Dr Ian Watson

  • Reader (Systems Power and Energy)

telephone: 01413305258
email: Ian.Watson@glasgow.ac.uk

Research interests

Research interests

My research interests range from exploiting bioenergy and microalgae, laser asteroid deflection and laser and combined systems for inactivation of microorganisms.  Areas permeating each theme are complex experimentation, real time detection, monitoring and control of processes.

With a first degree in Applied Physics, and a PhD in Laser Systems, I began to research the effects of laser radiation on bacteria and microorganisms in the early 90s.  This led to SHEFC and MAFF funding to develop laser sterilization systems and EU funding to develop combined systems to extend the shelf life of fruit and vegetables, where lasers, pulsed light systems, UV, microwave and chemical systems were built and processes combined.  I received significant VC funding to develop laser air decontamination systems, which also resulted in spin-off plasma air treatment technology being invented.  At the same time, I was using lasers for carbon powder combustion and co-developed a multi-fuel combustion system, capable of simultaneously combusting 4 fuels, including combustion of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. This included extensive work developing delivery and pyrolysis and carbon powder production systems.   With this knowledge of how to grow and kill microorganisms, and utilising biomass resources, it seemed natural to develop research themes into microalgae for biofuel production, high value components  and applications of microalgae.  I am also researching laser asteroid deflection strategies and developing experimental systems to quantify and understand the processes  involved. 

 

Microalgae Research

The world is in perilous danger from anthropogenic activities such as increasing CO2 emissions and pollution leading to climate change.  Mankind is further threatened by security of energy, water and food.  With over 30,000 species, microalgae (small microscopic plants) offer the potential to solve global security of fuel without increasing CO2 emissions, provide a solution to world hunger through ample supply of protein and carbohydrates and provide clean drinking water, whilst simultaneously providing a platform for discovery and development of new drugs to combat a range of infections from new sources of antibiotics to treatment of neurological diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s.  There are several bottlenecks and problems (e.g. CO2 and nutrient supply) that need addressing to secure this microalgal future.  I am investigating every aspect of this work, from optimised growth through developing photobioreactors, separation technology to improve harvesting, and enhanced cell lysis and lipid extraction techniques to hydrothermal liquefaction and gasification.  A fundamental theme underlying this work is development of real time sensors to optimise growth and harvesting strategies.  To make these processes viable commercially, there is worldwide interest in augmenting processes where microalgae can be utilised.  For example, water purification or CO2 sequestration.  I am particularly interested in how microalgae can be utilised for bioremediation and as a food source.  

 

Biomass Combustion and Gasification 

A number of biomass combustion systems were fabricated, including a laser based system method of ignition. A feasibility study funded by the School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, has demonstrated that high power laser radiation can successfully combust carbon powder in ambient conditions.  Spark and flame ignition were investigated but these systems failed to achieve ignition under identical ambient environments. Interestingly, the sound of the laser carbon interaction was distinctive and may offer a useful analysis tool or control mechanism for the combustion process. Work is investigating gasification of biomass. 

 

Laser asteroid deflection

Asteroids on a collision course with the earth threaten life.  Various methods of asteroid deflection have been suggested, such as nuclear detonation or kinetic impactors.  I am developing experimental systems to investigate and validate the potential of laser asteroid deflection.  The experiments are providing data and information that is being used to validate mathematical models developed by colleagues at the Space Systems Engineering Centre at Strathclyde University, Glasgow.  

 

Laser and plasma air cleaning

Laser and plasma technologies have been developed to clean air for industrial, commercial and domestic applications.  The focus has been on decontamination of microorganisms, in particular Bacillus globigii, an Anthrax stimulant.  The potential to scale up these systems to reduce stack emissions is being investigated.

 

Decontamination and control of microorganisms

Decontamination of surfaces, liquids or air presents major problems in many industrial sectors such as food and medical, where cross-contamination of pathogens poses a high risk.  Ongoing research in the Systems, Power and Energy Research Division has investigated the effect of various systems on decontamination of model pathogens in different environments.  These have included: laser, plasma, UV, flashlamp systems, microwave and chemicals such as ozone or hydrogen peroxide, and various combinations of these processes.  

By combining processes from our extensive knowledge base it is possible to develop techniques that satisfy the end user’s requirements, e.g. is the material perishable, metal or plastic, liquid or air?  For example, laser scanning systems were developed to rapidly decontaminate surfaces with inactivation rates typically in excess of 140 cm2s-1 for a 1 kW laser against S. aureus on agar surfaces. Smaller systems were developed offering more modest inactivation rates.

Reliably preventing contamination is highly relevant to many sectors from food production, to safe delivery of medical products and within hospital environments.  Developing safe, effective and reliable decontamination processes is key to preventing spread of diseases or extending the shelf-life of food products.  Such systems can have significant impact on wellbeing and health and present numerous business opportunities for enhanced processes or system's development. 

 

Real time detection of microorganisms and morpohology dynamics

Real time analysis of microorganisms or living cells leads to greater understanding of their behaviour, morphological changes and population dynamics.  The cell response during stressed conditions or the life cycle can be identified, leading to e.g. novel ways of identifying vitality, death and efficiency of sterilization processes or lipid productivity.

Image processing algorithms were developed and validated to quantify the morphological structure and temporal characteristics of microorganisms and microalgae. Euglena gracilis was chosen as it provided an ideal, well known model to investigate transient analysis imaging methods of live cells. Euglena gracilis moves at velocities of the order of micro-meters per second and the cell’s morphology varies between cylindrical to elongate and ovate. Real time videos of the microorganism from various microscopy systems (such as bright, dark field and in house laser microscopy systems) were captured. The images were processed and analyzed to quantify the morphology structure and temporal characteristics. The performance of the image processing methods was validated by comparing with visual assessment and standard image processing measurement techniques.

This work allows the development of systems for assessing how microorganisms respond to a change in stimuli. Particular interests include assessing the cell response during their ageing and death cycles and the effect of sterilization processes.

Other work is investigating algae growth to produce biodiesel, correlating morphology and population dynamics with optimal oil production.

 

 


Grants

Funding (Selected, PI bold)

  • Watson, I., Yassir, M., Bridgwater, T., Donnison, I., Gilbert, P., Sharp, J., Karimi, N., Manosh, P., Yu, Z., Younger, P.  £1.25M, Real time control of gasifiers to increase tolerance to biomass variety and reduce emissions.  EPSRC January 2015 – December 2017.  Universities of Glasgow, Aston, Manchester and Aberystwyth. 
  • Watson, I, Production of protein and biofuel from microalgae, ETP Knowledge Exchange Network, £5k, December 2013 – March 2014.
  • Watson, I. Identifying why Tetraselmis adheres to plastic bag photobioreactors and preventitive strategies, Algal Biotechnology Special Interest Group, Spark Award, NERC, TSB. £5k. Awarded. (Ardtoe Marine Laboratory). Awarded. 12/8/13-30/03/14 Value £5k.
  • Watson, I.  “Developing a research partnership on exploiting microalgal growth and component extraction for fuel and food utilisation.”  International Partnership Development Fund, £5 000.  1/1/13-31/07/13, £5 000.
  • Paul, M., Younger, P., Watson, I., Hossain, M., Welch S. Combustion & Gasification Engineering (CombGEN): development of robust computational resources for optimising the processes of combustion and gasification of various sources of fuel energy, Carnegie Trust Foundation. £60k (Total project costs £150k).1/11/13-31/10/14.
  • Vasile, M (Strathclyde University), Watson, I. “Laser Asteroid Deflection”, Planetary Society (USA), $30,000, 1/1/11-31/12/12 .
  • Watson, I.  “Algae growth as a food source”, £5000, Sporting Chance Initiative, Stirling University, December 2011 – June 2012
  • Watson, I. “Laser air decontamination.”,   £30,000, Nvirocleantech PLC, January 2008-December, 2010.
  • Watson, I. “Laser air decontamination.”, £960,000 (£600k), Nvirocleantech PLC, January 2007-December, 2009.
  • Watson, I., Paul, M., Sharp, J. “Laser Combustion”, £2M (£400k), Nvirocleantech PLC, January 2007-January 2008.
  • Watson, I., Stewart-Tull, D. “Minimal processing with combined emerging unit operations – laser, UV, microwave and chemical – for microbial killing and improved food quality”.   991 100 ECU (£600 000), EU-FAIR Contract No. FAIR CT 98-9522, 1/1/99- 31/12/00.
  • Watson, I. “Minimal processing with combined emerging unit operations”, EU Exploratory award, 9/97-4/98, 40,000 ECU (£24 000).
  • Watson, I., Stewart-Tull, D., Chatwin, C., Wardlaw, A. “Laser Sterilization for Control of Microbial Growth in the Food Industry.”  Contract Number 2A057, £270,777 (451 000 ECU). Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food.  Duration 10/94-9/97
  • Watson, I. Stewart-Tull, D. Scottish Higher Education Funding Council, New-Initiatives Income Based Research Funded Project, £39,686 (66 143 ECU), “Laser Applications In Microbiology.” Duration 12/93-11/94.

Supervision

Current PhD students

Wea’am A. Ja’afar,  Bacterial and Algal Detection (Submitted, 2014).

Blaid Sasi Abozeid Alganash, Carbon Combustion (2014, Co-supervised with Dr Manosh Paul).

Mehmood Ali, Algae Biofuel Production and Analysis (2015).

Jonathan McMillan, Real Time Detection of Lipids in Microalgae (2015).

Yasintinee Aimyuak, Modelling Science, Engineering and Finances of Microalgae Biodiesel Production (2015).

Allen Akwu-ude, Role of Water in Microalgae Growth (2017).

 

Successful PhD students

Glenn Ward, Laser sterilization of microorganisms, (1996).

Eric Ng, Laser welding of high carbon steels, (1999).

Allen Yeo, Laser inactivation of microorganims and detection, (1999).

Graham Armstrong, Laser inactivation of spores, December (2000).

Boon Kiat Tan, Combining lasers and emerging technologies for minimal processing, (2003).

Siavash Maktabie, Combined methods for bacterial decontamination, (2003).

Graham Hunter, Ultrasonic sterilization, (2007) (Co-supervised with Professor Lucas).

Anand Krishnan, Laser and optical methods for detecting and characterising microorganisms,  (2008).

Norizah Redzuan, Cold plasma air decontamination,  (2010).

Takashi Mine, Laser air sterilization, (2010).

Alison Gibbings, Laser Asteroid Deflection, (2014, Co-supervised, Massimiliano Vasile, Strathclyde University).


Teaching

Teaching

Applied Mathematics 2B

Lasers IV

Lasers V

Guest lecture on Renewable Energy, Microalgae and Biofuel


Additional information

Current Administration

Careers, School of Engineering

Programme Coordinator, MSc Sustainable Energy

Editorial Boards (recent)

  • Journal of Food Science and Technology, OMICS publishing group (from 2012).
  • Journal of Bioterrorism and Biodefense, OMICS publishing group (from 2013).
  • NED University Journal of Research (from 2014).
  • Journal of Lasers and Optics in Engineering, Publisher, Elsevier Science 1998-2008

 


All publications

List by: Type | Date

Jump to: 2017 | 2016 | 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2000 | 1999 | 1998 | 1997 | 1996 | 1995 | 1994 | 1992 | 1989
Number of items: 198.

2017

Ali, M., Sultana, R., Tahir, S., Watson, I. A. and Saleem, M. (2017) Prospects of microalgal biodiesel production in Pakistan – a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 80, pp. 1588-1596. (doi:10.1016/j.rser.2017.08.062)

Ali, M. and Watson, I. (2017) Manual pressing of nannochloropsis oculata dried biomass for enhanced lipid extraction. NED University Journal of Research, XIV(4), pp. 105-111.

Channumsin, S., Ceriotti, M. , Radice, G. and Watson, I. (2017) Experimental validation of damping properties and solar pressure effects on flexible, high area-to-mass ratio debris model. Acta Astronautica, 138, pp. 129-144. (doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2017.05.015)

Corton, J. et al. (2017) The impact of biomass feedstock composition and pre-treatments on tar formation during biomass gasification. In: Singh, L. K. and Chaudhary, G. (eds.) Advances in Biofeedstocks and Biofuels. Wiley-Scrivener, pp. 33-53. ISBN 9781119117254

Akwa-Ude, A., Egbo, M., Blaney, R. and Watson, I. (2017) Scaling Photobioreactors. 7th International Congress on Biofuels and Bioenergy, Toronto, Canada, 2-4 Oct 2017. (Unpublished)

Capper, S., Watson, I., Khan, Z., Kamble, P. and Sharp, J. (2017) Tar Detection Systems for Controlling Biomass Gasification. 9th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2017), Cardiff, UK, 21-24 Aug 2017. (Unpublished)

Kamble, P., Khan, Z., Capper, S., Sharp, J. and Watson, I. (2017) Improving Downdraft Gasifier Stability by Robust Instrumentation and Control Systems. 9th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2017), Cardiff, UK, 21-24 Aug 2017. (Unpublished)

Khan, Z., Yusup, S. and Watson, I. (2017) Assessment of Energy Flows in Integrated Catalytic Adsorption (ICA) Steam Gasification for Hydrogen Production. 9th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2017), Cardiff, UK, 21-24 Aug 2017. (Unpublished)

Watson, I. (2017) Advanced Decontamination Systems and Real Time Detection of Bacteria for Improved Food Safety. Other. Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari, Bari.

Watson, I. (2017) Bioenergy. Bioenergy Stake Holders Event, Scotland, 2017. (Unpublished)

Watson, I. (2017) Controlling Gasification. Innovation in Gasification and CHP Technology Event (IGATE), Glasgow, UK, 23 May 2017. (Unpublished)

Watson, I. (2017) Farming and Harvesting Microalgae as a Sustainable Protein Source in Urban Environments. 7th European Algae Industry Summit, Nice, France, 26-27 April 2017. (Unpublished)

Watson, I. (2017) Real Time Control of Gasifiers to Increase Tolerance to Biomass Variety and Reduce Emissions. SUPERGEN Bioenergy Hub Annual Assembly 2017, Sheffield, UK, 25 Oct 2017.

