Professor Konstantinos Sergakis
- Professor of Capital Markets Law and Corporate Governance (Law)
Professor Konstantinos Sergakis joined the University of Glasgow as Senior Lecturer in Law in 2015 and he was promoted to Professor of Capital Markets Law and Corporate Governance in 2019. He convenes the LLM in Corporate & Financial Law and he acts as School Director for Internationalisation. He holds an LL.B from the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, an LLM in International Business Law from University College London and a PhD from the University Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne.
Professor Sergakis serves as a Member of the Oversight Committee of the Best Practice Principles for Shareholder Voting Research Providers (the BPP Group), the proxy advisors’ global industry group. His role is to provide, together with the other Committee members (listed company and institutional investor representatives) an annual independent review of the monitoring of the Best Practice Principles and an annual independent review of the public reporting of each BPP Signatory. He also provides guidance and advice to the BPP Group with respect to the operation and development of the Principles.
He also serves as Advisor at Mefop Spa, the company created by the Italian Ministry of Economy and Finance for the development of the pension fund market and of other social security forms and undertakes public policy initiatives in the area of stewardship, such as the co-authorship of the inaugural Stewardship Guidelines for Italian pension funds.
He has launched as a Founding Member and serves as Member of the Board of Directors at important initiatives in transnational corporate governance, such as the ESG European Institute, the first multistakeholder ESG think tank (academics, CEOs, directors, ESG analysts, lawyers, policy makers, proxyadvisors among many others) and the Transnational Network of Banking and Financial Law (Montreal).
He is a member of the Executive Board of the International Association of Economic Law (AIDE), of the editorial board of the journals 'Corporate Ownership and Control' and 'Corporate Governance and Sustainability Review' and of the UK Research and Innovation Future Leaders Fellowships (UKRI FLF) programme Peer Review College.
Konstantinos serves as Advisory Board Member at the Singapore Economic Forum (SEF) singaporeforum.org a civic & social organisation that provides a place for pension/Sovereign Wealth Funds and insurance executives, board members and business leaders to shape the future of the world economy. The Forum is organised by the Asian-Pacific Leadership Council, a London-based Anglo-Singaporean corporation, in association with global, regional & national asset owners’ associations, think-tanks and policy research centres.
Konstantinos also serves at the Steering Committee of the Institute Rules for Growth / Droit & Croissance “D&C” www.droitetcroissance.fr , a non-partisan think tank with an ambitious project: to transform our legal environment into a real engine for growth. Rules for Growth aims at enabling businesses to more easily adapt to the brutal cycles of growth and recession and promoting corporate finance thanks to new financing methods, which run in parallel to traditional bank loans or public funds. Rules for Growth aims to establish a valuable link between researchers in law and economics, market players in law and finance, as well as legislators, regulators and judges.
Professor Sergakis has previously taught at the Universities of Paris Ouest Nanterre la Defence (2006-2010), Bedfordshire (2011-2013) and Bristol (2013-2015). He has held Visiting Professorships at the University of Aarhus, University of Alcalá, Global College of Law at UCLouvain, University of Liechtenstein, University of Macerata, Sciences-Po Lyon and University of Trento. He has also held a Visiting Lectureship at the Leuphana University of Lüneburg.
Professor Sergakis' research interests are related to Corporate Law, Capital Markets Law and Corporate Governance. He regularly delivers keynote speeches at high-level academic and policy-making events (G7 Pensions Summit, Annual Listed Companies day in Belgium and others) and participates to various conferences. His articles have appeared in the Journal of Corporate Law Studies, the European Business Organization Law Review and the European Company and Financial Law Review, among others.
Professor Sergakis is the author of "The Transparency of Listed Companies in EU Law". His book received the prestigious prize Prix Solennel André Isoré under the Presidency of the French Prime Minister (award for the best PhD in Private Law amongst all doctorates awarded in 2010) and the Special Grant 2011/2012 under the Special Grant and Support Program for Scholars’ Association Members of the Alexander S. Onassis Foundation (award and publication of a PhD thesis which has received recognition in the academic community). It has been published in the collection of the Institute of Legal Research of the Sorbonne Law School (Bibliothèque de l’Institut de Recherche Juridique de la Sorbonne - IRJS Editions).
