Dr Samuel Leighton

  • Clinical Lecturer in General Psychiatry (Mental Health & Wellbeing)

Biography

Dr Sam Leighton is an ST6 General Adult Psychiatrist and Clinical Academic Fellow based in Mental Health & Wellbeing. He is interested in using machine learning to predict outcomes in individuals with a first episode of psychosis.

Dr Leighton graduated from the University of Edinburgh with an MBChB in 2011, having attained an intercalated BMedSci (Hons) in Biochemistry in 2008. Dr Leighton completed his Membership of the Royal College of Physicians in 2014 and his Membership of the Royal College of Psychiatrists in 2016.

During medical school, he taught himself several programming languages (Java, Python, XML, SQLite and R). Later, while working as a junior doctor, he used these skills to help doctors access up-to-date clinical guidance. Dr Leighton developed the NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde (GGC) Primary Care Antimicrobial Guidelines Prescribing App (in conjunction with the GGC Antimicrobial Utilisation Committee). This app has been used >300,000 times in 195 countries. Dr Leighton organises training in technology for clinicians and has been invited to participate in NHS and Scottish Government advisory groups on information governance and national eHealth policy.

In 2018, Dr Leighton joined the University of Glasgow as a Clinical Lecturer. In this post he began to combine his growing research and bioinformatic skills in the analysis of large clinical datasets. He explored the role of inflammation in psychiatric illness by undertaking a meta-analysis of chemokines in depression, incorporating predictive modelling using R statistical programming.

More recently, Dr Leighton has been focussed on harnessing the power of clinical data to improve patient outcomes in psychosis. This work is only possible through collaboration, including with Dr Pavan Mallikarjun at the University of Birmingham, on several large datasets of first episode psychosis patients with longitudinal follow-up.

Clinical Work

Dr Leighton works as an ST6 General Adult Psychiatrist within NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde.

 

Research interests

Dr Leighton is currently undertaking a competitively awarded Chief Scientist Office Clinical Academic Fellowship supervised by Professor Jonathan Cavanagh, Dr Simon Rogers and Dr Rajeev Krishnadas entitled “Developing biologically relevant prediction models for individual patients with First Episode Psychosis using machine learning”.

Psychosis is a mental illness characterised by hearing voices, muddled thoughts and false beliefs. It is associated with huge morbidity and indeed mortality. Only four in ten reach full functional and symptomatic recovery. We know factors, including premorbid functioning, which are associated with a poor outcome at a group level. However, we currently struggle to predict outcomes at an individual level. Prediction modelling via machine learning has the potential to revolutionalise medicine by allowing us to predict outcomes at an individual level.

It has been successfully employed clinically in other areas of medicine. The QRISK tool predicts cardiovascular risk in individual patients. Based on this score, treatment decisions are made. This is the basis of precision medicine.

Within psychiatry, Dr Leighton has recently published the first externally validated evidence of the ability to predict symptomatic and recovery outcomes in individual patients with first episode psychosis using retrospective data.

Dr Leighton's CSO PhD studentship is focussed on answering three questions:

  1. How do prediction models perform prospectively in first episode psychosis patients in a real-world clinical setting?
  2. Can model performance be improved by the addition of biologically relevant disease markers like peripheral inflammatory bloods or magnetic resonance spectroscopy glutamate?
  3. Can performance be improved by the incorporation of dynamic variables, those which change over time, like response to treatment?

This will be accomplished via the EMPATH platform. EMPATH stands for Electronic Measures in Psychosis – Assessing Trajectory and Health-outcomes and will be used for the recording of routinely collected clinical data from NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde’s ESTEEM service, the only first episode psychosis service in Scotland.

This work has clear translational benefits. If we can accurately predict at an individual level who will do well and who will do poorly, we can focus resources on those who need it most and improve outcomes for patients with psychosis.

Publications

List by: Type | Date

Jump to: 2021 | 2020 | 2019 | 2018 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010
Number of items: 12.