2016

Watson, I. A. (2016) Advances in Decontamination Technology as a Solution for Improved Food Safety. 15th International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing and Technology, Rome, Italy, 27-29 Oct 2016. p. 27. (doi:10.4172/2157-7110.C1.055)

Ali, M. and Watson, I. (2016) Hydrothermal Treatment and Aqueous Phase Reforming of Chlorella Vulgaris Biomass. Algae Biomass Summit, Phoenix, AZ, USA, 23-26 Oct 2016.

Ali, M. and Watson, I. (2016) Torrefaction and process energy budget analysis of powdered, de-oiled, and in situ transesterified flaxseed cakes for energy generation. Energy Technology, 4(8), pp. 980-989. (doi:10.1002/ente.201600014)

Khan, Z. and Watson, I. (2016) Bioenergy Research at The University of Glasgow. SUPERGEN Researchers Day, Glasgow, UK, 6 May 2016.

Ali, M. and Watson, I. (2016) Manual Pressing of Dried Algal Biomass for Enhanced Lipid Extraction to Produce Microalgal Biodiesel. All-Energy 2016, Glasgow, UK, 04-05 May 2016.

Garcia, V. and Watson, I. (2016) Sintering of PZT Pellets Using the Conventional Ceramic Method for Energy Harvesting. All-Energy 2016, Glasgow, UK, 04-05 May 2016.

Khan, Z., Yusup, S., Ahmad, M., Inayat, A., Soon, C., Arpin, M. and Watson, I. (2016) Integrated Catalytic-Adsorption (ICA) Steam Gasification for Hydrogen Production. All-Energy 2016, Glasgow, UK, 04-05 May 2016.

MacDonald, H., Watson, I., Toney, J., Shiraiwa, Y., Suzuki, I. and Iwamoto, K. (2016) Design of an Internally Illuminated Large Scale Photobioreactor for the Cultivation of Vacuoliviride crystalliferum gen. et sp. nov. All-Energy 2016, Glasgow, UK, 04-05 May 2016.

McMillan, J. and Watson, I. (2016) Kinetic Behaviour of Nile Red Fluorescent Lipid Probe for the Detection and Quantification of Microalgal Neutral Lipids. All-Energy 2016, Glasgow, UK, 04-05 May 2016.

Watson, I. (2016) Improving the Global Viabiliy of Biomass Gasification. All-Energy 2016, Glasgow, UK, 04-05 May 2016.

Watson, I. (2016) Developing Microalgal Derived Biofuel in the Shipping Industry. International Conference on Marine Biomass as Renewable Energy, Glasgow, UK, 03-04 Mar 2016.

Li, J., Paul, M. , Younger, P. L. , Watson, I., Hossain, M. and Welch, S. (2016) Prediction of high-temperature rapid combustion behaviour of woody biomass particles. Fuel, 165, pp. 205-214. (doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2015.10.061)

Ali, M. and Watson, I. A. (2016) Microwave thermolysis and lipid recovery from dried microalgae powder for biodiesel production. Energy Technology, 4(2), pp. 319-330. (doi:10.1002/ente.201500242)

Barrett, M. , Sloan, W., Stark, W. and Watson, I. (2016) New Developments in Synthetic Biology at the University of Glasgow. Industrial Biotechnology Innovation Centre Annual Conference, Glasgow, UK, 28-29 Jan 2016.

Watson, I. et al. (2016) Engineering Industrial Biotechnology Applications. Industrial Biotechnology Innovation Centre Annual Conference, Glasgow, UK, 28-29 Jan 2016.

Watson, I. (2016) Combining Technologies for Food Decontamination and Developing Real Time Bacterial Detection Systems for Improved Performance. In: The School of Food of the Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaiso 61st Anniversary, Valparaiso, Chile, 23 Nov 2016,

Watson, I., Ali, M., McMillan, J., Akwa-ude, A., Gunn, C., Cheng, K., Chua, J. and Macdonald, H. (2016) Engineering Microalgal Systems. In: 3rd International Meeting of Alkenone Bioscience and Geoscience, Nikko, Japan,

2015

Khan, Z., Turner, E., Sharp, J. and Watson, I. (2015) Real Time Control of Gasification Processes to Increase Tolerance to Biomass Variety and Reduce Emissions. In: SUPERGEN Bioenergy Annual Assembly, Harpenden, UK, 19-20 Nov 2015,

Li, J., Paul, M. C. , Younger, P. L. , Watson, I., Hossain, M. and Welch, S. (2015) Characterization of biomass combustion at high temperatures based on an upgraded single particle model. Applied Energy, 156, pp. 749-755. (doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.04.027)

Ali, M. and Watson, I. A. (2015) Microwave treatment of wet algal paste for enhanced solvent extraction of lipids for biodiesel production. Renewable Energy, 76, pp. 470-477. (doi:10.1016/j.renene.2014.11.024)

Alganash, B., Paul, M. C. and Watson, I. A. (2015) Numerical investigation of the heterogeneous combustion processes of solid fuels. Fuel, 141, pp. 236-249. (doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2014.10.060)

Akwa-Ude, A., Ali, M. and Watson, I. (2015) Energy Consumption of Microalgal Lipid Production Processes. In: All-Energy 2015, Glasgow, UK, 06-07 May 2015,

Akwa-Ude, A. and Watson, I. (2015) Energy Consumption of Microalgal Lipid Production Processes. In: All-Energy 2015, Glasgow, UK, 06-07 May 2015,

Akwu-ude, A. and Watson, I. (2015) Reduced Water Use in Euglena sp. Cultivation for Biodiesel Production. In: 5th International Conference on Algal Biomass, Biofuels and Bioproducts, San Diego, CA, USA, 07-10 Jun 2015,

Ali, M. and Watson, I. (2015) Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Chlorella Vulgaris Microalgal Biomass to Extract Biocrude Oil. In: Algae Biomass Summit, Washington, DC, USA, 29 Sep - 02 Oct 2015,

Ali, M. and Watson, I. (2015) Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Chlorella Vulgaris Microalgal Biomass to Extract Biocrude and Process Energy Analysis. In: All-Energy 2015, Glasgow, UK, 06-07 May 2015,

Ali, M., Watson, I. and Toney, J. (2015) Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Algal Biomass to Produce Advanced Biofuels. In: British Organic Geochemical Society Meeting, Glasgow, UK, 02-03 Jul 2015,

Ali, M., Watson, I., Toney, J. and Saleem, M. (2015) Biocrude Oil from Microalgae Biomass to Produce Environmentally Friendly Higher Value Fuels and Chemical Compounds. In: 7th International Civil Engineering Congress, Karachi, Pakistan, 12-13 Jun 2015,

Channumsin, S., Ceriotti, M. , Radice, G. and Watson, I. (2015) Damping Measurement and Solar Radiation Pressure Validation of Flexible, High Area-To-Mass Ratio Debris Model. In: IAC 2015: 66th International Astronautical Congress, Jerusalem, Israel, 12-16 Oct 2015, ISBN 9781510818934

Gabriel, K. et al. (2015) The Intensification Processes as a Strategy for Palm Oil with High Acid Index Conversion in Biodiesel. In: European Symposium on Chemical Reaction Engineering, Munich, Germany, 27-30 Oct 2015,

Garcia Caballero, V., Watson, I. and Cossar, C. (2015) Efficiency Analysis of different Energy Harvesters. In: XIII Symposium of Mexican Students and Studies, London, UK, 23-25 Jul 2015,

Li, J., Paul, M. C. , Younger, P. L. , Watson, I., Hossain, M. and Welch, S. (2015) Combustion modelling of pulverized biomass particles at high temperatures. Energy Procedia, 66, pp. 273-276. (doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2015.02.055)

MacMillan, J. and Watson, I. (2015) An Assessment of Nile Red Staining Efficiency for the Detection and Quantification of Microalgal Neutral Lipids. In: All-Energy 2015, Glasgow, UK, 06-07 May 2015,

MacMillan, J. and Watson, I. (2015) Improving Nile Red Staining Efficiency for Detecting Neutral Lipids in Nannochloropsis Oculata. In: 5th UK Algae Conference, Glasgow, UK, 10 Jul 2015,

Mehmood, A. and Watson, I. (2015) Bio-Crude Oil from Microalgal Biomass to Produce Environmentally Friendly Higher Value Fuels and Chemical Compounds. In: 7th International Civil Engineering Congress, Karachi, Pakistan, 12-13 Jun 2015,

Mehmood, A. and Watson, I. (2015) Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Aqueous Phase Reforming of Algal Biomass. In: 5th UK Algae Conference, Glasgow, UK, 10 Jul 2015,

Mehmood, A. and Watson, I. (2015) Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Chlorella Vulgaris Microalgal Biomass to Extract Bio-Crude Oil and Process Energy Analysis. In: Algae Biomass Summit, Washington, DC, USA, 29 Sep - 02 Oct 2015,

Turner, E., Watson, I. and Sharp, J. (2015) Instrumentation and Control Techniques for Small Gasifiers. In: SUPERGEN Bioenergy SHARE Event, Bath, UK, 20 May 2015,

Watson, I. (2015) Bioenergy and Higher Value Products. In: Scottish Enterprise Event, University of Glasgow, UK,

Watson, I. (2015) Combined Systems for Improved Decontamination for the Food Industry. In: 4th International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing and Technology, London, UK, 10-12 Aug 2015,

Watson, I. (2015) Developing Growth, Harvesting and Extraction Strategies for Enhanced Biofuel Production from Microalgae. In: Instituto Superior Politécnico de Tecnologias e Ciências, Luanda, Angola,

Watson, I. (2015) Microalgae Research at the University of Glasgow. In: Algae as a Tool in Ecosystem Services: Microalgae to Aviation Biofuels, Birmingham, UK, 24 Nov 2015,

Watson, I. (2015) Real Time Detection of Bacteria for Improved Decontamination for the Food Industry. In: 4th International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing and Technology, London, UK, 10-12 Aug 2015,

Watson, I. (2015) Renewable Energy Research at the University of Glasgow. In: IBM Interconnect Event, University of Glasgow, UK,

Watson, I. (2015) Strategies for Producing Food from Microalgae for Improved Food Security. In: 4th International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing and Technology, London, UK, 10-12 Aug 2015,

Yang, K., Akwu-ude, A. and Watson, I. (2015) Microalgal Filtration Dependency on Physical Pumping Parameters. In: All-Energy 2015, Glasgow, UK, 06-07 May 2015,

2014

Vasile, M., Gibbings, A., Watson, I. and Hopkins, J.-M. (2014) Improved laser ablation model for asteroid deflection. Acta Astronautica, 103, pp. 382-394. (doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2014.01.033)

Yang, W. et al. (2014) Size-dependent capacitance study on InGaN-based micro-light-emitting diodes. Journal of Applied Physics, 116(4), 044512. (doi:10.1063/1.4891233)

Abbassi, A., Ali, M. and Watson, I. A. (2014) Temperature dependency of cell wall destruction of microalgae with liquid nitrogen pretreatment and hydraulic pressing. Algal Research, 5, pp. 190-194. (doi:10.1016/j.algal.2013.12.008)

Watson, I. (2014) Lasers: inactivation techniques. In: Batt, C. A. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology (2nd ed.). Elsevier, pp. 447-454. ISBN 9780123847300 (doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-384730-0.00184-1)

Aimyuak, Y. and Watson, I. (2014) Energy Consumption for Different Lipid Extraction Processes from Microalgae. In: Algae Biotechnology Network Sheffield Symposium, Sheffield, UK, 26 Aug 2014,

Ali, M., Abassi, A. and Watson, I. (2014) Hydraulic pressing and liquid nitrogen treatment for cell disruption of microalgal biomass and comparison of extracted lipids to produce biodiesel. In: International Bioenergy Conference 2014, Manchester, UK, 11-13 March 2014, (Unpublished)

Ali, M. and Watson, I. (2014) Pressing of Microalgal Biomass for Enhanced Lipid Extraction to Produce Biodiesel and Subsequent Torrefaction of Residual Cake. In: Algae Biotechnology Network Sheffield Symposium, Sheffield, UK, 26 Aug 2014,

Gibbings, A., Vasile, M., Hopkins, J.-M., Wayman, A., Eckersley, S. and Watson, I. (2014) A space-based laser system for the deflection and manipulation of near Earth asteroids. In: International High Power Laser Ablation and Beamed Energy Propulsion Symposium HPLA/BEP, Santa Fe NM, USA, 21-25 Apr 2014, (Unpublished)

McMillan, J. and Watson, I. (2014) Monitoring Photosynthetic Performance and Lipid Accumulation of Nannochloropsis Oculata Grown Under Various Salinities. In: Algae Biotechnology Network Sheffield Symposium, Sheffield, UK, 26 Aug 2014,

McMillan, J. R. and Watson, I. (2014) Absolute in-vivo quantification of microalgal neutral lipid content by physically assisted Triolein calibrated Nile red staining method. In: International Bioenergy Conference 2014, Manchester, UK, 11-13 March 2014, (Unpublished)

Watson, I. (2014) Combining technologies for food decontamination and extending the shelf life of fruit and vegetables. In: 3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing and Technology, Las Vegas, NV, USA, 21-23 July 2014, (Unpublished)

Watson, I. (2014) Microalgae as a sustainable food source. In: 3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing and Technology, Las Vegas, NV, USA, 21-23 July 2014, (Unpublished)

Watson, I. (2014) Real Time Control of Gasifiers to Increase Tolerance to Biomass Variety and Reduce Emissions. SUPERGEN Bioenergy Hub Annual Assembly 2014, Aston University, UK, 5 Nov 2014.