He regularly advises public authorities, issuer associations and Ministry organisations on corporate governance and stewardship as well as investment consulting firms in relation to ESG issues and scoring methods. His research has been cited extensively by authorities, associations and market actors in various countries. He also delivers training seminars to pension funds in relation to shareholder stewardship issues. He has been invited by the Financial Reporting Council (FRC) to provide themes/ideas that should be considered in developing corporate governance principles for large private companies (the Wates Principles) and participates at the UK Financial Reporting Lab’s project on corporate disclosures about stakeholders.
He is also an Affiliated Scholar of the Centre for the Law of Business and International Trade (CDACI), University of Montreal, Canada and a member of the Sustainable Market Actors Network that is coordinated by Professor Beate Sjåfjell, University of Oslo.
He was Co-investigator of the 3-year Research project ‘Shareholder Duties’ which was awarded a YDUN Grant (£458.000) from the Danish Council for Independent Research (PI: Professor Hanne Birkmose, Aarhus University). He has also received scholarships from the Alexander S. Onassis Foundation and Vardinnoyannis Foundation for his postgraduate studies (LLM and PhD).
He is happy to talk to the media about the following topics: Capital Markets Law, Company Law, Corporate Governance, ESG, Institutional investors, Pension Funds, Proxy Advisors and Stewardship.
- NEDClub Greece, 9 June 2020
- PUCP, 24 June 2020
- G7 Pensions Summit, 10 September 2020
- G7 Pensions Summit, 16 December 2020
For more information on Professor Sergakis's research, please visit his profile on the following networks:
Recipient of a Research Grant by the School of Law, University of Macerata. Research project ‘Corporate Sustainability and ESG’. Duration: 2020. Grant: €7,000.
Co-Investigator: Research project ‘Shareholder Duties’, YDUN Grant, Danish Council for Independent Research, Ministry for Higher Education and Science, October 2014. Principal Investigator: Professor Hanne S. Birkmose, Aarhus University, Denmark. Duration: January 2015 – December 2017. Grant: £458,832.80.
Recipient of the Special Grant 2011/2012 under the Special Grant and Support Program for Scholars’ Association Members of the Alexander S. Onassis Foundation (award and publication of a PhD thesis which has received recognition in the academic community), Greece. Duration: March 2013. Grant: £5,000.
Michele Corgatelli - 'Shareholders' rights protection after Brexit' (LLM by Research)
- LLB Financial Law
- LLM Corporate Finance
Professional activities & recognition
Prizes, awards & distinctions
- 2011: PhD award in Private Law Prix Solennel André Isoré 2011 (award for the best PhD in Private Law amongst all the PhD’s awarded from Parisian Universities during 2010 (Chancellerie des Universités de Paris)
- 2019: Best Paper Prize - Innovations on Corporate Governance Track (co-authored paper with N. Cucari, S. Carbonara and S. Esposito de Falco) (EURAM Conference)
Grant committees & research advisory boards
- 2018 - (ongoing): UK Research and Innovation Future Leaders Fellowships programme, Peer Review College
- 2019 - (ongoing): Journal of Law and Social Studies, Advisory Board
- 2019 - (ongoing): Journal for International and European Law, Economics and Market Integrations
- 2017 - (ongoing): Corporate Governance and Sustainability Review
- 2016 - (ongoing): Corporate Ownership & Control
Professional & learned societies
- 2015 - (ongoing): Council Member, Society of Legal Scholars
Impact case studies
In his capacity as Mefop Spa Advisor, Konstantinos is in charge of co-designing and co-authoring the inaugural Stewardship Guidelines in Italy for pension funds (2021) and of a set of Guidelines on the use of ‘comply or explain’ principle in annual statements from pension funds (published in December 2020).
Konstantinos influenced a US shareholder advocate (Mr James McRitchie) in his shareholder proposals to various US listed companies (WDFC, Wd-40, Woodward Inc, Walt Disney, Starbucks among others) where his arguments on employees (JCLS paper co-authored with Andreas Kokkinis) are cited and used as a basis for such proposals. See also James McRitchie’s blog here.
