1C: Sensors, Systems and Networks

Development and Demonstration of Wireless Sensor Networks for Autonomous Building Information Monitoring Systems, Jeff Kettle (Electronic & Nanoscale Engineering, University of Glasgow)

The emergence of the internet of things (IoT) has enabled the automation and real-time monitoring of indoor environmental conditions. In this presentation, the design, performance, and operation of a solar-powered Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) that captures internal humidity, temperature, carbon dioxide, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and light intensity is presented. As a case study, the WSN has been placed into a 1960s office building and tested over a 24-month period. During this time, the system has operated autonomously and has required no maintenance, as it has been powered by an Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) module which has captured light from the ambient surroundings. By developing a solar-powered system, the WSN can be easily retrofitted into older housing stock without the need to rewire. Data that has been acquired from the WSN and has been used to construct machine learning algorithms that can forecast the indoor conditions of a building based upon outdoor weather conditions.  Such a model could be used to alter behaviour of building users in order to improve energy consumption patterns within buildings. We show an excellent correlation between our predicted indoor conditions and experimentally measured data. Finally, the field data is used to optimise the size of the OPV for future indoor applications which may possess different energy loads. This model provides a method to calculate the required OPV output power to ensure remote operation of other IoT electronics. 

Holistic 5th Generation District Heating and Cooling Ambient Temperature Networks: Integrating the Electricity Network to the Thermal Network as a Way to Decarbonise the Energy Sector, Orestis Angelidis (Industrial PhD student on energy systems, University of Glasgow)

This presentation will introduce a holistic 5th generation district heating and cooling system and how it could facilitate meeting the energy trilemma (low cost of energy, low environmental impact, and security of supply) by relying on reusing waste heat in the urban environment. It will focus on superimposing the findings from a systematic literature review and interviews with industrial and academic experts around 6 key themes.

THEME 1: Benefits and shortfalls to other decarbonisation strategies.

THEME 2: Physics of operation of a holistic bidirectional flow ambient temperature network.

THEME 3: Modelling methodology for representation of the physics of operation of the energy system, minimising operation time and space.

THEME 4: Thermal grid as a flexibility element to the electricity grid.

THEME 5: The role of energy storage in the performance of the system and how it can lead to excess heat maximisation. 

THEME 6: New business models to facilitate energy decarbonisation.