Watson, I. (2014) Towards improving gasification performance. In: Biomass Gasification: Development Opportunities and Challenges, European Bioenergy Research Institute, Aston University, Birmingham, UK, 19 Sept 2014, (Unpublished)

Watson, I. (2014) Microlagal process development: from growth and dewatering to extraction. In: The 2nd International Joint Meeting on Alkenone Biosynthesis in Bioscience and Geoscience, Tsukuba, Japan, 28 Feb 2014, (Unpublished)

Yang, K. and Watson, I. (2014) Physical parameters influencing microalgal filtration assays. In: International Bioenergy Conference 2014, Manchester, UK, 11-13 March 2014, (Unpublished)

2013

Gibbings, A., Vasile, M., Watson, I., Hopkins, J.-M. and Burns, D. (2013) Experimental analysis of laser ablated plumes for asteroid deflection and exploitation. Acta Astronautica, 90(1), pp. 85-97. (doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2012.07.008)

Ali, M. and Watson, I. A. (2013) Comparison of oil extraction methods, energy analysis and biodiesel production from flax seeds. International Journal of Energy Research, (doi:10.1002/er.3066)

McMillan, J.R., Watson, I., Ali, M. and Jaafar, W. (2013) Evaluation and comparison of algal cell disruption methods: Microwave, waterbath, blender, ultrasonic and laser treatment. Applied Energy, 103, pp. 128-134. (doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.09.020)

Alganash, B., Paul, M.C. and Watson, I.A. (2013) Investigation of heterogeneous combustion processes of biomass. In: Scottish Fluid Mechanics Meeting, Aberdeen, UK, 29 May 2013,

Alganash, B., Paul, M.C. and Watson, I.A. (2013) Investigation of heterogeneous combustion processes of biomass. In: 6th European Combustion Meeting, Lund, Sweden, 5-8 Jun 2013,

Alganash, B., Paul, M.C. and Watson, I.A. (2013) Numerical study Of heterogeneous combustion processes of Solid Fuels. In: 13th UK Heat Transfer Conference, London, UK, 2-3 Sep 2013,

Ali, M. and Watson, I. (2013) Comparison of microwave treatment of wet microalgal paste and dry powder for lipid extraction. In: The 3rd International Conference on Algal Biomass, Biofuels and Bioproducts, Toronto, Canada, 16–19 June, 2013, (Unpublished)

Ali, M. and Watson, I. A. (2013) Comparison of oil extraction methods and energy budget analysis of flaxseed. In: All-Energy 2013 Conference, Aberdeen, UK, 22 May 2013, (Unpublished)

Gibbings, A., Vasile, M., Hopkins, J.-M., Burns, D. and Watson, I. (2013) Experimental characterization of the thrust induced by laser ablation on an asteroid. In: IAA Planetary Defense Conference, Flagstaff AZ, USA, 15-19 Apr 2013, (Unpublished)

McMillan, J. R., Watson, I. A., Ali, M. and Jaafar, W. (2013) A comparative critique of various physical and mechanical disruption methods when applied to microalgal cells for the provision of crude for biodiesel. In: All-Energy 2013 Conference, Aberdeen, UK, 22 May 2013, (Unpublished)

Watson, I. (2013) Laser based defense mechanisms against biological threats. In: 2nd International Conference on Biodefense and Natural Disasters, Orlando, FL, USA, 21-23 Aug 2013, (Unpublished)

Watson, I. (2013) Microalgae expertise at the University of Glasgow. In: Leading IB: A UK Showcase, London, UK, 22-23 Jan 2013, (Unpublished)

Watson, I. (2013) Microalgal production and exploitation for biofuel and higher value products and processes (plenary address). In: Algae Biotechnology Sheffield Network First Annual Conference, Sheffield, UK, 11 July 2013, (Unpublished)

Watson, I. (2013) Real time detection, monitoring and modeling of biological threats. In: 2nd International Conference on Biodefense and Natural Disasters, Orlando, FL, USA, 21-23 Aug 2013, (Unpublished)

Watson, I., Ali, M., McMillan, J., Aimyuak, Y., Giacalone, S. and Jaafa, W. (2013) Microalgal production and exploitation for biofuel. In: All-Energy 2013, Aberdeen, UK, 22 May 2013, (Unpublished)

2012

Gibbings, A., Vasile, M., Hopkins, J.-M., Burns, D. and Watson, I. (2012) Potential of laser-induced ablation for future space applications. Space Policy, 28(3), pp. 149-153. (doi:10.1016/j.spacepol.2012.06.008)

Gibbings, A., Vasile, M., Watson, I., Hopkins, J.M. and Burns, D. (2012) Laser ablation for the effective deflection, exploration and exploitation of asteroids. In: Astrobiology Science Conference, Atlanta, GA, USA, 16-20 April 2012, (Unpublished)

Krishnan, A., Watson, I., Parton, R. and Sharp, J. (2012) Comparison and validation of visual assessment and image processing algorithms to quantify morphology dynamics of Euglena gracilis. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 18(4), pp. 798-807. (doi:10.1017/S1431927612000414)

McMillan, J., Jaafar, W., Ali, M. and Watson, I. (2012) Microscopic analysis of algal cell disruption methods. In: Opportunities for Algal Commercialisation: Algal Bioenergy Special Interest Group, Cranfield University, UK, 20 June 2012, (Unpublished)

Sharp, J.H., Shi, P.C.W. and Watson, I.A. (2012) Concentration dependence of upconversion emission from Er:YAG fibers. Optics Letters, 37(22), pp. 4597-4599. (doi:10.1364/OL.37.004597)

Watson, I. et al. (2012) Growing and harvesting algae for sustainable and secure biofuel fuel and food production. In: Opportunities for Algal Commercialisation: Algal Bioenergy Special Interest Group, Cranfield University, UK, 20 June 2012, (Unpublished)

Watson, I. et al. (2012) Growing and harvesting algae for sustainable and secure food production. In: Food Insecurity in an Insecure World: Research Challenges and Opportunities, Glasgow, UK, 24 May 2012, (Unpublished)

Watson, I., Jaafar, W., Ali, M., McMillan, J. and Aimyuak, Y. (2012) A holistic approach to microalgae production. In: Maximising Opportunities in Industrial Biotechnology: Focus on Algae as a Feedstock for Products and Processes, Edinburgh, UK, 5 Sept. 2012, (Unpublished)

Watson, I. et al. (2012) Exploiting microalgae for sustainable and secure food production. In: BIT'S First Annual Congress of SQ Foods, Shenzhen, China, 1-3 Nov. 2012, (Unpublished)

Watson, I., Maktabi, S. and Parton, R. (2012) Food safety advantages of combining advanced decontamination processes. In: BIT'S First Annual Congress of SQ Foods, Shenzhen, China, 1-3 Nov. 2012, (Unpublished)

Watson, I., Tan, B. K., Armstrong, G. and Stewart-Tull, D. (2012) Extending the shelf-life of carrots and potatoes with H2O2, CO2 laser, UV and microwave treatments. In: Food Insecurity in an Insecure World: Research Challenges and Opportunities, Glasgow, UK, 24 May 2012, (Unpublished)

2011

Shi, P.C.W., Watson, I.A. and Sharp, J.H. (2011) High-concentration Er:YAG single-crystal fibers grown by laser-heated pedestal growth technique. Optics Letters, 36(12), pp. 2182-2184. (doi:10.1364/OL.36.002182)

Maktabie, S., Watson, I. and Parton, R. (2011) Synergistic effect of UV, laser and microwave radiation or conventional heating on E. coli and on some spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 12(12), pp. 129-134. (doi:10.1016/j.ifset.2010.12.011)

Alganash, B.S., Paul, M.C. and Watson, I.A. (2011) Experimental and computational investigations of biomass mixing and combustion processes. In: 5th European Combustion Meeting, Cardiff University, 28 June - 1 July 2011,

Gibbings, A., Hopkins, J.M., Burns, D., Vasile, M. and Watson, I. (2011) Exploring and exploiting asteroids with laser ablation. In: UK Space Conference, Coventry, UK, 4-5 July 2011,

Gibbings, A., Hopkins, J.M., Burns, D., Vasile, M. and Watson, I. (2011) On testing laser ablation processes for asteroid deflection. In: IAA Planetary Deference Conference, Bucharest, Romania, 9-12 May 2011,

2010

Dr. Ian A. Watson (2010) Electrode, decontamination apparatus and method, WO 2,011,055,102. .

Dr. Ian A. Watson (2010) Decontamination apparatus and method, WO 2010052473 A1. .

Alganash, B., Paul, M. and Watson, I. (2010) Experimental and computational investigations of biomass combustion processes. In: Combustion Institute British Section: Spring Meeting on Combustion Phenomena in Fire Science, Edinburgh, UK, 9 Apr 2010,

Sharp, J., Shi, C.W.P., Watson, I. and Seat, H.C. (2010) Temperature and strain dependence of flourescence in ruby fibres. Asian Journal of Physics, 19(1),

Watson, I., Ng, E. and Sharp, J. (2010) Monitoring CO2 laser weld quality with white light sources. Asian Journal of Physics, 19(1),

2009

Mine, T., Krishnan, A., Dallas, A., Parton, R. and Watson, I.A. (2009) Effect of KrF, excimer laser (248nm) on airborne micro-organisms. In: CLEO/Europe - EQEC 2009 - European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and the European Quantum Electronics Conference, Munich, Germany, 14-19 June 2009, p. 5194759. ISBN 9781424440801 (doi:10.1109/CLEOE-EQEC.2009.5194759)

2008

Hunter, G., Lucas, M., Watson, I. and Parton, R. (2008) A radial mode ultrasonic horn for the inactivation of Escherichia coli K12. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 15(2), pp. 101-109. (doi:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2006.12.017)

2007

Hunter, G., Lucas, M., Watson, I.A. and Parton, R. (2007) Finite element modelling of the pressure fields created by ultrasonic bacterial inactivation devices. In: International Congress on Ultrasonics, Vienna, Austria, 9-13 Apr 2007,

Watson, I., Yeo, C. and Stewart-Tull, D. (2007) Scanning CO2 laser bacterial inactivation systems. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 102, pp. 766-773. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2006.03126.x)

2006

Armstrong, G., Watson, I. and Stewart-Tull, D. (2006) Inactivation of B-cereus spores on agar, stainless steel or in water with a combination of Nd : YAG laser and UV irradiation. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 7, pp. 94-99. (doi:10.1016/j.ifset.2005.08.003)

Sharp, J.H., Shi, C.W.P., Watson, I.A. and Seat, H.C. (2006) Production and applications of single crystal optical fibres. Asian Journal of Physics, 15(3), pp. 233-242.

Watson, I.A., Stewart-Tull, D.E.S., Parton, R., Peden, I., Yeo, A., Tan, B.K. and Ward, G. (2006) Laser inactivation of surfaces and detection of bacteria. In: Mittal, K.L. (ed.) Particles on Surfaces 9: Detection, Adhesion and Removal. VSP: Leiden, The Netherlands, pp. 83-94. ISBN 9789067644358

2005

Tan, B. K., Watson, I. A., Parton, R. and Peden, I. (2005) A real-time monitoring and detection instrument for analysis of the effects of O3 on bioluminescent Escherichia coli on agar surfaces - potential applications to the food industry. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 6(2), pp. 183-188. (doi:10.1016/j.ifset.2004.12.003)

Watson, I., Wang, R., Peden, I., Ward, G., Stewart-Tull, D. and Wardlaw, A. (2005) Effect of laser and environmental parameters on reducing microbial contamination of stainless steel surfaces with Nd : YAG laser irradiation. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 99, pp. 934-944. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2005.02665.x)

2004

Krishnan, A., Watson, I., Parton, R. and Peden, I. (2004) Laser speckle analysis of E. coli growth and motility in liquid culture. In: UNSPECIFIED, Pera Innovation Park, Melton Mowbray, UK,

Watson, I., Parton, R., Maktabie, S., Peden, I. and Stewart-Tull, D. (2004) Combination of laser, UV and microwave or heat for improved decontamination efficiency. In: New Technologies for the Food Industry, Pera Innovation Park, Melton Mowbray, UK,

Watson, I., Stewart-Tull, D., Parton, R., Peden, I., Yeo, A., Tan, B. and Ward, G. (2004) Sterilization of microorganisms. In: Ninth International Symposium on particles on surfaces: Detection, Adhesion and Removal, Philadelphia, USA,

2003

Tan, B., Watson, I. and Parton, R. (2003) Real time monitoring of decontamination processes. In: Food Processing Faraday, New Technologies for the Food Industry, Pera Innovation Park, Melton Mowbray, UK,

Ting, S., Watson, I. and Peden, I. (2003) An optical technique for food quality analysis and process control. In: Food Processing Faraday, New Technologies for the Food Industry, Pera Innovation Park, Melton Mowbray, UK,

Watson, I., Parton, R., Tan, B. and Maktabie, S. (2003) Balancing the needs of new food technologies. In: Food Processing Faraday, New Technologies for the Food Industry, Pera Innovation Park, Melton Mowbray, UK,

2002

Maktabie, S., Watson, I. and Parton, R. (2002) Synergistic effects of UV, laser, microwave radiation and heat on bacteria important in seafood in saline suspension. In: Society for General Microbiology, University of Loughborough, 16-20 September 2002,

Mctabie, S., Watson, I. and Parton, R. (2002) Decontamination of bacteria on agar plates by two laser types. In: 9th Iranian Student Seminar (ISS-2002), University of Central England (UCE), Birmingham,

Watson, I. and Stewart-Tull, D. (2002) Optical and emerging technologies for decontamination of food. In: Synergy Food Safety Seminar, University of Glasgow,

2000

Ward, G.D., Watson, I.A., Stewart-Tull, D.E.S., Wardlaw, A.C., Wang, R.K., Nutley, M.A. and Cooper, A. (2000) Bactericidal action of high-power Nd:YAG laser light on Escherichia coli in saline suspension. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 89(3), pp. 517-525. (doi:10.1046/j.1365-2672.2000.01144.x)

Ng, E. and Watson, I. (2000) Investigation of Nd:YAG laser welding with elliptical and focused beams. Lasers in Engineering, 10, pp. 1-18.