His written evidence (together with Dr. Dionysia Katelouzou and Dr. Andreas Kokkinis) to the open consultation of the Greek Ministry of Finance has led to amendments to the final version of the Greek Bill on corporate governance. Greek draft bill consultation
He achieved impact by influencing Mefop (the Italian Ministry’s of Finance association in charge of pension funds) in June 2020 in relation to the new regulatory Italian framework of shareholder stewardship. To its response to Covip (the Italian Authority in charge of pension funds) Mefop based its recommendations for the future enforcement framework by citing extensively Konstantinos’ research.
Konstantinos' research in relation to the SRDII and to audit committees was cited by Dr. Leda Condoyanni, President of NEDClub Greece on 2 July 2020 at the Greek Parliament hearing on the draft Government Bill ‘Corporate governance of Sociétés Anonymes, modern capital market and transposition of Directive (EU) 2017/828 of the European Parliament and of the Council’.
He has also influenced decisively Minerva Analytic Ltd’s, Assonime’s (Association of Italian Joint Stock Companies) and Confindustria’s (General Confederation of Italian Industry) position in relation to the Italian transposition of the Shareholder Rights Directive
Written evidence in relation to the Italian Authority IVASS regarding the draft Regulation transposing the Shareholder Rights Directive for insurance funds. Read here: Consultation IVASS 2020
Written evidence on corporate governance matters together with Dr. Dionysia Katelouzou and Dr. Andreas Kokkinis to the open consultation of the Greek Ministry of Finance on the draft Act ‘Corporate governance of Sociétés Anonymes, modern capital market and transposition of Directive (EU) 2017/828 of the European Parliament and of the Council’. Read here: Written Evidence with Dr. Katelouzou and Dr. Kokkinis
Written evidence on stewardship matters together with Dr. Dionysia Katelouzou to the open consultation of the Greek Ministry of Finance on the draft Act ‘Corporate governance of Sociétés Anonymes, modern capital market and transposition of Directive (EU) 2017/828 of the European Parliament and of the Council’. Read here: Written evidence with Dr. Katelouzou
Response to the Japanese Financial Services Agency's Public Consultation in relation to the Principles for Responsible Institutional Investors - Stewardship Code (with Dr. Dionysia Katelouzou). Read here: Response to the Japanese Financial Services Agency
Response to the SEC public consultation in relation to the amendments to Exemptions from the Proxy Rules for Proxy Voting Advice, 17 CFR Part 240 [Release No. 34‐87457] Read Here: SEC Consultation - Proxy Advisors
Consultation response to Securities and Exchange Board of India’s Working Group – Proxy Advisors Rules Read here: SEBI Consultation - Proxy Advisors
Consultation response to Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) - Proxy Advisors Regulations 2019 Read here: FCA Consultation SRD - Proxy Advisors
Consultation response to Stewardship Code Read here: https://www.frc.org.uk/getattachment/52a50914-cca1-416b-afad-55a02edd28d5/Sergakis,-Dr-(University-of-Glasgow);.aspx
Written evidence to the 'Consulta Pública CNSF - Anteprojeto para transposição da Diretiva dos Acionistas' (with Dr. Andreas Kokkinis) Read here: Sergakis & Kokkinis - Portuguese Consultation SRD
Written evidence to the consultation in relation to the 'Gesetz zur Umsetzung der zweiten Aktionärsrechterichtlinie (ARUG II)' (with Dr. Andreas Kokkinis) Read here: Sergakis & Kokkinis - German Consultation SRD
Written evidence to the consultation of the 'Ministero dell’Economia e delle Finanze (MEF) per la trasposizione della SHRD II' (with Dr. Andreas Kokkinis) Read here: Sergakis & Kokkinis - Italian Consultation SRD
Consultation response to ‘Consultation: The Wates Corporate Governance Principles for Large Private Companies' Financial Reporting Council, September 2018. Read Dr Sergakis's response.
Consultation response to the 'Independent Review of the Financial Reporting Council (FRC)’ led by the Department for Business, Energy, and Industrial Strategy (BEIS), July 2018. Read Dr Sergakis's response: FRC Review - Sergakis
Consultation response to the proposed revision of the French corporate governance code AFEP/MEDEF, April 2018. More information can be found at: http://consultation.codeafepmedef.fr/EN/ Read the AFEP MEDEF consultation response - Sergakis.
Consultation response to 'Consulting on a Revised UK Corporate Governnance Code', Financial Reporting Council, February 2018. Read Dr Sergakis's response.
