Lecture Recording Policy

1. Purpose of the Policy

The policy sets out the University’s position on the provision of live lecture recordings and pre-recorded lectures to students by the University and recordings by students and staff. Provision of lecture recordings is recognised throughout the HE sector as a helpful study aid, and can contribute towards the University meeting its obligations under the Equality Act 2010. To support the growing desire on the part of students and staff for lecture recording, this policy adopts an opt-out approach. It supports mainstreaming of lecture recording where appropriate yet retains the right of members of staff to opt-out from lecture recording. This policy covers the essential purpose of lecture recordings which is that they are used only for students on the course that the lecture relates to, or for students on other courses (such as in a MOOC or other teaching event) as determined by the member of staff whose lecture has been recorded.

This policy was prepared in relation to recording lectures using the services provided on campus.  It has been subsequently updated in light of the University’s response to Covid-19 which has seen a significant increase in online teaching using pre-recorded lectures and/or live video-conference style events which may themselves be recorded.  The underlying principle remains that recording of teaching, be that face to face or online lectures or pre-recorded material is a helpful study aid and that the University endorses an “opt-out” approach.[1]

The following principles apply:

  • The rights of lecturers and the privacy of individuals shall be respected and protected.
  • Students should, as far as possible, be able to access audio (and where available video) recordings of lectures to support their learning. For clarity, this does not include tutorial recordings. Audio or video recordings of tutorials are generally prohibited by the University, unless permission to do so is expressly granted by the relevant School (which may be subject to conditions).
  • Staff may choose to also video record their live lectures to support student learning and in rooms where such functionality is available. Such recording would predominantly capture the presenter area rather than the students and students will be advised in advance of the recording such that they can relocate away from the recording devices if they wish.
  • Staff may choose to pre-record their lectures to support student learning as part of a blended or fully online experience or record live online lectures. Pre-recorded lectures would capture the presenter only. Recording of live lectures should be undertaken in accordance with the netiquette guidance in Appendix II.  
  • Good advice should be available to staff on issues of copyright of content used in lectures to ensure appropriate levels of protection for staff and the copyright material. [https://www.gla.ac.uk/myglasgow/library/help/copyright/]
  • Online lecture events are not normally intended to be an equivalent experience to lecture attendance.
  • Recorded content will be stored and used in an appropriate manner.
  • Recordings will be provided by the University as far as possible.
  • A student may be refused consent to record a lecture on their own device where provision of an official University recording already exists.
  • The University recognises there are situations where all or part of a lecture should not or cannot be recorded and that staff may wish to opt-out of recording all or some of their lectures. Among these are that:

i. there are teaching approaches that may not be suitable for recording, such as those with a high degree of interactivity;

ii. a lecturer should not change their teaching approach to facilitate lecture recording where this change would be detrimental to the student experience;

iii. there may be legal, ethical or privacy reasons for not recording part or all of a lecture;

iv. a lecturer may have personal reasons that make it inappropriate for their live lecture(s) to be recorded; and

    1. Clear guidance will be given to staff on how to opt out of recording live lectures should they elect to do so. This guidance will be available as part of the operational guidance on implementing lecture recording and circulated to all staff.

    [1] At the time of the October 2020 update to the policy, it is not possible to auto-schedule recording of online lectures. Recording thus operates on the basis of opt-in until such times as the technology supports auto-scheduling in the same was as for on-campus lectures. At that point, online lecture recording will operate on an opt-out basis.

    2. Lecture Recording and Disability

    The Equality Act 2010 places an anticipatory responsibility on the University in making reasonable adjustments to its services. Current arrangements for disabled students in relation to lecture recording will be unaffected by this policy. Schools will ensure disabled students are not disadvantaged by providing alternative formats.