Ng, E. and Watson, I. (2000) A multifactorial approach to investigate the Nd:YAG laser welding with single and multiple laser beams. Lasers in Engineering, 10, pp. 161-175.

Watson, I. and Stewart-Tull, D. (2000) Comparison of Laser and Flashlamp Decontamination Systems and Applications for the Food Industry. In: CCFRA (Chipping Campden Food Research Association), Gloucestershire, UK, (Unpublished)

Watson, I. A. and Stewart-Tull, D. E.S. (2000) Lasers: inactivation techniques. In: Robinson, R. K., Batt, C. A. and Patel, P. D. (eds.) Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology. Academic Press: London, pp. 1177-1182. ISBN 9780122270727 (doi:10.1006/rwfm.1999.7005)

1999

Ng, E. S. and Watson, I. A. (1999) Characterization of CO2 and diode laser welding of high carbon steels. Journal of Laser Applications, 11(6), p. 273. (doi:10.2351/1.521903)

Sharp, J. H. et al. (1999) Experimental systems implementation of a hybrid optical–digital correlator. Applied Optics, 38(29), p. 6116. (doi:10.1364/AO.38.006116)

Yeo, C.B.A., Watson, I.A., Stewart-Tull, D.E.S. and Koh, V.H.H. (1999) Heat transfer analysis of Staphylococcus aureus on stainless steel with microwave radiation. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 87(3), pp. 396-401. (doi:10.1046/j.1365-2672.1999.00832.x)

Ng, E. and Watson, I. (1999) Nd:YAG laser welding of high carbon steel with in-line heat treatment. Lasers in Engineering, 9(4), pp. 261-285.

Watson, I. and Stewart-Tull, D. (1999) Laser Inactivation for the Food Industry. In: European Federation Of Food Science & Technology (EFFoST), Tampere, Finland, 22-24 Nov 1999,

1998

Yeo, C. B. A., Watson, I. A., Stewart-Tull, D. E. S., Wardlaw, A. C. and Armstrong, G. N. (1998) Bactericidal effects of high-power Nd:YAG laser radiation on Staphylococcus aureus. Pure and Applied Optics, 7(3), pp. 643-655. (doi:10.1088/0963-9659/7/3/020)

Armstrong, G. N., Watson, I. A., Ward, G. D., Wardlaw, A. C., Yeo, C. B. A. and Stewart-Tull, D. E. (1998) Killing Bacillus Cereus Bacterial Endospores with Nd:YAG Laser Light and UV Irradiation. In: 1998 CLEO/Europe. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, Glasgow, UK, 14-18 Sept 1998, p. 122. (doi:10.1109/CLEOE.1998.719094)

Mettke, C., Ng, E. S. and Watson, I. A. (1998) Monitoring Nd:YAG and CO2 Laser Weld Quality. In: Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics,CLEO/EUROPE-EQEC Europe Congress, Glasgow, UK, 14-18 Sept 1998, ISBN 9780780342330 (doi:10.1109/CLEOE.1998.719249) (Unpublished)

Ng, E., Watson, I. and Yeo, A. (1998) Multi-factorial Analysis of Nd:YAG Laser Welding of High Carbon Steels: Effect of Laser Parameters And Weld Geometry. In: International Congress On Applications Of Lasers And Electro-Optics, Orlando, FL, USA, 16-19 Nov 1998, ISBN 9780912035581

Ng, E. and Watson, I. A. (1998) Comparision of Weld Quality with Normal and 30° Incident Laser Beams. In: Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics,CLEO/EUROPE-EQEC Europe Congress, Glasgow, UK, 14-18 Sept 1998, p. 318. ISBN 9780780342330 (doi:10.1109/CLEOE.1998.719479)

Ng, E. and Watson, I. A. (1998) Improved Hardness Characteristics of CO2 Laser Welded Carbon Steels. In: Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics,CLEO/EUROPE-EQEC Europe Congress, Glasgow, UK, 14-18 Sept 1998, ISBN 9780780342330

Watson, I., Ng, E. and Chia, S. (1998) Characteristics of Nd:YAG Laser Welding of Dissimilar Steels with In-line Process Heating. In: Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics,CLEO/EUROPE-EQEC Europe Congress, Glasgow, UK, 14-18 Sept 1998, p. 317. ISBN 9780780342330 (doi:10.1109/CLEOE.1998.719478) (Unpublished)

Yeo, A., Watson, I. and Stewart-Tull, D. (1998) CO2 Laser Sterilisation of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus at 10.6 Microns. In: International Conference on Optics and Optoelectronics: ICOL-98, Dehra Dun, India, 9-12 Dec 1998, (Unpublished)

Yeo, A., Watson, I., Stewart-Tull, D. and Armstrong, G. (1998) Inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with High-power Nd:YAG Laser and UV Radiation. In: European Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics / European Quantum Electronics Conference, Glasgow, UK, (Unpublished)

Yeo, A., Watson, I., Wong, J. and Stewart-Tull, D. (1998) Optical Imaging and Analysis of Speckle Patterns from Escherichia coli in Disinfectant Solution. In: European Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics / European Quantum Electronics Conference, Glasgow, UK, (Unpublished)

1997

Ng, E. S. and Watson, I. A. (1997) Characteristics of Nd:YAG laser welded high carbon steels. Journal of Laser Applications, 9(5), p. 243. (doi:10.2351/1.4745466)

Wang, R. K., Watson, I. A., Ward, G. D., Stewart-Tull, D. E. S. and Wardlaw, A. C. (1997) Temperature distribution in Escherichia coli liquid suspensions during irradiation by a high-power Nd:YAG laser for sterilization applications. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 2(3), p. 295. (doi:10.1117/12.275338)

Ng, E. S. and Watson, I. A. (1997) Characteristics of CO2 laser welded high carbon steel gauge plate. Journal of Laser Applications, 9(1), p. 15. (doi:10.2351/1.4745441)

Hall, D. R., Watson, I. A., McDonald, D. W., Scott, B. F., Chatwin, C. R. and Baker, H. J. (1997) Preionizing a Large Volume Transversely Excited Sub-Atmospheric-Pulsed CO2 Laser for Enhanced Materials Processing. In: XI International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, Edinburgh, UK, 26 Aug 1996, pp. 219-222. (doi:10.1117/12.270220)

Ng, E. and Watson, I. (1997) Post-heat Treatment of Nd:YAG Laser Welded High Carbon Steels. In: ICALEO '97: 16th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics, San Diego, CA, USA, 17-20 Nov 1997, ISBN 9780912035567

Piening, A. and Watson, I. (1997) Minimising the Focus Spot Size from a 15 Watt Laser Diode Array. In: ICALEO '97: 16th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics, San Diego, CA, USA, 17-20 Nov 1997, ISBN 9780912035567

Wang, R., Watson, I., Ward, G., Stewart-Tull, D. and Wardlaw, A. (1997) Temperature distribution of E. coli. liquid suspension during high power Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 37(Sup 1), B60.

Watson, I., Ward, G., Wang, R., Stewart-Tull, D. and Wardlaw, A. (1997) Inactivation of E. coli. in Liquid Suspension with Nd:YAG Laser Light. In: ICEF 7: 7th International Congress on Engineering and Food, Brighton, UK, 13-18 April 1997, ISBN 9781850758143

Watson, I., Ward, G., Wang, R., Stewart-Tull, D., Wardlaw, A., Yeo, A., Armstrong, G., Candlish, A. and Hall, E. (1997) Laser Inactivation of E. coli. In: ICALEO '97: 16th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics, San Diego, CA, USA, 17-20 Nov 1997, ISBN 9780912035567

Watson, I., Ward, G., Wardlaw, A. and Stewart-Tull, D. (1997) Wavelength Dependency of Laser Inactivation of E. coli.. In: ICEF 7: 7th International Congress on Engineering and Food, Brighton, UK, 13-18 April 1997, ISBN 9781850758143

1996

Watson, I. A., Ward, G. D., Wang, R. K., Sharp, J. H., Budgett, D. M., Stewart-Tull, D. E., Wardlaw, A. and Chatwin, C. R. (1996) Comparative bactericidal activities of lasers operating at seven different wavelengths. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 1(4), pp. 466-472. (doi:10.1117/12.250684)

Chatwin, C. R., Abdullah, H. A. and Watson, I. A. (1996) A knowledge-based system for operations management in a small to medium sized enterprise. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 11(5), pp. 381-386. (doi:10.1007/BF01845697)

Wang, R. K., Watson, I. A. and Chatwin, C. (1996) Random phase encoding for optical security. Optical Engineering, 35(9), p. 2464. (doi:10.1117/1.600849)

Ward, G.D., Watson, I.A., Stewart-Tull, D.E.S., Wardlaw, A.C., and Chatwin, C.R. (1996) Inactivation of bacteria and yeasts on agar surfaces with high power Nd: YAG laser light. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 23(3), pp. 136-140. (doi:10.1111/j.1472-765X.1996.tb00049.x)

Wang, R. K., Shang, L., Watson, I. A. and Chatwin, C. R. (1996) Cosine wave encoded joint transform correlation. Optical Engineering, 35(7), p. 1901. (doi:10.1117/1.600623)

Ng, E. and Watson, I. (1996) Characteristics of CO2 and Nd:YAG Laser welded High Carbon Steel. In: ICALEO '96: 15th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics, Detroit, MI, USA, 14-17 Oct 1996, ISBN 9780912035543

Ngiap, H. C., Watson, I. A., Wang, R. K. and Ward, G. (1996) Optimising Image Processing Systems to Accurately Count Colony Forming Units. In: Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics Europe, 1996: CLEO/Europe, Hamburg, Germany, 8-13 Sept 1996, p. 312. ISBN 9780780331693 (doi:10.1109/CLEOE.1996.562546)

Tiodemann, J. and Watson, I. A. (1996) Quantifying CO2 and Nd:YAG Laser Cleaning of Polluted Blonde Sandstone. In: Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics Europe, 1996: CLEO/Europe, Hamburg, Germany, 8-13 Sept 1996, p. 228. ISBN 9780780331693 (doi:10.1109/CLEOE.1996.562379)

Wang, R., Watson, I. and Chatwin, C. (1996) Distortion Invariant Fringe Adjusted Joint Transform Correlator. In: 12th Interdisciplinary Laser Science Conference, Rochester, NY, USA, 20-25 Oct 1996,

Wang, R. K., Shang, L., Watson, I. A. and Scott, B.F. (1996) Fringe Phase Encoded Joint Transform Correlator. In: Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics Europe, 1996: CLEO/Europe, Hamburg, Germany, 8-13 Sept 1996, p. 33. ISBN 9780780331693 (doi:10.1109/CLEOE.1996.562014)

Watson, I., Ngiap, H., Wang, R. and Ward, G. (1996) Accurate Counting of Colony Forming Units with Image Processing Systems. In: Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics Europe, 1996: CLEO/Europe, Hamburg, Germany, 8-13 Sept 1996, pp. 68-71. ISBN 9781557524645

Watson, I., Ward, G., Wang, R., Stewart-Tull, D. and Wardlaw, A. (1996) Bactericidal Effects of Nd:YAG Laser Light on E. Coli Suspensions. In: MAFF Sponsored Workshop for Process Engineers and Food Microbiologists on Hygenic Food Manufacture, London, UK, (Unpublished)

Watson, I., Ward, G., Wang, R., Stewart-Tull, D. and Wardlaw, A. (1996) Surface Decontamination by Laser Light. In: MAFF Sponsored Workshop for Process Engineers and Food Microbiologists on Hygenic Food Manufacture, London, UK, (Unpublished)

Watson, I. A. (1996) Improved Hardness Characteristics of CO2 Laser Welded Carbon Steels. In: Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics Europe, 1996: CLEO/Europe, Hamburg, Germany, 8-13 Sept 1996, p. 243. ISBN 9780780331693 (doi:10.1109/CLEOE.1996.562408)

Watson, I. A., Wang, R. K. and Chye, T. B. (1996) A Passive Fibre Optic Sensor For Detection of C02 at 590 nm. In: Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics Europe, 1996: CLEO/Europe, Hamburg, Germany, 8-13 Sept 1996, p. 46. ISBN 9780780331693 (doi:10.1109/CLEOE.1996.562037)

Watson, I. A., You, A., Oon, S. W. and Stewart-Tull, D. E.S. (1996) New applications of lasers to architecture and civil engineering: laser remediation of sandstone contaminated with microbial growth and bryophyte. Review of Laser Engineering, 24(2), pp. 165-173. (doi:10.2184/lsj.24.165)

Yeo, A. and Watson, I. (1996) Temperature Dependency of the Optical Properties of Water at 1.064 μm. In: Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics Europe, 1996: CLEO/Europe, Hamburg, Germany, 8-13 Sept 1996, pp. 14-17. ISBN 9781557524645

Yeo, A., Watson, I. and Wang, R. (1996) Temperature Dependency of the Optical Properties of Water at 1.064μm. In: Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics Europe, 1996: CLEO/Europe, Hamburg, Germany, 8-13 Sept 1996, ISBN 9781557524645

Yeo, C.B. A., Watson, I. A. and Wang, R. K. (1996) Anomalous Optical Properties of Water at 40°C and 1.06μm. In: Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics Europe, 1996: CLEO/Europe, Hamburg, Germany, 8-13 Sept 1996, p. 302. ISBN 9780780331693 (doi:10.1109/CLEOE.1996.562526)

1995

Watson, I. A. and Chatwin, C. R. (1995) Segmented ballasted electrodes for a large-volume, sub-atmospheric, transversely excited pulsed laser. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 28(2), pp. 258-268. (doi:10.1088/0022-3727/28/2/006)