Consultation response to 'Best Practice Principles for Shareholder Voting Research', BBP Group, December 2017. Read Dr Sergakis's response.
‘EU Capital Markets’, Research Seminar Series, Centre for Commercial Law and Financial Regulation, 10 February 2021, University of Reading, UK (invited).
‘The EU Commission Capital Markets Union New Action Plan’, UCLouvain Guest Lecture, 3 February 2021 (invited).
‘The UK Corporate Governance Landscape’, LUISS Master B&C Law Guest Lecture, 16 January 2021, LUISS, Rome, Italy (invited).
‘Pension Funds under Pressure: Top Down and Bottom Up Regulatory Approaches’, G7 P7 Global Financial Forum, Speaker and Co-Chair, 14-16 December 2020 (invited).
‘Employee participation on boards’ (with Dr. Andreas Kokkinis), 4th International Conference on European Company Law and Corporate Governance, 26-27 November 2020, University of Zagreb, Croatia.
‘The Inaugural Comply or Explain Guidelines in Italy’, Mefop event ‘SRD II and pension funds’, 26 November 2020, Rome, Italy (invited).
‘ESG, Pension Funds and SRDII’, World Pensions Council EU-ASEAN Financial Forum, 12-13 November 2020 (invited).
‘Corporate Governance and Stewardship’, Guest Lecture, 26 October 2020, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
'Keynote Speaker: ‘Companies in times of crises: a constant recalibration of the relationship with stakeholders’, 2020 Annual Listed Companies Week: GUBERNA and Federation of Belgian Enterprises, 9 October 2020, Brussels, Belgium (invited).
‘Sustainability in EU Capital Markets Law’, National Italian Sustainability Festival, 7-8 October 2020, University of Macerata, Italy (invited).
‘A Set of Guidelines for Italian Pension Funds?’, Mefop event ‘SRD II and pension funds’, 1 October 2020, Rome, Italy (invited).
‘The Rise of ESG’, World Pensions Council and G7 Pensions Summit, 9-10 September 2020.
‘Shareholder Rights Directive II’, LUISS Summer School on Capital Markets, 16 July 2020, LUISS, Rome, Italy (invited).
‘Shareholder Stewardship in EU law’, Mefop training seminar to Italian institutional investors, 13 July 2020, Rome, Italy (invited).
‘EU Capital Markets Law’, LUISS Summer School on Capital Markets, 10 July 2020, LUISS, Rome, Italy (invited).
‘Employee Advisory Panels: A New Model for Shareholder Governance’, Maestria en Derecho de la Empresa, 24 June 2020, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Perú (invited).
‘A Stewardship Code for Italian Pension Funds?’, Mefop event ‘SRD II and pension funds’, 10 June 2020, Rome, Italy (invited).
‘The Greek Draft Bill on SRD II and Corporate Governance’, NED Club Greece, 9 June 2020 (invited).
‘Employee Representation on Boards’, Research Seminar, 21 November 2019, University of Warwick, UK (invited).
‘Employee Representation on Boards’, Research Seminar Series, Centre for Commercial Law and Financial Regulation, 20 November 2019, University of Reading, UK (invited).
D. Katelouzou and K. Sergakis, ‘The Impact of SRD II: Deciphering the Dynamics of Regulation’, in Global Shareholder Stewardship Conference, King’s College London, 23-24 September 2019, London, UK.
'SMEs and Corporate Governance’, 9 April 2019, Interdisciplinary Workshop, University of Macerata, Italy (invited).
‘Next Steps for the Financial Reporting and Corporate Governance Powers in the UK - Accountability, Stewardship and the Future for Regulation’, 28 February 2019, Westminster Business Forum Keynote Seminar, London, UK (invited).
‘The Wates Principles’, 22 February 2019, International Conference Las Sociedades Anonimas Cerradas: Cuestiones Actuales, Complutense University, Spain (invited).
Keynote Speaker: ‘The Future of EU Company Law’, 6-7 December 2018, 3rd International Conference on European Company Law and Corporate Governance, University of Zagreb, Croatia (invited).
‘The Influence of EU Company and Financial Law’, 28 November 2018, CRIDES Guest Seminar, UCLouvain, Belgium (invited).