    3. Permitted Use of Lecture Recordings

    • A lecturer may use official recordings of their own lectures (live or pre-recorded) within their own performance review; to facilitate peer observation of their teaching; or if they are investigated under the Disciplinary Policy.
    • The University may use official lecture recordings within the scope of an investigation under the Code of Student Conduct.
    • Any other use of a recording will require further, separate agreement between those with rights in the recording. In particular:
      • The recordings and any associated metadata will not be used by the University for staff performance review or disciplinary processes without the lecturer’s permission.
      • Lecture recordings may not be used as a replacement for intended staff presence in the lecture room (for example, live streaming lectures to overspill rooms or re-use of pre-recorded lectures) unless the lecturer permits this.
      • Recordings will not be used to cover University staff exercising their legal right to take industrial action without the lecturer’s consent.
      • Recordings do not constitute a replacement for student attendance at on campus lectures unless the University has specified this as a reasonable adjustment for a disabled student.
      • Schools and students must not use lecture recordings as a routine mechanism for managing clashes of timetabled lectures.

    4. Official Recordings

    This part of the policy covers the recording of delivered lectures using automated systems in teaching spaces on campus and recording technologies such as Zoom or MS Teams. It does not cover:

    • Seminars;
    • Practicals (e.g. labs); and
    • Field activity.

    A University system will deliver a higher quality recording than a student’s own device and therefore will be expected to negate the demand for students to produce their own recordings. Although embedded recording systems have been installed in many lecture theatres, coverage is limited but recording provision will be expanded over the next few years.

    University Responsibilities

    The University will ensure that

    • recording equipment and centrally provided software licences are maintained;
    • signs and recording lights are available in lecture theatres to indicate that recording is taking place;
    • College and Senate Learning and Teaching Committees will monitor the implementation of this policy to promote consistency across the University;
    • students and staff are provided with appropriate guidance on permitted use of lecture recordings;
    • students and staff are provided with guidance on how to use lecture recordings appropriately;
    • guidance is provided to staff on how to prepare and edit video recordings and provide transcripts before recordings are uploaded for students to access as part of the operational guidance referred to above. (Guidance on transcripts is provided in the Digital Accessibility Guidance.)

    School Responsibilities

    • Schools will schedule automated recording of lectures using the central timetabling system.
    • Schools will normally notify students which of their lectures will be recorded or not by the start of the Course, including reasons for not recording, through Moodle. Where this is not possible students must be notified on Moodle no less than a week in advance of the scheduled lecture.
    • Schools will notify students by email and/or Moodle if a lecture recording arrangement changes during the Course. This includes where the change prevents recording and where the change facilitates a recording that would not otherwise have taken place. When a lecture is changed or cancelled, Schools will ensure the associated scheduled recording is also changed or cancelled promptly.

    Lecturer Responsibilities

    • Staff should engage with and make use of the automatic lecture recording (audio) facility provided and maintained by IT Services (Echo 360) in on campus teaching spaces, and follow guidance on appropriate use of software tools for pre-recording lectures intended for blended and fully online teaching.
    • Staff should ensure they have appropriate copyright clearance for any material covered by the recording. [https://www.gla.ac.uk/myglasgow/library/help/copyright/]
    • The lecturer has the right to apply discretion and pause or subsequently edit a live recording, for example if sensitive material is being taught or if the recording is considered to be interfering with interactive teaching. If a live recording is paused or edited, the lecturer should consider providing an explanation for the pause or edit where it is reasonable and proportionate to do so.
    • The lecturer is responsible for deciding whether the interests in not recording part or all of a lecture outweigh the interests in recording. They will inform the relevant Head of School of any full lectures they decide not to record, along with the reason (see section 1 above). They should consider whether the routine options either to pause recording during a live lecture, or to request that video recording is not enabled (where the room has video facility), would otherwise allow recording to proceed. Lecturers should be aware that it is permissible, where good reason exists, to opt out of recording one or more lectures without opting out of recording an entire lecture series.
    • Recordings produced through the on-campus lecture recording service by default will automatically release scheduled recordings to the students on the Course 24 hours after completion of recording and post-processing of the associated data. Lecturers may alternatively opt for immediate release or manual release of their scheduled recordings.
    • The release of recordings produced through services such as Zoom or Microsoft Teams will be contingent upon user settings. Staff should ensure that students have appropriate access to all recorded course content.
    • This policy applies equally to visiting lecturers with the exception of evidencing consent where, because of the different employment situation they will be required to sign a consent form as they did previously.