Abdullah, H., Ng, E., Watson, I. and Chatwin, C. (1995) In Process Annealing of Laser Welded High Carbon Steel. In: ICALEO '95: 14th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics, San Diego, CA, USA, 13-16 Nov 1995, pp. 923-931. ISBN 9780912035536

Abdullah, H., Watson, I. and Kapadia, P. (1995) Magnetisation Anomalies in Laser Welded Magnetic Materials. In: ICALEO '95: 14th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics, San Diego, CA, USA, 13-16 Nov 1995, pp. 932-941. ISBN 9780912035536

Abdullah, H. A., Chatwin, C. R. and Watson, I. A. (1995) Hardness Characteristics of Laser Welded Joints. In: CLEO/Pacific Rim'95: Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Chiba, Japan, 10-14 July 1995, p. 298. ISBN 9780780324008 (doi:10.1109/CLEOPR.1995.527293)

Budgett, D. M., Sharp, J. H., Tang, P. C., Young, R. C. D., Watson, I. A., Chatwin, C. R. and Scott, B. F. (1995) Implementation of a High Speed Optical/Digital Correlator System. In: Optics and Information: 6th Topical Meeting of the European Optical Society, Mulhouse, France, 23-26 Oct 1995,

Chatwin, C.R., Wang, R.K., Abdullah, H.A. and Watson, I.A. (1995) Environmentally Adaptive Correlation Filter. In: CLEO/Pacific Rim'95: Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Chiba, Japan, 10-14 July 1995, p. 138. ISBN 9780780324008 (doi:10.1109/CLEOPR.1995.527035)

Wang, R.K., Watson, I.A. and Chatwin, C.R. (1995) Unified Filter Modulation Synthetic Discriminant Function. In: CLEO/Pacific Rim'95: Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Chiba, Japan, 10-14 July 1995, p. 291. ISBN 9780780324008 (doi:10.1109/CLEOPR.1995.527279)

Ward, G., Watson, I., Stewart-Tull, D., Wang, R., Wardlaw, A. and Chatwin, C. (1995) Effect of High Power Laser Radiation on Bacteria. In: Scottish Microbiology Club, 3rd Symposium, Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK, April 1995, (Unpublished)

Ward, G., Watson, I., Stewart-Tull, D., Wang, R., Wardlaw, A. and Chatwin, C. (1995) Sterilization of Bacteria and Yeasts Using Nd:YAG Laser Radiation. In: Scottish Microbiology Club, 4th Symposium, Glasgow University, Glasgow, UK, Sept 1005, (Unpublished)

Watson, I. (1995) Laser Sterilization for the Food Industry. In: MAFF Sponsored Workshop for Process Engineers and Food Microbiologists on Hygenic Food Manufacture, London, UK, (Unpublished)

Watson, I., Chatwin, C., McDonald, D., Scott, B. and Abdullah, H. (1995) Enhanced Aluminium Processing with a High Frequency, Pulsed CO2 Laser. In: ICALEO '95: 14th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics, San Diego, CA, USA, 13-16 Nov 1995, pp. 294-302. ISBN 9780912035536

Watson, I., Ward, G., Wang, R., Stewart-Tull, D. and Wardlaw, A. (1995) Wavelength Dependency of Laser Sterilization. In: MAFF Sponsored Workshop for Process Engineers and Food Microbiologists on Hygenic Food Manufacture, Belgrave Square, London, UK, April 1995, (Unpublished)

Watson, I.A., Wang, R.K., Young, R.C.D. and Chatwin, C.R. (1995) Performance of Tuneable Photo-refractive Filters. In: CLEO/Pacific Rim'95: Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Chiba, Japan, 10-14 July 1995, p. 139. (doi:10.1109/CLEOPR.1995.527037)

Watson, I.A., You, A., Stewart-Tull, D. and Chatwin, C. (1995) Carboniferous and Blonde Sandstone Renovation using Nd:YAG and CO2 Lasers. In: CLEO/Pacific Rim'95: Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Chiba, Japan, 10-14 July 1995, p. 231. ISBN 9780780324008 (doi:10.1109/CLEOPR.1995.527186)

Watson, I., Gstettner, S., Stewart-Tull, D., Ward, G., Wang, R., Wardlaw, A. and Chatwin, C. (1995) Nd:YAC Laser Sterilization of Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus. In: CLEO/Pacific Rim'95: Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Chiba, Japan, 10-14 July 1995, p. 143. ISBN 9780780324008 (doi:10.1109/CLEOPR.1995.527046)

1994

McDonald, D. and Watson, I. (1994) Design and Simulation of Gas Laser Pulse Power Systems. In: Conference on Pulse Power, Institute of Physics, London, UK, 1994, (Unpublished)

Watson, I., Abdullah, H. and Chatwin, C. (1994) A Non-ratiometric Fibre Optic Sensor for Detection of CO2. In: 10th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, Glasgow, UK, 11-13 Oct 1994, pp. 628-632. ISBN 9780819416995

Watson, I. A., Chatwin, C. C., McDonald, D. W. and Scott, B. F. (1994) A Pulsed CO2 Laser to Process High Damage Threshold Materials. In: 1994 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 28 Aug-2 Sept 1994, pp. 41-42. ISBN 9780780317895 (doi:10.1109/CLEOE.1994.635822)

1992

McDonald, D. and Watson, I. (1992) Simulation of Pulsed Laser Discharges Using SPICE. In: Tenth International Conference on Gas Discharges and Their Applications, Swansea, UK, 13-18 Sept 1992, pp. 155-160. ISBN 9780951946503

1989

Chatwin, C. and Watson, I. A. (1989) Efficient laser power and energy monitoring using an uncoated wedge. Applied Optics, 28(2), p. 209. (doi:10.1364/AO.28.000209)

This list was generated on Sat Nov 18 23:03:58 2017 GMT.
Number of items: 198.

Articles

Ali, M., Sultana, R., Tahir, S., Watson, I. A. and Saleem, M. (2017) Prospects of microalgal biodiesel production in Pakistan – a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 80, pp. 1588-1596. (doi:10.1016/j.rser.2017.08.062)

Ali, M. and Watson, I. (2017) Manual pressing of nannochloropsis oculata dried biomass for enhanced lipid extraction. NED University Journal of Research, XIV(4), pp. 105-111.

Channumsin, S., Ceriotti, M. , Radice, G. and Watson, I. (2017) Experimental validation of damping properties and solar pressure effects on flexible, high area-to-mass ratio debris model. Acta Astronautica, 138, pp. 129-144. (doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2017.05.015)

Ali, M. and Watson, I. (2016) Torrefaction and process energy budget analysis of powdered, de-oiled, and in situ transesterified flaxseed cakes for energy generation. Energy Technology, 4(8), pp. 980-989. (doi:10.1002/ente.201600014)

Li, J., Paul, M. , Younger, P. L. , Watson, I., Hossain, M. and Welch, S. (2016) Prediction of high-temperature rapid combustion behaviour of woody biomass particles. Fuel, 165, pp. 205-214. (doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2015.10.061)

Ali, M. and Watson, I. A. (2016) Microwave thermolysis and lipid recovery from dried microalgae powder for biodiesel production. Energy Technology, 4(2), pp. 319-330. (doi:10.1002/ente.201500242)

Li, J., Paul, M. C. , Younger, P. L. , Watson, I., Hossain, M. and Welch, S. (2015) Characterization of biomass combustion at high temperatures based on an upgraded single particle model. Applied Energy, 156, pp. 749-755. (doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.04.027)

Ali, M. and Watson, I. A. (2015) Microwave treatment of wet algal paste for enhanced solvent extraction of lipids for biodiesel production. Renewable Energy, 76, pp. 470-477. (doi:10.1016/j.renene.2014.11.024)

Alganash, B., Paul, M. C. and Watson, I. A. (2015) Numerical investigation of the heterogeneous combustion processes of solid fuels. Fuel, 141, pp. 236-249. (doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2014.10.060)

Li, J., Paul, M. C. , Younger, P. L. , Watson, I., Hossain, M. and Welch, S. (2015) Combustion modelling of pulverized biomass particles at high temperatures. Energy Procedia, 66, pp. 273-276. (doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2015.02.055)

Vasile, M., Gibbings, A., Watson, I. and Hopkins, J.-M. (2014) Improved laser ablation model for asteroid deflection. Acta Astronautica, 103, pp. 382-394. (doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2014.01.033)

Yang, W. et al. (2014) Size-dependent capacitance study on InGaN-based micro-light-emitting diodes. Journal of Applied Physics, 116(4), 044512. (doi:10.1063/1.4891233)

Abbassi, A., Ali, M. and Watson, I. A. (2014) Temperature dependency of cell wall destruction of microalgae with liquid nitrogen pretreatment and hydraulic pressing. Algal Research, 5, pp. 190-194. (doi:10.1016/j.algal.2013.12.008)

Gibbings, A., Vasile, M., Watson, I., Hopkins, J.-M. and Burns, D. (2013) Experimental analysis of laser ablated plumes for asteroid deflection and exploitation. Acta Astronautica, 90(1), pp. 85-97. (doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2012.07.008)

Ali, M. and Watson, I. A. (2013) Comparison of oil extraction methods, energy analysis and biodiesel production from flax seeds. International Journal of Energy Research, (doi:10.1002/er.3066)

McMillan, J.R., Watson, I., Ali, M. and Jaafar, W. (2013) Evaluation and comparison of algal cell disruption methods: Microwave, waterbath, blender, ultrasonic and laser treatment. Applied Energy, 103, pp. 128-134. (doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.09.020)

Gibbings, A., Vasile, M., Hopkins, J.-M., Burns, D. and Watson, I. (2012) Potential of laser-induced ablation for future space applications. Space Policy, 28(3), pp. 149-153. (doi:10.1016/j.spacepol.2012.06.008)

Krishnan, A., Watson, I., Parton, R. and Sharp, J. (2012) Comparison and validation of visual assessment and image processing algorithms to quantify morphology dynamics of Euglena gracilis. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 18(4), pp. 798-807. (doi:10.1017/S1431927612000414)

Sharp, J.H., Shi, P.C.W. and Watson, I.A. (2012) Concentration dependence of upconversion emission from Er:YAG fibers. Optics Letters, 37(22), pp. 4597-4599. (doi:10.1364/OL.37.004597)

Shi, P.C.W., Watson, I.A. and Sharp, J.H. (2011) High-concentration Er:YAG single-crystal fibers grown by laser-heated pedestal growth technique. Optics Letters, 36(12), pp. 2182-2184. (doi:10.1364/OL.36.002182)

Maktabie, S., Watson, I. and Parton, R. (2011) Synergistic effect of UV, laser and microwave radiation or conventional heating on E. coli and on some spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 12(12), pp. 129-134. (doi:10.1016/j.ifset.2010.12.011)

Sharp, J., Shi, C.W.P., Watson, I. and Seat, H.C. (2010) Temperature and strain dependence of flourescence in ruby fibres. Asian Journal of Physics, 19(1),

Watson, I., Ng, E. and Sharp, J. (2010) Monitoring CO2 laser weld quality with white light sources. Asian Journal of Physics, 19(1),

Hunter, G., Lucas, M., Watson, I. and Parton, R. (2008) A radial mode ultrasonic horn for the inactivation of Escherichia coli K12. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 15(2), pp. 101-109. (doi:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2006.12.017)

Watson, I., Yeo, C. and Stewart-Tull, D. (2007) Scanning CO2 laser bacterial inactivation systems. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 102, pp. 766-773. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2006.03126.x)

Armstrong, G., Watson, I. and Stewart-Tull, D. (2006) Inactivation of B-cereus spores on agar, stainless steel or in water with a combination of Nd : YAG laser and UV irradiation. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 7, pp. 94-99. (doi:10.1016/j.ifset.2005.08.003)

Sharp, J.H., Shi, C.W.P., Watson, I.A. and Seat, H.C. (2006) Production and applications of single crystal optical fibres. Asian Journal of Physics, 15(3), pp. 233-242.

Tan, B. K., Watson, I. A., Parton, R. and Peden, I. (2005) A real-time monitoring and detection instrument for analysis of the effects of O3 on bioluminescent Escherichia coli on agar surfaces - potential applications to the food industry. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 6(2), pp. 183-188. (doi:10.1016/j.ifset.2004.12.003)

Watson, I., Wang, R., Peden, I., Ward, G., Stewart-Tull, D. and Wardlaw, A. (2005) Effect of laser and environmental parameters on reducing microbial contamination of stainless steel surfaces with Nd : YAG laser irradiation. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 99, pp. 934-944. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2005.02665.x)

Ward, G.D., Watson, I.A., Stewart-Tull, D.E.S., Wardlaw, A.C., Wang, R.K., Nutley, M.A. and Cooper, A. (2000) Bactericidal action of high-power Nd:YAG laser light on Escherichia coli in saline suspension. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 89(3), pp. 517-525. (doi:10.1046/j.1365-2672.2000.01144.x)

Ng, E. and Watson, I. (2000) Investigation of Nd:YAG laser welding with elliptical and focused beams. Lasers in Engineering, 10, pp. 1-18.

Ng, E. and Watson, I. (2000) A multifactorial approach to investigate the Nd:YAG laser welding with single and multiple laser beams. Lasers in Engineering, 10, pp. 161-175.

Ng, E. S. and Watson, I. A. (1999) Characterization of CO2 and diode laser welding of high carbon steels. Journal of Laser Applications, 11(6), p. 273. (doi:10.2351/1.521903)

Sharp, J. H. et al. (1999) Experimental systems implementation of a hybrid optical–digital correlator. Applied Optics, 38(29), p. 6116. (doi:10.1364/AO.38.006116)

Yeo, C.B.A., Watson, I.A., Stewart-Tull, D.E.S. and Koh, V.H.H. (1999) Heat transfer analysis of Staphylococcus aureus on stainless steel with microwave radiation. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 87(3), pp. 396-401. (doi:10.1046/j.1365-2672.1999.00832.x)

Ng, E. and Watson, I. (1999) Nd:YAG laser welding of high carbon steel with in-line heat treatment. Lasers in Engineering, 9(4), pp. 261-285.