‘Anti-Money Laundering Rules against Abuses in Corporate Law’, 14-15 November 2018, International Conference ‘Abuses of Companies’, Nordic Company Law Network, University of Aarhus, Denmark (invited).
‘A Code of Corporate Governance for Large Private Companies’, 7 November 2018, University College London, UK (invited).
‘Corporate governance and regulation’, Discussant of the Session, 13-15 June 2018, 10th Nordic Corporate Governance Network Conference, Gothenburg University, Sweden.
‘The (Neglected?) Importance of Social Enforcement in the Area of Shareholder Duties’, 13-15 June 2018, 10th Nordic Corporate Governance Network Conference, Gothenburg University, Sweden.
‘CG Principles for Large Private Companies’, 29 May 2018, Financial Reporting Council Event, Edinburgh, UK.
‘The Enforceability of the Shareholder Rights Directive’, 24 May 2018, European Parliament, Brussels, Belgium.
‘Ownership Disclosure in Anti-Money Laundering Law’, 11-13 May 2018, Transparency of Stock Corporations in Europe, University of the Aegean, Greece.
‘Short Selling Challenges’ Roundtable, 3 May 2018, University of Montreal, 2nd annual conference of the Réseau Transnantional en Droit Bancaire et Financier, Canada.
'The Neglected Importance of Informal Governance and Education in Shareholder Engagement Duties’, Investigating the Impact of Law through interdisciplinary research, 5-6 April 2018, Monash University Prato Centre, Italy.
'Shareholder Activism' workshop, 15 February 2018, Instituo de Derecho Europeo e Integracion Regional (IDEIR), Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain.
‘Proxy advisors: The Ambiguous Mixture of Soft and Semi-hard law’, SIDE 13th Annual Conference, 15-16 December 2017, Lumsa University, Italy.
‘The Transparency of Listed Companies in EU Capital Markets Law’, Guest Lecture, 6 December 2017, Free University of Bozen, Italy.
‘Legal v. Social Enforcement of Shareholder Duties: Shareholder and Company Performance under Threat?’, International conference: Corporate Governance and Company Performance, 26 October 2017, Lisbon, Portugal.
Konstantinos Sergakis and Hanne S. Birkmose, 'Different aspects of enforcement of shareholders' duties', 9-13 October 2017, University of Oslo, Norway.
'Legal versus Social Enforcement of Shareholder Duties’, International Conference Enforcing Shareholder Duties, 15 September 2017, University of Glasgow, UK.
‘Enforcement of Shareholder Duties: The Preferred Way to Sustainability?’, Council of European Studies, 12 July 2017, University of Glasgow, UK.
‘Regulatory Challenges for Banking and Capital Markets’ Discussant of the Session, SASE 29th Annual Conference, 29 June-2 July 2017, University of Lyon 3, France.
‘Enforcement of Shareholder Duties: The Preferred Way to Sustainability?’, SASE 29th Annual Conference, 29 June-2 July 2017, University of Lyon 3, France.
‘Disclosure and Accountability in EU Capital Markets Law’, 23 June 2017, European Law Institute Conference, Vienna, Austria.
‘Enforcement Mechanisms in Capital Markets Law’, 22-23 May 2017, University of Ghent, Belgium.
‘EU Capital Markets Law’, Guest Lecture, University of Cyprus, 27 April 2017, Cyprus.
‘Enforcement of Shareholder Duties: The Preferred Way to Sustainability?’, Corporate Finance Conference, Capo Bay Hotel, 24-26 April, Cyprus.
Special Guest and Discussant at the Workshop on Ethics & Culture in Finance: 5th Meeting, 31 March 2017, University of Genoa, Italy.
‘Short Selling: Market and Corporate Governance Concerns Revisited’, SIDE 12th Annual Conference, 16-17 December 2016, University of Turin, Italy.
‘The Relevance of Time in Framing the Sanctions Framework for Defective Disclosure’, International conference “Reporting, Investor Relations, Capital Markets – Challenges and Opportunities in Financial Communication”, 10 November 2016, Leipzig, Germany.
‘Enforcement and Sanctions in UK and EU Law: Dissuasion and Compliance’, International conference “Droit des produits et marchés financiers Tendances et défis, Perspectives transnationales”, 14 October 2016, University of Montréal, Canada.
