We are delighted at the outcome of REF 2021, in which ESH made a significant contribution to the success of the History Unit of Assessment. In the assessment of outputs, which make up 60% of the total score, 85% of what the Unit submitted was deemed ‘world leading’ or ‘internationally excellent’ and ESH was well-represented amongst the best-scoring items. We made a disproportionately strong contribution to the Impact Case Studies which make up 25%, and where 80% of the Unit’s activity was deemed ‘world leading’. Professor Jim Phillips' research made a major contribution to the successful campaign for a collective pardon of Scottish miners who were criminalised during the strike of 1984-85. Professor Ray Stokes' work on the distribution of the highly-damaging drug, Thalidomide, in Germany contributed greatly to legal challenges to the corporation concerned. We are pleased that these results showed both the academic rigour and social value of our research.