Yeo, C. B. A., Watson, I. A., Stewart-Tull, D. E. S., Wardlaw, A. C. and Armstrong, G. N. (1998) Bactericidal effects of high-power Nd:YAG laser radiation on Staphylococcus aureus. Pure and Applied Optics, 7(3), pp. 643-655. (doi:10.1088/0963-9659/7/3/020)

Ng, E. S. and Watson, I. A. (1997) Characteristics of Nd:YAG laser welded high carbon steels. Journal of Laser Applications, 9(5), p. 243. (doi:10.2351/1.4745466)

Wang, R. K., Watson, I. A., Ward, G. D., Stewart-Tull, D. E. S. and Wardlaw, A. C. (1997) Temperature distribution in Escherichia coli liquid suspensions during irradiation by a high-power Nd:YAG laser for sterilization applications. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 2(3), p. 295. (doi:10.1117/12.275338)

Ng, E. S. and Watson, I. A. (1997) Characteristics of CO2 laser welded high carbon steel gauge plate. Journal of Laser Applications, 9(1), p. 15. (doi:10.2351/1.4745441)

Wang, R., Watson, I., Ward, G., Stewart-Tull, D. and Wardlaw, A. (1997) Temperature distribution of E. coli. liquid suspension during high power Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 37(Sup 1), B60.

Watson, I. A., Ward, G. D., Wang, R. K., Sharp, J. H., Budgett, D. M., Stewart-Tull, D. E., Wardlaw, A. and Chatwin, C. R. (1996) Comparative bactericidal activities of lasers operating at seven different wavelengths. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 1(4), pp. 466-472. (doi:10.1117/12.250684)

Chatwin, C. R., Abdullah, H. A. and Watson, I. A. (1996) A knowledge-based system for operations management in a small to medium sized enterprise. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 11(5), pp. 381-386. (doi:10.1007/BF01845697)

Wang, R. K., Watson, I. A. and Chatwin, C. (1996) Random phase encoding for optical security. Optical Engineering, 35(9), p. 2464. (doi:10.1117/1.600849)

Ward, G.D., Watson, I.A., Stewart-Tull, D.E.S., Wardlaw, A.C., and Chatwin, C.R. (1996) Inactivation of bacteria and yeasts on agar surfaces with high power Nd: YAG laser light. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 23(3), pp. 136-140. (doi:10.1111/j.1472-765X.1996.tb00049.x)

Wang, R. K., Shang, L., Watson, I. A. and Chatwin, C. R. (1996) Cosine wave encoded joint transform correlation. Optical Engineering, 35(7), p. 1901. (doi:10.1117/1.600623)

Watson, I. A., You, A., Oon, S. W. and Stewart-Tull, D. E.S. (1996) New applications of lasers to architecture and civil engineering: laser remediation of sandstone contaminated with microbial growth and bryophyte. Review of Laser Engineering, 24(2), pp. 165-173. (doi:10.2184/lsj.24.165)

Watson, I. A. and Chatwin, C. R. (1995) Segmented ballasted electrodes for a large-volume, sub-atmospheric, transversely excited pulsed laser. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 28(2), pp. 258-268. (doi:10.1088/0022-3727/28/2/006)

Chatwin, C. and Watson, I. A. (1989) Efficient laser power and energy monitoring using an uncoated wedge. Applied Optics, 28(2), p. 209. (doi:10.1364/AO.28.000209)

Book Sections

Corton, J. et al. (2017) The impact of biomass feedstock composition and pre-treatments on tar formation during biomass gasification. In: Singh, L. K. and Chaudhary, G. (eds.) Advances in Biofeedstocks and Biofuels. Wiley-Scrivener, pp. 33-53. ISBN 9781119117254

Watson, I. (2014) Lasers: inactivation techniques. In: Batt, C. A. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology (2nd ed.). Elsevier, pp. 447-454. ISBN 9780123847300 (doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-384730-0.00184-1)

Watson, I.A., Stewart-Tull, D.E.S., Parton, R., Peden, I., Yeo, A., Tan, B.K. and Ward, G. (2006) Laser inactivation of surfaces and detection of bacteria. In: Mittal, K.L. (ed.) Particles on Surfaces 9: Detection, Adhesion and Removal. VSP: Leiden, The Netherlands, pp. 83-94. ISBN 9789067644358

Watson, I. A. and Stewart-Tull, D. E.S. (2000) Lasers: inactivation techniques. In: Robinson, R. K., Batt, C. A. and Patel, P. D. (eds.) Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology. Academic Press: London, pp. 1177-1182. ISBN 9780122270727 (doi:10.1006/rwfm.1999.7005)

Research Reports or Papers

Watson, I. (2017) Advanced Decontamination Systems and Real Time Detection of Bacteria for Improved Food Safety. Other. Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari, Bari.

Conference or Workshop Item

Akwa-Ude, A., Egbo, M., Blaney, R. and Watson, I. (2017) Scaling Photobioreactors. 7th International Congress on Biofuels and Bioenergy, Toronto, Canada, 2-4 Oct 2017. (Unpublished)

Capper, S., Watson, I., Khan, Z., Kamble, P. and Sharp, J. (2017) Tar Detection Systems for Controlling Biomass Gasification. 9th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2017), Cardiff, UK, 21-24 Aug 2017. (Unpublished)

Kamble, P., Khan, Z., Capper, S., Sharp, J. and Watson, I. (2017) Improving Downdraft Gasifier Stability by Robust Instrumentation and Control Systems. 9th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2017), Cardiff, UK, 21-24 Aug 2017. (Unpublished)

Khan, Z., Yusup, S. and Watson, I. (2017) Assessment of Energy Flows in Integrated Catalytic Adsorption (ICA) Steam Gasification for Hydrogen Production. 9th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2017), Cardiff, UK, 21-24 Aug 2017. (Unpublished)

Watson, I. (2017) Bioenergy. Bioenergy Stake Holders Event, Scotland, 2017. (Unpublished)

Watson, I. (2017) Controlling Gasification. Innovation in Gasification and CHP Technology Event (IGATE), Glasgow, UK, 23 May 2017. (Unpublished)

Watson, I. (2017) Farming and Harvesting Microalgae as a Sustainable Protein Source in Urban Environments. 7th European Algae Industry Summit, Nice, France, 26-27 April 2017. (Unpublished)

Watson, I. (2017) Real Time Control of Gasifiers to Increase Tolerance to Biomass Variety and Reduce Emissions. SUPERGEN Bioenergy Hub Annual Assembly 2017, Sheffield, UK, 25 Oct 2017.

Watson, I. A. (2016) Advances in Decontamination Technology as a Solution for Improved Food Safety. 15th International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing and Technology, Rome, Italy, 27-29 Oct 2016. p. 27. (doi:10.4172/2157-7110.C1.055)

Ali, M. and Watson, I. (2016) Hydrothermal Treatment and Aqueous Phase Reforming of Chlorella Vulgaris Biomass. Algae Biomass Summit, Phoenix, AZ, USA, 23-26 Oct 2016.

Khan, Z. and Watson, I. (2016) Bioenergy Research at The University of Glasgow. SUPERGEN Researchers Day, Glasgow, UK, 6 May 2016.

Ali, M. and Watson, I. (2016) Manual Pressing of Dried Algal Biomass for Enhanced Lipid Extraction to Produce Microalgal Biodiesel. All-Energy 2016, Glasgow, UK, 04-05 May 2016.

Garcia, V. and Watson, I. (2016) Sintering of PZT Pellets Using the Conventional Ceramic Method for Energy Harvesting. All-Energy 2016, Glasgow, UK, 04-05 May 2016.

Khan, Z., Yusup, S., Ahmad, M., Inayat, A., Soon, C., Arpin, M. and Watson, I. (2016) Integrated Catalytic-Adsorption (ICA) Steam Gasification for Hydrogen Production. All-Energy 2016, Glasgow, UK, 04-05 May 2016.

MacDonald, H., Watson, I., Toney, J., Shiraiwa, Y., Suzuki, I. and Iwamoto, K. (2016) Design of an Internally Illuminated Large Scale Photobioreactor for the Cultivation of Vacuoliviride crystalliferum gen. et sp. nov. All-Energy 2016, Glasgow, UK, 04-05 May 2016.

McMillan, J. and Watson, I. (2016) Kinetic Behaviour of Nile Red Fluorescent Lipid Probe for the Detection and Quantification of Microalgal Neutral Lipids. All-Energy 2016, Glasgow, UK, 04-05 May 2016.

Watson, I. (2016) Improving the Global Viabiliy of Biomass Gasification. All-Energy 2016, Glasgow, UK, 04-05 May 2016.

Watson, I. (2016) Developing Microalgal Derived Biofuel in the Shipping Industry. International Conference on Marine Biomass as Renewable Energy, Glasgow, UK, 03-04 Mar 2016.

Barrett, M. , Sloan, W., Stark, W. and Watson, I. (2016) New Developments in Synthetic Biology at the University of Glasgow. Industrial Biotechnology Innovation Centre Annual Conference, Glasgow, UK, 28-29 Jan 2016.

Watson, I. et al. (2016) Engineering Industrial Biotechnology Applications. Industrial Biotechnology Innovation Centre Annual Conference, Glasgow, UK, 28-29 Jan 2016.

Watson, I. (2014) Real Time Control of Gasifiers to Increase Tolerance to Biomass Variety and Reduce Emissions. SUPERGEN Bioenergy Hub Annual Assembly 2014, Aston University, UK, 5 Nov 2014.

Conference Proceedings

Watson, I. (2016) Combining Technologies for Food Decontamination and Developing Real Time Bacterial Detection Systems for Improved Performance. In: The School of Food of the Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaiso 61st Anniversary, Valparaiso, Chile, 23 Nov 2016,

Watson, I., Ali, M., McMillan, J., Akwa-ude, A., Gunn, C., Cheng, K., Chua, J. and Macdonald, H. (2016) Engineering Microalgal Systems. In: 3rd International Meeting of Alkenone Bioscience and Geoscience, Nikko, Japan,

Khan, Z., Turner, E., Sharp, J. and Watson, I. (2015) Real Time Control of Gasification Processes to Increase Tolerance to Biomass Variety and Reduce Emissions. In: SUPERGEN Bioenergy Annual Assembly, Harpenden, UK, 19-20 Nov 2015,

Akwa-Ude, A., Ali, M. and Watson, I. (2015) Energy Consumption of Microalgal Lipid Production Processes. In: All-Energy 2015, Glasgow, UK, 06-07 May 2015,

Akwa-Ude, A. and Watson, I. (2015) Energy Consumption of Microalgal Lipid Production Processes. In: All-Energy 2015, Glasgow, UK, 06-07 May 2015,

Akwu-ude, A. and Watson, I. (2015) Reduced Water Use in Euglena sp. Cultivation for Biodiesel Production. In: 5th International Conference on Algal Biomass, Biofuels and Bioproducts, San Diego, CA, USA, 07-10 Jun 2015,

Ali, M. and Watson, I. (2015) Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Chlorella Vulgaris Microalgal Biomass to Extract Biocrude Oil. In: Algae Biomass Summit, Washington, DC, USA, 29 Sep - 02 Oct 2015,

Ali, M. and Watson, I. (2015) Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Chlorella Vulgaris Microalgal Biomass to Extract Biocrude and Process Energy Analysis. In: All-Energy 2015, Glasgow, UK, 06-07 May 2015,

Ali, M., Watson, I. and Toney, J. (2015) Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Algal Biomass to Produce Advanced Biofuels. In: British Organic Geochemical Society Meeting, Glasgow, UK, 02-03 Jul 2015,

Ali, M., Watson, I., Toney, J. and Saleem, M. (2015) Biocrude Oil from Microalgae Biomass to Produce Environmentally Friendly Higher Value Fuels and Chemical Compounds. In: 7th International Civil Engineering Congress, Karachi, Pakistan, 12-13 Jun 2015,

Channumsin, S., Ceriotti, M. , Radice, G. and Watson, I. (2015) Damping Measurement and Solar Radiation Pressure Validation of Flexible, High Area-To-Mass Ratio Debris Model. In: IAC 2015: 66th International Astronautical Congress, Jerusalem, Israel, 12-16 Oct 2015, ISBN 9781510818934

Gabriel, K. et al. (2015) The Intensification Processes as a Strategy for Palm Oil with High Acid Index Conversion in Biodiesel. In: European Symposium on Chemical Reaction Engineering, Munich, Germany, 27-30 Oct 2015,

Garcia Caballero, V., Watson, I. and Cossar, C. (2015) Efficiency Analysis of different Energy Harvesters. In: XIII Symposium of Mexican Students and Studies, London, UK, 23-25 Jul 2015,

MacMillan, J. and Watson, I. (2015) An Assessment of Nile Red Staining Efficiency for the Detection and Quantification of Microalgal Neutral Lipids. In: All-Energy 2015, Glasgow, UK, 06-07 May 2015,

MacMillan, J. and Watson, I. (2015) Improving Nile Red Staining Efficiency for Detecting Neutral Lipids in Nannochloropsis Oculata. In: 5th UK Algae Conference, Glasgow, UK, 10 Jul 2015,

Mehmood, A. and Watson, I. (2015) Bio-Crude Oil from Microalgal Biomass to Produce Environmentally Friendly Higher Value Fuels and Chemical Compounds. In: 7th International Civil Engineering Congress, Karachi, Pakistan, 12-13 Jun 2015,

Mehmood, A. and Watson, I. (2015) Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Aqueous Phase Reforming of Algal Biomass. In: 5th UK Algae Conference, Glasgow, UK, 10 Jul 2015,

Mehmood, A. and Watson, I. (2015) Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Chlorella Vulgaris Microalgal Biomass to Extract Bio-Crude Oil and Process Energy Analysis. In: Algae Biomass Summit, Washington, DC, USA, 29 Sep - 02 Oct 2015,