'Shareholders Going Long and Short: Corporate Governance Under Threat?', SLS 2016 Annual Conference, 6 - 9 September 2016, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
‘Individual Responsibility in UK Banking Law’, International Workshop “Enforcement Strategies in Financial Law”, 29 January 2016, University of Glasgow, UK.
'The Duties of a Short Seller', Conference on Shareholder Duties, 10 - 11 November 2015, Aarhus University, Denmark.
' Fighting Deficient Disclosure With Smarter Sanctions? A New Theory in EU Corporate Law', SLS 2015 Annual Conference, 1 - 4 September 2015, University of York, United Kingdom.
'The Relevance of Time in Shaping a New Sanctions Theory in Capital Markets Law', SASE 27th Annual Conference: Inequality in the 21st Century, 2 - 4 July 2015, The London School of Economics and Political Science, United Kingdom.
'Corporate Governance and Financialisation (II): Legal-Economic Case Studies from UK and Norway' (with Yuri Biondi), SASE 27th Annual Conference: Inequality in the 21st Century, 2 - 4 July 2015, The London School of Economics and Political Science, United Kingdom.
'Towards a New Taxonomy of Sanctions in Corporate Law: Fighting Inequality in Capital Markets', BISA 40th Anniversary Conference: The Worlds of Inequality, 16 - 19 June 2015, London, United Kingdom.
‘Shareholder Duties: the UK Approach’, Workshop “Shareholder Duties”, 13-14 March 2015, Aarhus University, Denmark.
'Deconstruction and Reconstruction of the 'Comply or Explain' Principle in EU Capital Markets', SIDE: 10th Annual Conference, 18 - 20 December 2014, Rome, Italy.
‘Compliance, Communication and Engagement in EU Capital Markets: the Importance of National Dialogue Mechanisms’, Northumbria Conference in International Commercial Law, 14 November 2014, University of Northumbria, UK (open invitation).
'The Challenging Issue of Institutional Shareholder Engagement in EU Corporate Law: Perfectible Solutions and Perspectives for Reform', 7th Annual Legal Research Network Conference: The Interface of European and National Law, 3 - 4 September 2014, Bristol, United Kingdom.
‘EU Corporate Governance: the Ongoing Challenges of the “Institutional Investor Activism” conundrum’, Research Seminar Series 2013-2014, 5 February 2014, University of Bristol, UK.
'The Evolution of Monitoring Mechanisms in Corporate Governance Statements: An Antidote to Deficient Transparency', 25th SASE Annual Conference: States in Crisis, 27 - 29 June 2013, Milan, Italy.
'Monitoring Mechanisms: A Panacea for the Shortfalls of Soft Law Measures?', Current Challenges in Corporate Governance: Between Regulatory Compliance and Shareholder Activism, 20 June 2013, Luton, United Kingdom.
'EU Corporate Governance: A New Supervisory Mechanism for the 'Comply or Explain' Principle?', 7th International Finance Conference: Current Issues in International Financial Markets: Assessments and Modeling, 7 - 9 March 2013, Paris, France.
‘The UK Stewardship Code: Bridging the Gap Between Companies and Institutional Investors’, International Roundtable “Gouvernance: Quelle contribution des investisseurs institutionnels?”, University of Montreal, 2 November 2012, Canada (open invitation from Professor Stéphane Rousseau).
'European Corporate Governance Framework: Towards an Optimal Monitoring of the 'Comply or Explain' Principle', 4th Cambridge International Regulation and Governance Conference: More Regulation or Better Stewardship? Optimising the Means and Ends of Good Governance, 6 September 2012, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
‘Towards a More Enforceable Status of Soft Law Measures in Corporate Governance’, CRiL Seminar Series 2012-2013, University of Bedfordshire, 18 January 2012, United Kingdom.
‘CEO Remuneration: Recent Developments and Possible Evolution in EU Law’, Lunchtime Seminar Series, University of Luxembourg, 9 February 2011, Luxembourg (open invitation from Professor Pierre-Henri Conac).
‘Soft Law vs. Hard Law in EU law: the Example of Corporate Governance’, European and Comparative Law Research Center Lectures, University Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, 4 March 2011, France (open invitation from Professors Sophie Robin-Olivier and Jean-Sylvestre Bergé).