2021

Leighton, S. P. et al. (2021) Development and validation of a non-remission risk prediction model in first episode psychosis: an analysis of two longitudinal studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin Open, (doi: 10.1093/schizbullopen/sgab041) (Early Online Publication)

2020

Leighton, S. P. , Birchwood, M. and Mallikarjun, P. K. (2020) Prognostic models in first-episode psychosis – Authors' reply. Lancet Digital Health, 2(2), e61. (doi: 10.1016/S2589-7500(19)30238-9)

2019

Leighton, S. P. et al. (2019) Development and validation of multivariable prediction models of remission, recovery, and quality of life outcomes in people with first episode psychosis: a machine learning approach. Lancet Digital Health, 1(6), e261-e270. (doi: 10.1016/S2589-7500(19)30121-9)

Lyall, L. M., Cullen, B. , Lyall, D. M. , Leighton, S. P. , Siebert, S. , Smith, D. J. and Cavanagh, J. (2019) The associations between self-reported depression, self-reported chronic inflammatory conditions and cognitive abilities in UK Biobank. European Psychiatry, 60, pp. 63-70. (doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2019.05.007) (PMID:31158611) (PMCID:PMC6669333)

Leighton, S. P. , Krishnadas, R. , Chung, K., Blair, A., Brown, S., Clark, S., Sowerbutts, K., Schwannauer, M., Cavanagh, J. and Gumley, A. (2019) Predicting one-year outcome in first episode psychosis using machine learning. PLoS ONE, 14(3), e0212846. (doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0212846) (PMID:30845268) (PMCID:PMC6405084)

2018

Leighton, S.P. , Nerurkar, L., Krishnadas, R. , Johnman, C., Graham, G.J. and Cavanagh, J. (2018) Chemokines in depression in health and in inflammatory illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Molecular Psychiatry, 23(1), pp. 48-58. (doi: 10.1038/mp.2017.205) (PMID:29133955) (PMCID:PMC5754468)

2013

Leighton, S.P. (2013) Regulation is needed to support the development of health IT. BMJ, 347, f5593. (doi: 10.1136/bmj.f5593) (PMID:24048305)

2012

Leighton, S. P. , Baxter, D. R. and Morrison, E. (2012) Images in medicine: A slate grey rash. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 88(1041), pp. 427-428. (doi: 10.1136/postgradmedj-2012-130822) (PMID:22652699)

Morgan, K., Leighton, S. P. and Millar, R. P. (2012) Probing the GnRH receptor agonist binding site identifies methylated triptorelin as a new anti-proliferative agent. Journal of Molecular Biochemistry, 1(2), pp. 86-98.

2011

Morgan, K., Stavrou, E., Leighton, S. P. , Miller, N., Sellar, R. and Millar, R. P. (2011) Elevated GnRH receptor expression plus GnRH agonist treatment inhibits the growth of a subset of papillomavirus 18-immortalized human prostate cells. Prostate, 71(9), pp. 915-928. (doi: 10.1002/pros.21308) (PMID:21541969)

Leighton, S.P. , Gordon, C. and Shand, A. (2011) Unusual presentation of more common disease/injury: Clopidogrel, turkey and a red herring? BMJ Case Reports, 2011(4), 0120113776. (doi: 10.1136/bcr.01.2011.3776) (PMID:22700934) (PMCID:PMC3079450)

2010

Velu, P.P., Hor, K., Leighton, S.P. , Yeoh, S.E. and Duxbury, M. (2010) Cost–utility and value‐of‐information analysis of early versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis (Br J Surg 2010; 97: 210–219). British Journal of Surgery, 97(7), pp. 1146-1151. (doi: 10.1002/bjs.7169) (PMID:20632291)

This list was generated on Wed Oct 27 23:58:06 2021 BST.
Jump to: Articles
Number of items: 12.