Turner, E., Watson, I. and Sharp, J. (2015) Instrumentation and Control Techniques for Small Gasifiers. In: SUPERGEN Bioenergy SHARE Event, Bath, UK, 20 May 2015,

Watson, I. (2015) Bioenergy and Higher Value Products. In: Scottish Enterprise Event, University of Glasgow, UK,

Watson, I. (2015) Combined Systems for Improved Decontamination for the Food Industry. In: 4th International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing and Technology, London, UK, 10-12 Aug 2015,

Watson, I. (2015) Developing Growth, Harvesting and Extraction Strategies for Enhanced Biofuel Production from Microalgae. In: Instituto Superior Politécnico de Tecnologias e Ciências, Luanda, Angola,

Watson, I. (2015) Microalgae Research at the University of Glasgow. In: Algae as a Tool in Ecosystem Services: Microalgae to Aviation Biofuels, Birmingham, UK, 24 Nov 2015,

Watson, I. (2015) Real Time Detection of Bacteria for Improved Decontamination for the Food Industry. In: 4th International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing and Technology, London, UK, 10-12 Aug 2015,

Watson, I. (2015) Renewable Energy Research at the University of Glasgow. In: IBM Interconnect Event, University of Glasgow, UK,

Watson, I. (2015) Strategies for Producing Food from Microalgae for Improved Food Security. In: 4th International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing and Technology, London, UK, 10-12 Aug 2015,

Yang, K., Akwu-ude, A. and Watson, I. (2015) Microalgal Filtration Dependency on Physical Pumping Parameters. In: All-Energy 2015, Glasgow, UK, 06-07 May 2015,

Aimyuak, Y. and Watson, I. (2014) Energy Consumption for Different Lipid Extraction Processes from Microalgae. In: Algae Biotechnology Network Sheffield Symposium, Sheffield, UK, 26 Aug 2014,

Ali, M., Abassi, A. and Watson, I. (2014) Hydraulic pressing and liquid nitrogen treatment for cell disruption of microalgal biomass and comparison of extracted lipids to produce biodiesel. In: International Bioenergy Conference 2014, Manchester, UK, 11-13 March 2014, (Unpublished)

Ali, M. and Watson, I. (2014) Pressing of Microalgal Biomass for Enhanced Lipid Extraction to Produce Biodiesel and Subsequent Torrefaction of Residual Cake. In: Algae Biotechnology Network Sheffield Symposium, Sheffield, UK, 26 Aug 2014,

Gibbings, A., Vasile, M., Hopkins, J.-M., Wayman, A., Eckersley, S. and Watson, I. (2014) A space-based laser system for the deflection and manipulation of near Earth asteroids. In: International High Power Laser Ablation and Beamed Energy Propulsion Symposium HPLA/BEP, Santa Fe NM, USA, 21-25 Apr 2014, (Unpublished)

McMillan, J. and Watson, I. (2014) Monitoring Photosynthetic Performance and Lipid Accumulation of Nannochloropsis Oculata Grown Under Various Salinities. In: Algae Biotechnology Network Sheffield Symposium, Sheffield, UK, 26 Aug 2014,

McMillan, J. R. and Watson, I. (2014) Absolute in-vivo quantification of microalgal neutral lipid content by physically assisted Triolein calibrated Nile red staining method. In: International Bioenergy Conference 2014, Manchester, UK, 11-13 March 2014, (Unpublished)

Watson, I. (2014) Combining technologies for food decontamination and extending the shelf life of fruit and vegetables. In: 3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing and Technology, Las Vegas, NV, USA, 21-23 July 2014, (Unpublished)

Watson, I. (2014) Microalgae as a sustainable food source. In: 3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing and Technology, Las Vegas, NV, USA, 21-23 July 2014, (Unpublished)

Watson, I. (2014) Towards improving gasification performance. In: Biomass Gasification: Development Opportunities and Challenges, European Bioenergy Research Institute, Aston University, Birmingham, UK, 19 Sept 2014, (Unpublished)

Watson, I. (2014) Microlagal process development: from growth and dewatering to extraction. In: The 2nd International Joint Meeting on Alkenone Biosynthesis in Bioscience and Geoscience, Tsukuba, Japan, 28 Feb 2014, (Unpublished)

Yang, K. and Watson, I. (2014) Physical parameters influencing microalgal filtration assays. In: International Bioenergy Conference 2014, Manchester, UK, 11-13 March 2014, (Unpublished)

Alganash, B., Paul, M.C. and Watson, I.A. (2013) Investigation of heterogeneous combustion processes of biomass. In: Scottish Fluid Mechanics Meeting, Aberdeen, UK, 29 May 2013,

Alganash, B., Paul, M.C. and Watson, I.A. (2013) Investigation of heterogeneous combustion processes of biomass. In: 6th European Combustion Meeting, Lund, Sweden, 5-8 Jun 2013,

Alganash, B., Paul, M.C. and Watson, I.A. (2013) Numerical study Of heterogeneous combustion processes of Solid Fuels. In: 13th UK Heat Transfer Conference, London, UK, 2-3 Sep 2013,

Ali, M. and Watson, I. (2013) Comparison of microwave treatment of wet microalgal paste and dry powder for lipid extraction. In: The 3rd International Conference on Algal Biomass, Biofuels and Bioproducts, Toronto, Canada, 16–19 June, 2013, (Unpublished)

Ali, M. and Watson, I. A. (2013) Comparison of oil extraction methods and energy budget analysis of flaxseed. In: All-Energy 2013 Conference, Aberdeen, UK, 22 May 2013, (Unpublished)

Gibbings, A., Vasile, M., Hopkins, J.-M., Burns, D. and Watson, I. (2013) Experimental characterization of the thrust induced by laser ablation on an asteroid. In: IAA Planetary Defense Conference, Flagstaff AZ, USA, 15-19 Apr 2013, (Unpublished)

McMillan, J. R., Watson, I. A., Ali, M. and Jaafar, W. (2013) A comparative critique of various physical and mechanical disruption methods when applied to microalgal cells for the provision of crude for biodiesel. In: All-Energy 2013 Conference, Aberdeen, UK, 22 May 2013, (Unpublished)

Watson, I. (2013) Laser based defense mechanisms against biological threats. In: 2nd International Conference on Biodefense and Natural Disasters, Orlando, FL, USA, 21-23 Aug 2013, (Unpublished)

Watson, I. (2013) Microalgae expertise at the University of Glasgow. In: Leading IB: A UK Showcase, London, UK, 22-23 Jan 2013, (Unpublished)

Watson, I. (2013) Microalgal production and exploitation for biofuel and higher value products and processes (plenary address). In: Algae Biotechnology Sheffield Network First Annual Conference, Sheffield, UK, 11 July 2013, (Unpublished)

Watson, I. (2013) Real time detection, monitoring and modeling of biological threats. In: 2nd International Conference on Biodefense and Natural Disasters, Orlando, FL, USA, 21-23 Aug 2013, (Unpublished)

Watson, I., Ali, M., McMillan, J., Aimyuak, Y., Giacalone, S. and Jaafa, W. (2013) Microalgal production and exploitation for biofuel. In: All-Energy 2013, Aberdeen, UK, 22 May 2013, (Unpublished)

Gibbings, A., Vasile, M., Watson, I., Hopkins, J.M. and Burns, D. (2012) Laser ablation for the effective deflection, exploration and exploitation of asteroids. In: Astrobiology Science Conference, Atlanta, GA, USA, 16-20 April 2012, (Unpublished)

McMillan, J., Jaafar, W., Ali, M. and Watson, I. (2012) Microscopic analysis of algal cell disruption methods. In: Opportunities for Algal Commercialisation: Algal Bioenergy Special Interest Group, Cranfield University, UK, 20 June 2012, (Unpublished)

Watson, I. et al. (2012) Growing and harvesting algae for sustainable and secure biofuel fuel and food production. In: Opportunities for Algal Commercialisation: Algal Bioenergy Special Interest Group, Cranfield University, UK, 20 June 2012, (Unpublished)

Watson, I. et al. (2012) Growing and harvesting algae for sustainable and secure food production. In: Food Insecurity in an Insecure World: Research Challenges and Opportunities, Glasgow, UK, 24 May 2012, (Unpublished)

Watson, I., Jaafar, W., Ali, M., McMillan, J. and Aimyuak, Y. (2012) A holistic approach to microalgae production. In: Maximising Opportunities in Industrial Biotechnology: Focus on Algae as a Feedstock for Products and Processes, Edinburgh, UK, 5 Sept. 2012, (Unpublished)

Watson, I. et al. (2012) Exploiting microalgae for sustainable and secure food production. In: BIT'S First Annual Congress of SQ Foods, Shenzhen, China, 1-3 Nov. 2012, (Unpublished)

Watson, I., Maktabi, S. and Parton, R. (2012) Food safety advantages of combining advanced decontamination processes. In: BIT'S First Annual Congress of SQ Foods, Shenzhen, China, 1-3 Nov. 2012, (Unpublished)

Watson, I., Tan, B. K., Armstrong, G. and Stewart-Tull, D. (2012) Extending the shelf-life of carrots and potatoes with H2O2, CO2 laser, UV and microwave treatments. In: Food Insecurity in an Insecure World: Research Challenges and Opportunities, Glasgow, UK, 24 May 2012, (Unpublished)

Alganash, B.S., Paul, M.C. and Watson, I.A. (2011) Experimental and computational investigations of biomass mixing and combustion processes. In: 5th European Combustion Meeting, Cardiff University, 28 June - 1 July 2011,

Gibbings, A., Hopkins, J.M., Burns, D., Vasile, M. and Watson, I. (2011) Exploring and exploiting asteroids with laser ablation. In: UK Space Conference, Coventry, UK, 4-5 July 2011,

Gibbings, A., Hopkins, J.M., Burns, D., Vasile, M. and Watson, I. (2011) On testing laser ablation processes for asteroid deflection. In: IAA Planetary Deference Conference, Bucharest, Romania, 9-12 May 2011,

Alganash, B., Paul, M. and Watson, I. (2010) Experimental and computational investigations of biomass combustion processes. In: Combustion Institute British Section: Spring Meeting on Combustion Phenomena in Fire Science, Edinburgh, UK, 9 Apr 2010,

Mine, T., Krishnan, A., Dallas, A., Parton, R. and Watson, I.A. (2009) Effect of KrF, excimer laser (248nm) on airborne micro-organisms. In: CLEO/Europe - EQEC 2009 - European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and the European Quantum Electronics Conference, Munich, Germany, 14-19 June 2009, p. 5194759. ISBN 9781424440801 (doi:10.1109/CLEOE-EQEC.2009.5194759)

Hunter, G., Lucas, M., Watson, I.A. and Parton, R. (2007) Finite element modelling of the pressure fields created by ultrasonic bacterial inactivation devices. In: International Congress on Ultrasonics, Vienna, Austria, 9-13 Apr 2007,

Krishnan, A., Watson, I., Parton, R. and Peden, I. (2004) Laser speckle analysis of E. coli growth and motility in liquid culture. In: UNSPECIFIED, Pera Innovation Park, Melton Mowbray, UK,

Watson, I., Parton, R., Maktabie, S., Peden, I. and Stewart-Tull, D. (2004) Combination of laser, UV and microwave or heat for improved decontamination efficiency. In: New Technologies for the Food Industry, Pera Innovation Park, Melton Mowbray, UK,

Watson, I., Stewart-Tull, D., Parton, R., Peden, I., Yeo, A., Tan, B. and Ward, G. (2004) Sterilization of microorganisms. In: Ninth International Symposium on particles on surfaces: Detection, Adhesion and Removal, Philadelphia, USA,

Tan, B., Watson, I. and Parton, R. (2003) Real time monitoring of decontamination processes. In: Food Processing Faraday, New Technologies for the Food Industry, Pera Innovation Park, Melton Mowbray, UK,

Ting, S., Watson, I. and Peden, I. (2003) An optical technique for food quality analysis and process control. In: Food Processing Faraday, New Technologies for the Food Industry, Pera Innovation Park, Melton Mowbray, UK,

Watson, I., Parton, R., Tan, B. and Maktabie, S. (2003) Balancing the needs of new food technologies. In: Food Processing Faraday, New Technologies for the Food Industry, Pera Innovation Park, Melton Mowbray, UK,

Maktabie, S., Watson, I. and Parton, R. (2002) Synergistic effects of UV, laser, microwave radiation and heat on bacteria important in seafood in saline suspension. In: Society for General Microbiology, University of Loughborough, 16-20 September 2002,

Mctabie, S., Watson, I. and Parton, R. (2002) Decontamination of bacteria on agar plates by two laser types. In: 9th Iranian Student Seminar (ISS-2002), University of Central England (UCE), Birmingham,

Watson, I. and Stewart-Tull, D. (2002) Optical and emerging technologies for decontamination of food. In: Synergy Food Safety Seminar, University of Glasgow,

Watson, I. and Stewart-Tull, D. (2000) Comparison of Laser and Flashlamp Decontamination Systems and Applications for the Food Industry. In: CCFRA (Chipping Campden Food Research Association), Gloucestershire, UK, (Unpublished)

Watson, I. and Stewart-Tull, D. (1999) Laser Inactivation for the Food Industry. In: European Federation Of Food Science & Technology (EFFoST), Tampere, Finland, 22-24 Nov 1999,

Armstrong, G. N., Watson, I. A., Ward, G. D., Wardlaw, A. C., Yeo, C. B. A. and Stewart-Tull, D. E. (1998) Killing Bacillus Cereus Bacterial Endospores with Nd:YAG Laser Light and UV Irradiation. In: 1998 CLEO/Europe. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, Glasgow, UK, 14-18 Sept 1998, p. 122. (doi:10.1109/CLEOE.1998.719094)

