Dr Richard Horobin

  • Honorary Research Fellow (Chemistry)

Research interests

Dr Richard Horobin

Honorary Research Fellow

Tel 01796 474480

Richard.Horobin@glasgow.ac.uk

Research interests

For me, doing science began with my working in an industrial customer service lab, followed by a PhD in a chemistry department – after which I’ve largely worked with academic structural biology groups. However, an enthusiasm for dyestuff chemistry with biomedical applications has proved lifelong, as have two related questions.

First, where do dyes – and drugs and other xenobiotics – actually accumulate, in living cells? Currently I build decision-rule QSAR models to address this question. I aim to assist design of organelle-localizing compounds – and to understand, and sometimes critique, existing agents. Application areas have emphasized fluorescent probes for use with animal cells, such as mitochondrially localizing compounds. But other topics of interest have included labeling free living lobster larvae, probing mycobacterial membranes, and cellular localization of drugs. Building on the latter, a particular concern has been the cellular toxicology of prescribed psychoactive drugs.

Second, how can lab workers select and trouble-shoot microscopic imaging methods – both fluorescent probes and the traditional dye-based procedure? Especially in diagnostic contexts, using documentary and electronic advisory systems. Related to this, I have a concern with the quality control – and hence the selectivity, and so the staining mechanisms – of dyes and small-molecule fluorescent probes.

Research topics

QSAR-based ‘design manual’ for guided synthesis of organelle selective agents.

Intracellular aggregation of dyes and drugs.

Cellular internalisation mechanisms of hydrophilic probes.

Pitfalls of current sensors for mitochondrial processes and contents.

 Selected publications

Uchinomiya, S., Horobin, R., Alvarado-Martínez, E., Peña-Cabrera, E., and Chang, Y.-T. (2016) Prediction of intracellular localization of fluorescent dyes using QSAR models. Combinatorial Chemistry and High Throughput Screening, 19(5), pp. 378-383. (doi:10.2174/1386207319666160408150528)

Xie, B. et al. (2015) Necrosis avid near infrared fluorescent cyanines for imaging cell death and their use to monitor therapeutic efficacy in mouse tumor models. Oncotarget, 6(36), pp. 39036-39049. (doi:10.18632/oncotarget.5498) (PMID:26472022) (PMCID:PMC4770755)

Horobin, R. W. (2014) Where do dyes go inside living cells? Predicting uptake, intracellular localisation, and accumulation using QSAR models. Coloration Technology, 130(3), pp. 155-173. (doi:10.1111/cote.12093)

Horobin, R.W. (2011) How Romanowsky stains work and why they remain valuable — including a proposed universal Romanowsky staining mechanism and a rational troubleshooting scheme. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 86(1), pp. 36-51. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2010.515491) (PMID:21235292)

Horobin, R.W. and Kiernan, J.A., (Eds.) (2002) Conn’s Biological Stains: A Handbook of Dyes, Stains, and Fluorochromes for Use in Biology and Medicine, 10th Edition. BIOS Scientific Pubishers: Oxford. ISBN 9781859960998.


Additional information

Awards

BSc, PhD, FRMS

Selected recent talks

  • “Staining with acid & basic dyes – is it just ion exchange?” Joint Meeting of the Biological Stain Commission & the Michigan Association of Histotechnology, Grand Rapids, MI, USA., June 2016.
  • “Dyes & fluorochromes in biology & medicine – 150 years & counting.” The Microscopy Society of Ireland Symposium, NUI, Galway, Ireland, August 2013.
  • “Biomedical imaging using dyes & fluorochromes (‘staining’): why, how, and what has been achieved?” International AIC Colour Conference, Gateshead (UK), July 2013.
  • A series of seminars on “QSAR model as aids for the design of fluorescent probes.” State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China, June 2011
  • “Dyes & fluorochromes as imaging agents in biology and medicine – new opportunities for dyestuff and textile chemists.” The International Conference on Eco dyeing/Finishing Green Chemistry, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou, China, June 2011.

External appointments and positions

  • Associate Editor of Biotechnic & Histochemistry.
  • Trustee of the Biological Stain Commission, whose role is to ensure the quality and successful application of dyestuffs in diagnosis and biomedical research.
  • Consultant with Avantor Performance Materials, concerning development of imaging reagents.
  • Memberships: Fellow of the Royal Microscopical Society, Society of Dyers & Colourists.

Publications

List by: Type | Date

Jump to: 2018 | 2017 | 2016 | 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 | 2000
Number of items: 68.