Articles

Leighton, S. P. et al. (2021) Development and validation of a non-remission risk prediction model in first episode psychosis: an analysis of two longitudinal studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin Open, (doi: 10.1093/schizbullopen/sgab041) (Early Online Publication)

Leighton, S. P. , Birchwood, M. and Mallikarjun, P. K. (2020) Prognostic models in first-episode psychosis – Authors' reply. Lancet Digital Health, 2(2), e61. (doi: 10.1016/S2589-7500(19)30238-9)

Leighton, S. P. et al. (2019) Development and validation of multivariable prediction models of remission, recovery, and quality of life outcomes in people with first episode psychosis: a machine learning approach. Lancet Digital Health, 1(6), e261-e270. (doi: 10.1016/S2589-7500(19)30121-9)

Lyall, L. M., Cullen, B. , Lyall, D. M. , Leighton, S. P. , Siebert, S. , Smith, D. J. and Cavanagh, J. (2019) The associations between self-reported depression, self-reported chronic inflammatory conditions and cognitive abilities in UK Biobank. European Psychiatry, 60, pp. 63-70. (doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2019.05.007) (PMID:31158611) (PMCID:PMC6669333)

Leighton, S. P. , Krishnadas, R. , Chung, K., Blair, A., Brown, S., Clark, S., Sowerbutts, K., Schwannauer, M., Cavanagh, J. and Gumley, A. (2019) Predicting one-year outcome in first episode psychosis using machine learning. PLoS ONE, 14(3), e0212846. (doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0212846) (PMID:30845268) (PMCID:PMC6405084)

Leighton, S.P. , Nerurkar, L., Krishnadas, R. , Johnman, C., Graham, G.J. and Cavanagh, J. (2018) Chemokines in depression in health and in inflammatory illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Molecular Psychiatry, 23(1), pp. 48-58. (doi: 10.1038/mp.2017.205) (PMID:29133955) (PMCID:PMC5754468)

Leighton, S.P. (2013) Regulation is needed to support the development of health IT. BMJ, 347, f5593. (doi: 10.1136/bmj.f5593) (PMID:24048305)

Leighton, S. P. , Baxter, D. R. and Morrison, E. (2012) Images in medicine: A slate grey rash. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 88(1041), pp. 427-428. (doi: 10.1136/postgradmedj-2012-130822) (PMID:22652699)

Morgan, K., Leighton, S. P. and Millar, R. P. (2012) Probing the GnRH receptor agonist binding site identifies methylated triptorelin as a new anti-proliferative agent. Journal of Molecular Biochemistry, 1(2), pp. 86-98.

Morgan, K., Stavrou, E., Leighton, S. P. , Miller, N., Sellar, R. and Millar, R. P. (2011) Elevated GnRH receptor expression plus GnRH agonist treatment inhibits the growth of a subset of papillomavirus 18-immortalized human prostate cells. Prostate, 71(9), pp. 915-928. (doi: 10.1002/pros.21308) (PMID:21541969)

Leighton, S.P. , Gordon, C. and Shand, A. (2011) Unusual presentation of more common disease/injury: Clopidogrel, turkey and a red herring? BMJ Case Reports, 2011(4), 0120113776. (doi: 10.1136/bcr.01.2011.3776) (PMID:22700934) (PMCID:PMC3079450)

Velu, P.P., Hor, K., Leighton, S.P. , Yeoh, S.E. and Duxbury, M. (2010) Cost–utility and value‐of‐information analysis of early versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis (Br J Surg 2010; 97: 210–219). British Journal of Surgery, 97(7), pp. 1146-1151. (doi: 10.1002/bjs.7169) (PMID:20632291)

This list was generated on Wed Oct 27 23:58:06 2021 BST.

Grants

Grants and Awards listed are those received whilst working with the University of Glasgow.

  • CSO clinical training grant - psychotic disorders
    Chief Scientist Office
    2019 - 2022