Mettke, C., Ng, E. S. and Watson, I. A. (1998) Monitoring Nd:YAG and CO2 Laser Weld Quality. In: Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics,CLEO/EUROPE-EQEC Europe Congress, Glasgow, UK, 14-18 Sept 1998, ISBN 9780780342330 (doi:10.1109/CLEOE.1998.719249) (Unpublished)

Ng, E., Watson, I. and Yeo, A. (1998) Multi-factorial Analysis of Nd:YAG Laser Welding of High Carbon Steels: Effect of Laser Parameters And Weld Geometry. In: International Congress On Applications Of Lasers And Electro-Optics, Orlando, FL, USA, 16-19 Nov 1998, ISBN 9780912035581

Ng, E. and Watson, I. A. (1998) Comparision of Weld Quality with Normal and 30° Incident Laser Beams. In: Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics,CLEO/EUROPE-EQEC Europe Congress, Glasgow, UK, 14-18 Sept 1998, p. 318. ISBN 9780780342330 (doi:10.1109/CLEOE.1998.719479)

Ng, E. and Watson, I. A. (1998) Improved Hardness Characteristics of CO2 Laser Welded Carbon Steels. In: Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics,CLEO/EUROPE-EQEC Europe Congress, Glasgow, UK, 14-18 Sept 1998, ISBN 9780780342330

Watson, I., Ng, E. and Chia, S. (1998) Characteristics of Nd:YAG Laser Welding of Dissimilar Steels with In-line Process Heating. In: Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics,CLEO/EUROPE-EQEC Europe Congress, Glasgow, UK, 14-18 Sept 1998, p. 317. ISBN 9780780342330 (doi:10.1109/CLEOE.1998.719478) (Unpublished)

Yeo, A., Watson, I. and Stewart-Tull, D. (1998) CO2 Laser Sterilisation of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus at 10.6 Microns. In: International Conference on Optics and Optoelectronics: ICOL-98, Dehra Dun, India, 9-12 Dec 1998, (Unpublished)

Yeo, A., Watson, I., Stewart-Tull, D. and Armstrong, G. (1998) Inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with High-power Nd:YAG Laser and UV Radiation. In: European Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics / European Quantum Electronics Conference, Glasgow, UK, (Unpublished)

Yeo, A., Watson, I., Wong, J. and Stewart-Tull, D. (1998) Optical Imaging and Analysis of Speckle Patterns from Escherichia coli in Disinfectant Solution. In: European Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics / European Quantum Electronics Conference, Glasgow, UK, (Unpublished)

Hall, D. R., Watson, I. A., McDonald, D. W., Scott, B. F., Chatwin, C. R. and Baker, H. J. (1997) Preionizing a Large Volume Transversely Excited Sub-Atmospheric-Pulsed CO2 Laser for Enhanced Materials Processing. In: XI International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, Edinburgh, UK, 26 Aug 1996, pp. 219-222. (doi:10.1117/12.270220)

Ng, E. and Watson, I. (1997) Post-heat Treatment of Nd:YAG Laser Welded High Carbon Steels. In: ICALEO '97: 16th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics, San Diego, CA, USA, 17-20 Nov 1997, ISBN 9780912035567

Piening, A. and Watson, I. (1997) Minimising the Focus Spot Size from a 15 Watt Laser Diode Array. In: ICALEO '97: 16th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics, San Diego, CA, USA, 17-20 Nov 1997, ISBN 9780912035567

Watson, I., Ward, G., Wang, R., Stewart-Tull, D. and Wardlaw, A. (1997) Inactivation of E. coli. in Liquid Suspension with Nd:YAG Laser Light. In: ICEF 7: 7th International Congress on Engineering and Food, Brighton, UK, 13-18 April 1997, ISBN 9781850758143

Watson, I., Ward, G., Wang, R., Stewart-Tull, D., Wardlaw, A., Yeo, A., Armstrong, G., Candlish, A. and Hall, E. (1997) Laser Inactivation of E. coli. In: ICALEO '97: 16th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics, San Diego, CA, USA, 17-20 Nov 1997, ISBN 9780912035567

Watson, I., Ward, G., Wardlaw, A. and Stewart-Tull, D. (1997) Wavelength Dependency of Laser Inactivation of E. coli.. In: ICEF 7: 7th International Congress on Engineering and Food, Brighton, UK, 13-18 April 1997, ISBN 9781850758143

Ng, E. and Watson, I. (1996) Characteristics of CO2 and Nd:YAG Laser welded High Carbon Steel. In: ICALEO '96: 15th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics, Detroit, MI, USA, 14-17 Oct 1996, ISBN 9780912035543

Ngiap, H. C., Watson, I. A., Wang, R. K. and Ward, G. (1996) Optimising Image Processing Systems to Accurately Count Colony Forming Units. In: Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics Europe, 1996: CLEO/Europe, Hamburg, Germany, 8-13 Sept 1996, p. 312. ISBN 9780780331693 (doi:10.1109/CLEOE.1996.562546)

Tiodemann, J. and Watson, I. A. (1996) Quantifying CO2 and Nd:YAG Laser Cleaning of Polluted Blonde Sandstone. In: Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics Europe, 1996: CLEO/Europe, Hamburg, Germany, 8-13 Sept 1996, p. 228. ISBN 9780780331693 (doi:10.1109/CLEOE.1996.562379)

Wang, R., Watson, I. and Chatwin, C. (1996) Distortion Invariant Fringe Adjusted Joint Transform Correlator. In: 12th Interdisciplinary Laser Science Conference, Rochester, NY, USA, 20-25 Oct 1996,

Wang, R. K., Shang, L., Watson, I. A. and Scott, B.F. (1996) Fringe Phase Encoded Joint Transform Correlator. In: Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics Europe, 1996: CLEO/Europe, Hamburg, Germany, 8-13 Sept 1996, p. 33. ISBN 9780780331693 (doi:10.1109/CLEOE.1996.562014)

Watson, I., Ngiap, H., Wang, R. and Ward, G. (1996) Accurate Counting of Colony Forming Units with Image Processing Systems. In: Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics Europe, 1996: CLEO/Europe, Hamburg, Germany, 8-13 Sept 1996, pp. 68-71. ISBN 9781557524645

Watson, I., Ward, G., Wang, R., Stewart-Tull, D. and Wardlaw, A. (1996) Bactericidal Effects of Nd:YAG Laser Light on E. Coli Suspensions. In: MAFF Sponsored Workshop for Process Engineers and Food Microbiologists on Hygenic Food Manufacture, London, UK, (Unpublished)

Watson, I., Ward, G., Wang, R., Stewart-Tull, D. and Wardlaw, A. (1996) Surface Decontamination by Laser Light. In: MAFF Sponsored Workshop for Process Engineers and Food Microbiologists on Hygenic Food Manufacture, London, UK, (Unpublished)

Watson, I. A. (1996) Improved Hardness Characteristics of CO2 Laser Welded Carbon Steels. In: Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics Europe, 1996: CLEO/Europe, Hamburg, Germany, 8-13 Sept 1996, p. 243. ISBN 9780780331693 (doi:10.1109/CLEOE.1996.562408)

Watson, I. A., Wang, R. K. and Chye, T. B. (1996) A Passive Fibre Optic Sensor For Detection of C02 at 590 nm. In: Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics Europe, 1996: CLEO/Europe, Hamburg, Germany, 8-13 Sept 1996, p. 46. ISBN 9780780331693 (doi:10.1109/CLEOE.1996.562037)

Yeo, A. and Watson, I. (1996) Temperature Dependency of the Optical Properties of Water at 1.064 μm. In: Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics Europe, 1996: CLEO/Europe, Hamburg, Germany, 8-13 Sept 1996, pp. 14-17. ISBN 9781557524645

Yeo, A., Watson, I. and Wang, R. (1996) Temperature Dependency of the Optical Properties of Water at 1.064μm. In: Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics Europe, 1996: CLEO/Europe, Hamburg, Germany, 8-13 Sept 1996, ISBN 9781557524645

Yeo, C.B. A., Watson, I. A. and Wang, R. K. (1996) Anomalous Optical Properties of Water at 40°C and 1.06μm. In: Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics Europe, 1996: CLEO/Europe, Hamburg, Germany, 8-13 Sept 1996, p. 302. ISBN 9780780331693 (doi:10.1109/CLEOE.1996.562526)

Abdullah, H., Ng, E., Watson, I. and Chatwin, C. (1995) In Process Annealing of Laser Welded High Carbon Steel. In: ICALEO '95: 14th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics, San Diego, CA, USA, 13-16 Nov 1995, pp. 923-931. ISBN 9780912035536

Abdullah, H., Watson, I. and Kapadia, P. (1995) Magnetisation Anomalies in Laser Welded Magnetic Materials. In: ICALEO '95: 14th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics, San Diego, CA, USA, 13-16 Nov 1995, pp. 932-941. ISBN 9780912035536

Abdullah, H. A., Chatwin, C. R. and Watson, I. A. (1995) Hardness Characteristics of Laser Welded Joints. In: CLEO/Pacific Rim'95: Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Chiba, Japan, 10-14 July 1995, p. 298. ISBN 9780780324008 (doi:10.1109/CLEOPR.1995.527293)

Budgett, D. M., Sharp, J. H., Tang, P. C., Young, R. C. D., Watson, I. A., Chatwin, C. R. and Scott, B. F. (1995) Implementation of a High Speed Optical/Digital Correlator System. In: Optics and Information: 6th Topical Meeting of the European Optical Society, Mulhouse, France, 23-26 Oct 1995,

Chatwin, C.R., Wang, R.K., Abdullah, H.A. and Watson, I.A. (1995) Environmentally Adaptive Correlation Filter. In: CLEO/Pacific Rim'95: Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Chiba, Japan, 10-14 July 1995, p. 138. ISBN 9780780324008 (doi:10.1109/CLEOPR.1995.527035)

Wang, R.K., Watson, I.A. and Chatwin, C.R. (1995) Unified Filter Modulation Synthetic Discriminant Function. In: CLEO/Pacific Rim'95: Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Chiba, Japan, 10-14 July 1995, p. 291. ISBN 9780780324008 (doi:10.1109/CLEOPR.1995.527279)

Ward, G., Watson, I., Stewart-Tull, D., Wang, R., Wardlaw, A. and Chatwin, C. (1995) Effect of High Power Laser Radiation on Bacteria. In: Scottish Microbiology Club, 3rd Symposium, Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK, April 1995, (Unpublished)

Ward, G., Watson, I., Stewart-Tull, D., Wang, R., Wardlaw, A. and Chatwin, C. (1995) Sterilization of Bacteria and Yeasts Using Nd:YAG Laser Radiation. In: Scottish Microbiology Club, 4th Symposium, Glasgow University, Glasgow, UK, Sept 1005, (Unpublished)

Watson, I. (1995) Laser Sterilization for the Food Industry. In: MAFF Sponsored Workshop for Process Engineers and Food Microbiologists on Hygenic Food Manufacture, London, UK, (Unpublished)

Watson, I., Chatwin, C., McDonald, D., Scott, B. and Abdullah, H. (1995) Enhanced Aluminium Processing with a High Frequency, Pulsed CO2 Laser. In: ICALEO '95: 14th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-optics, San Diego, CA, USA, 13-16 Nov 1995, pp. 294-302. ISBN 9780912035536

Watson, I., Ward, G., Wang, R., Stewart-Tull, D. and Wardlaw, A. (1995) Wavelength Dependency of Laser Sterilization. In: MAFF Sponsored Workshop for Process Engineers and Food Microbiologists on Hygenic Food Manufacture, Belgrave Square, London, UK, April 1995, (Unpublished)

Watson, I.A., Wang, R.K., Young, R.C.D. and Chatwin, C.R. (1995) Performance of Tuneable Photo-refractive Filters. In: CLEO/Pacific Rim'95: Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Chiba, Japan, 10-14 July 1995, p. 139. (doi:10.1109/CLEOPR.1995.527037)

Watson, I.A., You, A., Stewart-Tull, D. and Chatwin, C. (1995) Carboniferous and Blonde Sandstone Renovation using Nd:YAG and CO2 Lasers. In: CLEO/Pacific Rim'95: Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Chiba, Japan, 10-14 July 1995, p. 231. ISBN 9780780324008 (doi:10.1109/CLEOPR.1995.527186)

Watson, I., Gstettner, S., Stewart-Tull, D., Ward, G., Wang, R., Wardlaw, A. and Chatwin, C. (1995) Nd:YAC Laser Sterilization of Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus. In: CLEO/Pacific Rim'95: Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Chiba, Japan, 10-14 July 1995, p. 143. ISBN 9780780324008 (doi:10.1109/CLEOPR.1995.527046)

McDonald, D. and Watson, I. (1994) Design and Simulation of Gas Laser Pulse Power Systems. In: Conference on Pulse Power, Institute of Physics, London, UK, 1994, (Unpublished)

Watson, I., Abdullah, H. and Chatwin, C. (1994) A Non-ratiometric Fibre Optic Sensor for Detection of CO2. In: 10th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, Glasgow, UK, 11-13 Oct 1994, pp. 628-632. ISBN 9780819416995

Watson, I. A., Chatwin, C. C., McDonald, D. W. and Scott, B. F. (1994) A Pulsed CO2 Laser to Process High Damage Threshold Materials. In: 1994 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 28 Aug-2 Sept 1994, pp. 41-42. ISBN 9780780317895 (doi:10.1109/CLEOE.1994.635822)

McDonald, D. and Watson, I. (1992) Simulation of Pulsed Laser Discharges Using SPICE. In: Tenth International Conference on Gas Discharges and Their Applications, Swansea, UK, 13-18 Sept 1992, pp. 155-160. ISBN 9780951946503

Patents

Dr. Ian A. Watson (2010) Electrode, decontamination apparatus and method, WO 2,011,055,102. .

Dr. Ian A. Watson (2010) Decontamination apparatus and method, WO 2010052473 A1. .

This list was generated on Sat Nov 18 23:03:58 2017 GMT.