2018

Stockert, J. C., Horobin, R. W. , Colombo, L. L. and Blázquez-Castro, A. (2018) Tetrazolium salts and formazan products in cell biology: viability assessment, fluorescence imaging, and labeling perspectives. Acta Histochemica, 120(3), pp. 159-167. (doi:10.1016/j.acthis.2018.02.005) (PMID:29496266)

Horobin, R.W. (2018) Theory of histological staining: why and how staining happens. In: Suvarna, K., Layton, C. and Bancroft, J. (eds.) Bancroft's Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. Elsevier: Oxford. ISBN 9780702068645

2017

Hope-Roberts, M. and Horobin, R.W. (2017) A review of curcumin as a biological stain and as a self-visualizing pharmaceutical agent. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 92(5), pp. 315-323. (doi:10.1080/10520295.2017.1310925) (PMID:28506128)

2016

Uchinomiya, S., Horobin, R. , Alvarado-Martínez, E., Peña-Cabrera, E. and Chang, Y.-T. (2016) Prediction of intracellular localization of fluorescent dyes using QSAR models. Combinatorial Chemistry and High Throughput Screening, 19(5), pp. 378-383. (doi:10.2174/1386207319666160408150528)

2015

Xie, B. et al. (2015) Necrosis avid near infrared fluorescent cyanines for imaging cell death and their use to monitor therapeutic efficacy in mouse tumor models. Oncotarget, 6(36), pp. 39036-39049. (doi:10.18632/oncotarget.5498) (PMID:26472022) (PMCID:PMC4770755)

Min, K. A. et al. (2015) Massive bioaccumulation and self-assembly of phenazine compounds in live cells. Advanced Science, 2(8), 150002. (doi:10.1002/advs.201500025) (PMID:26380168) (PMCID:PMC4569013)

Horobin, R.W. , Stockert, J.C. and Rashid-Doubell, F. (2015) Uptake and localization mechanisms of fluorescent and colored lipid probes: part 2. QSAR models that predict localization of fluorescent probes used to identify ('specifically stain') various biomembranes and membranous organelles. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 90(4), pp. 241-254. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2015.1005129) (PMID:25801297)

Horobin, R.W. , Stockert, J.C. and Rashid-Doubell, F. (2015) Uptake and localization mechanisms of fluorescent and colored lipid probes: part 3. protocols for predicting intracellular localization of lipid probes using QSAR models. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 90(4), pp. 255-263. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2015.1006680) (PMID:25801295)

Horobin, R. W. (2015) Predicting mitochondrial targeting by small molecule xenobiotics with living cells using QSAR models. In: Weissig, V. and Edeas, M. (eds.) Mitochondral Medicine. Vol. II, Manipulating Mitochondral Function. Series: Methods in molecular biology (1265). Humana Press: New York, pp. 13-23. ISBN 9781493922871 (doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-2288-8_2)

2014

Horobin, R. W. (2014) Where do dyes go inside living cells? Predicting uptake, intracellular localisation, and accumulation using QSAR models. Coloration Technology, 130(3), pp. 155-173. (doi:10.1111/cote.12093)

Lyon, H.O. and Horobin, R.W. (2014) News from the Biological Stain Commission No. 15. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 89(3), pp. 232-239. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2014.895044)

Stockert, J. C., Blázquez-Castro, A. and Horobin, R. W. (2014) Identifying different types of chromatin using Giemsa staining. Methods in Molecular Biology, 1094, pp. 25-38. (doi:10.1007/978-1-62703-706-8_3)

2013

Dapson, R.W. and Horobin, R.W. (2013) Alternative methods for estimating common descriptors for QSAR studies of dyes and fluorescent probes using molecular modeling software. 2. Correlations between log P and the hydrophilic/lipophilic index, and new methods for estimating degrees of amphiphilicity. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 88(8), pp. 489-497. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2013.811287)

Dapson, R.W. and Horobin, R.W. (2013) Biological stain commission symposium, 2012: fluorochromes. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 88(8), pp. 426-427. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2013.811288)

Horobin, R.W. and Rashid-Doubell, F. (2013) Predicting small molecule fluorescent probe localization in living cells using QSAR modeling. 2. Specifying probe, protocol and cell factors; selecting QSAR models; predicting entry and localization. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 88(8), pp. 461-476. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2013.780635)

Horobin, R.W. , Rashid-Doubell, F., Pediani, J.D. and Milligan, G. (2013) Predicting small molecule fluorescent probe localization in living cells using QSAR modeling. 1. Overview and models for probes of structure, properties and function in single cells. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 88(8), pp. 440-460. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2013.780634)