    Student Responsibilities

    • Students will access lecture recordings “on demand” via the service or Moodle or other source as guided by their School. Exceptions:
      • The School will provide a download of a recording to a disabled student on the Course where this has been specified as a reasonable adjustment.
      • The lecturer may at their discretion provide download access to all students on the Course where, in the lecturer’s opinion, this is appropriate.
    • Recordings should normally only be accessible by those students enrolled on the course unless agreed otherwise by the lecturer(s) presenting the lecture.
    • Use of such recordings should be in relation to the course unless agreed otherwise by the lecturer(s) presenting the lecture.
    • Any use of a recording other than for a student’s personal use in relation to their studies or any unauthorised distribution of a recording will be considered in breach of the Code of Conduct and will be subject to disciplinary action. This includes uploading onto social media sites and other unauthorised sites such as YouTube and Course Hero.

    5. Recordings made by Students

    Students should normally have the opportunity to make audio recordings of course lectures for study purposes where official recordings are not available.

    University Responsibilities

    • The University and Schools will provide technical and pedagogic guidance to students on how to benefit from lectures and how to use lecture recordings appropriately.

    School Responsibilities

    • Administrative procedures around student recordings of lectures should be kept to a minimum. Where it is known in advance that a specific lecture(s) within a course are not to be recorded by students, this, along with reasons, should be communicated to students on the course through an appropriate channel such as Moodle in advance of the lectures.

    Lecturer Responsibilities

    • Where official recording facilities are not available, a lecturer’s consent for students to record should not normally be refused without good reasons in line with the opt-out reasons noted earlier in this policy.

    Student Responsibilities

    Students undertake to adhere to the following rules:

    • Any recording is primarily for the student’s use in relation to their studies but it may be shared, in a similar way that lecture notes are shared, with other students on the same course. In no circumstances, however, should a recording be made available to other parties.
    • Students may be asked to turn off their recording device when other students do not want their personal contribution recorded.
    • Students may be asked to turn off their recording device during parts of a lecture when deemed appropriate by the lecturer.
    • Once the recording has served its study purpose, it should be erased.
    • Inappropriate use of recordings, including recording after a lecturer has refused consent, will be considered as a breach of the code of conduct and will be subject to disciplinary action.
    • Inappropriate recording and distribution may be subject to legal action.

    6. Intellectual Property and Performer Rights

    • The policies on exploitation of intellectual property and student intellectual property rights cover the status of intellectual property generated by the University’s employees and students. Where the University and an employee have agreed that the employee retains some or all of the intellectual property rights to material used within a lecture recording (for example, performer rights, as described below), the employee agrees to grant the University a non-exclusive, royalty-free, irrevocable, worldwide licence to use the material for the essential purpose outlined in this policy.
    • Performer rights reside with the lecturer and other lecture participants, who agree to the recording of the lecture and agree that the University may use their performance for the essential purpose in this policy. Lecturers wishing to assert their right to be identified as author or performer should do so as part of the recording, for example in the introduction.
    • Recordings will only be retained for as long as they continue to be essential for the Course. E.g. until all course assessment has been completed in that session. Recordings will usually be replaced, if and when, the course is taught again in a new session. Recordings of lectures made by staff who are no longer employed by the University will not be retained following the end of the Course in the academic session in which the recording was made.
    • Variations to the standard retention period may be agreed to meet subject specific requirements. Any such change will be communicated to staff and students on the Course at the start of the academic session.

    7. Evaluation

    As with all University policies, there will be a review of implementation. To inform the evaluation of the uptake of lecture recording and its effectiveness in supporting student learning, reasons for opting-out will be reported on an anonymised, aggregated basis at School level. These data will be considered alongside a research study of students’ use of lecture recording in their learning and to inform future levels of investment in lecture recording and student learning support and to help shape guidance for students and staff in future.

    8. Privacy Notice

    The privacy notice is provided in Appendix I. It addresses the responsibilities of the service owner in supporting the implementation of this policy.