. B., Roditi, G. H. (2021) Cardiovascular magnetic resonance for the detection of descending thoracic aorta calcification in patients with end-stage renal disease Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, 23, (doi: 10.1186/s12968-021-00769-6)

Lees, J. S., Mark, P. B. (2021) Fruit for thought: lifestyle interventions to reduce the risk of future chronic kidney disease Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 36, pp. 963-965. (doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfaa266)

O’Sullivan, E. D., Lees, J. S., Howie, K. L., Pugh, D., Gillis, K. A., Traynor, J. P., Macintyre, I., Mark, P. B. (2021) Prolonged SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding in patients with chronic kidney disease Nephrology, 26, pp. 328-332. (doi: 10.1111/nep.13844)

Lees, J. S., Mark, P. B. (2021) Cystatin C to predict renal disease and cardiovascular risk Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 36, pp. 39-41. (doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfaa152)


Witham, M. D., Lees, J. S., White, M., Band, M., Bell, S., Chantler, D. J., Ford, I., Fulton, R. L., Kennedy, G., Littleford, R. C., McCrea, I. V., McGlynn, D., Panarelli, M., Ralston, M. R., Rutherford, E., Severn, A., Thomson, N., Traynor, J. P., Struthers, A. D., Wetherall, K., Mark, P. B. (2020) Vitamin K supplementation to improve vascular stiffness in chronic kidney disease: the K4Kidneys randomised controlled trial Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 31, pp. 2434-2445. (doi: 10.1681/ASN.2020020225)

Lees, J. S., Mangion, K., Rutherford, E., Witham, M. D., Woodward, R., Roditi, G., Hopkins, T., Brooksbank, K., Jardine, A., Mark, P. B. (2020) Vitamin K for kidney transplant organ recipients: investigating vEssel stiffness (ViKTORIES): study rationale and protocol of a randomised controlled trial Open Heart, 7, (doi: 10.1136/openhrt-2019-001070)


Lees, J. S., Welsh, C. E., Celis-Morales, C. A., Mackay, D., Lewsey, J., Gray, S. R., Lyall, D. M., Cleland, J. G., Gill, J. M.R., Jhund, P. S., Pell, J., Sattar, N., Welsh, P., Mark, P. B. (2019) Glomerular filtration rate by differing measures, albuminuria and prediction of cardiovascular disease, mortality and end-stage kidney disease Nature Medicine, 25, pp. 1753-1760. (doi: 10.1038/s41591-019-0627-8)

Grant, C. H., Gillis, K. A., Lees, J. S., Traynor, J. P., Mark, P. B., Stevens, K. I. (2019) Proton pump inhibitor use and progression to major adverse renal events: a competing risk analysis QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, 112, pp. 835-840. (doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcz166)

Elyan, B. M.P., Lees, J. S., Gillis, K. A., Mackinnon, B., Fox, J. G., Geddes, C. C., McQuarrie, E. P. (2019) Obesity is not associated with progression to end stage renal disease in patients with biopsy-proven glomerular diseases BMC Nephrology, 20, (doi: 10.1186/s12882-019-1434-7)

Lees, J.S., Chapman, F.A., Witham, M.D., Jardine, A.G., Mark, P.B. (2019) Vitamin K status, supplementation and vascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis Heart, 105, pp. 938-945. (doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2018-313955)

Gillis, K. A., Lees, J. S., Ralston, M. R., Glen, J. A., Stevenson, K. S., McManus, S. K., Geddes, C. C., Clancy, M., Traynor, J. P., Mark, P. B. (2019) Interaction between socioeconomic deprivation and likelihood of pre‐emptive transplantation: influence of competing risks and referral characteristics – a retrospective study Transplant International, 32, pp. 153-162. (doi: 10.1111/tri.13336)

Lees, J.S., Findlay, M.D., Mark, P.B., Geddes, C.C. (2019) The impact of coronary angiography on renal transplant function QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, 112, pp. 23-27. (doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcy216)


Lees, J. S., McQuarrie, E. P., Mackinnon, B. (2018) Renal biopsy: it is time for pragmatism and consensus. Clinical Kidney Journal, 11, pp. 605-609. (doi: 10.1093/ckj/sfy075)

Stoumpos, S., Lees, J., Welsh, P., Hund, M., Geddes, C. C., Nelson, S. M., Mark, P. B. (2018) The utility of anti-Müllerian hormone in women with chronic kidney disease, on haemodialysis and after kidney transplantation Reproductive BioMedicine Online, 36, pp. 219-226. (doi: 10.1016/j.rbmo.2017.11.003)


Lees, J. S., McQuarrie, E. P., Mordi, N., Geddes, C. C., Fox, J. G., Mackinnon, B. (2017) Risk factors for bleeding complications after nephrologist-performed native renal biopsy Clinical Kidney Journal, 10, pp. 573-577. (doi: 10.1093/ckj/sfx012)


Lees, J. S., Mark, P. B., Jardine, A. G. (2015) Cardiovascular complications of chronic kidney disease Medicine, 43, pp. 469-473. (doi: 10.1016/j.mpmed.2015.05.009)


Lees, J.S., Church, N., Langdale-Brown, B., Bellamy, C., Gibson, P., Watson, S. (2013) IgG4-related disease: a novel, important but easily missed condition Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, 43, pp. 126-133. (doi: 10.4997/JRCPE.2013.208)

Altman, D. G., Antonic, A., Sena, E. S., Lees, J. S., Wills, T. E., Skeers, P., Batchelor, P. E., Macleod, M. R., Howells, D. W. (2013) Stem cell transplantation in traumatic spinal cord injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis of animal studies PLoS Biology, 11, (doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001738)


Lees, J. S., Sena, E. S., Egan, K. J., Antonic, A., Koblar, S. A., Howells, D. W., Macleod, M. R. (2012) Stem cell‐based therapy for experimental stroke: a systematic review and meta‐analysis International Journal of Stroke, 7, pp. 582-588. (doi: 10.1111/j.1747-4949.2012.00797.x)

What can machine learning do for us?

Machine Learning covers a variety of techniques which are specialty agnostic and can be applied to where there are large quantities of data available. In medicine, these principles can be used for varied purposes: our current work includes predicting osteoporosis based on routinely collected data, detecting vertebral fracture on computed tomography, mortality prediction in COVID-19 infections, and prediction of dysglycaemia in hospital inpatients.

What type of work do we do?

  • Enhanced Screening – predicting disease based on routinely collected data.
  • Outcome prediction – using clinical data to predict hypoglycaemia and mortality.
  • Image Analysis – analysing medical imaging for diagnosis or outcome prediction.
  • Synthetic Data – generation of synthetic data to run massive virtual clinical trials.

How will our research have an impact?

  • Synthetic data creation and virtual trials could allow for more personalised treatment plans.
  • Novel screening tools could allow for earlier identification and intervention in a variety of diseases.
  • Risk stratification and mortality predictors can allow for more appropriate interventions in unwell patients.
  • Clustering within diseases may identify subtypes that require tailored treatments.