Horobin, R.W. , Stockert, J.C. and Rashid-Doubell, F. (2013) Uptake and localisation of small-molecule fluorescent probes in living cells: a critical appraisal of QSAR models and a case study concerning probes for DNA and RNA. Histochemistry and Cell Biology, 139(5), pp. 623-637. (doi:10.1007/s00418-013-1090-0)

Horobin, R. W. (2013) How histological stains work. In: Suvana, S. K., Layton, C. and Bancroft, J. D. (eds.) Bancroft's Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques, 7th Edition. Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier: Oxford, pp. 157-171. ISBN 9780702042263

2012

Stockert, J. C., Blázquez-Castro, A., Cañete, M., Horobin, R. W. and Villanueva, Á. (2012) MTT assay for cell viability: Intracellular localization of the formazan product is in lipid droplets. Acta Histochemica, 114(8), pp. 785-796. (doi:10.1016/j.acthis.2012.01.006) (PMID:22341561)

Hope-Roberts, M. and Horobin, R.W. (2012) Biomedical applications and chemical nature of three dyes first synthesized by Raphael Meldola: isamine blue, Meldola's blue and naphthol green B. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 87(4), pp. 295-299. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2011.639722)

Lyon, H.O. and Horobin, R.W. (2012) News from the Biological Stain Commission no. 11. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 87(1), pp. 72-77. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2011.634376)

Horobin, R.W. (2012) Report on the 2nd workshop on fluorescence chemosensors and bioimaging, Dalian, China: one participant’s view. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 87(1), pp. 69-71. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2011.552437)

Horobin, R. W. (2012) Dyes & fluorochromes as imaging agents in biology and medicine - new opportunities for dyestuff and textile chemists. Advanced Materials Research, 441, pp. 366-370. (doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.441.366)

Thompson, K., Dockery, P. and Horobin, R.W. (2012) Predicting and avoiding subcellular compartmentalization artifacts arising from acetoxymethyl ester calcium imaging probes. The case of fluo-3 AM and a general account of the phenomenon including a problem avoidance chart. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 87(7), pp. 468-483. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2012.703691)

Øresland, V. and Horobin, R.W. (2012) Tracking living decapod larvae: mass staining of eggs with neutral red prior to hatching. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 87(3), pp. 229-234. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2011.639718) (PMID:22149046)

2011

Hope-Roberts, M., Horobin, R.W. and Wainwright, M. (2011) Identifying apoptotic cells with the 3-hydroxyflavone derivative F2N12S, a ratiometric fluorescent small molecule probe selective for plasma membranes: a possible general mechanism for selective uptake into apoptotic cell. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 86(4), pp. 255-261. (doi:10.3109/10520291003723426)

Hope-Roberts, M., Wainwright, M. and Horobin, R.W. (2011) Real-time imaging of bacteria in living mice using a fluorescent dye. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 86(2), pp. 104-107. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2010.498295)

Horobin, R.W. (2011) How Romanowsky stains work and why they remain valuable — including a proposed universal Romanowsky staining mechanism and a rational troubleshooting scheme. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 86(1), pp. 36-51. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2010.515491) (PMID:21235292)

Horobin, R.W. and Stockert, J.C. (2011) Uptake and localization mechanisms of fluorescent and colored lipid probes. 1. Physicochemistry of probe uptake and localization, and the use of QSAR models for selectivity prediction. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 86(6), pp. 379-393. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2010.515489) (PMID:20818918)

2010

Dapson, R., Horobin, R.W. and Kiernan, J. (2010) Hematoxylin shortages: their causes and duration, and other dyes that can replace hemalum in routine hematoxylin and eosin staining. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 85(1), pp. 55-63. (doi:10.3109/10520290903048400) (PMID:19562570)

Del Castillo, P., Horobin, R.W. , Blázquez-Castro, A. and Stockert, J.C. (2010) Binding of cationic dyes to DNA: distinguishing intercalation and groove binding mechanisms using simple experimental and numerical models. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 85(4), pp. 247-256. (doi:10.3109/10520290903149620) (PMID:20560871)

Horobin, R. W. (2010) Can QSAR models describing small-molecule xenobiotics give useful tips for predicting uptake and localization of nanoparticles in living cells? And if not, why not? In: Weissig, V. and D'Souza, G. G.M. (eds.) Organelle-Specific Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology. Wiley: Hoboken, NJ, pp. 193-205. ISBN 9780470631652 (doi:10.1002/9780470875780.ch11)

Kiernan, J.A. and Horobin, R.W. (2010) A special issue devoted to hematoxylin, hematein, and hemalum. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 85(1), pp. 5-6. (doi:10.3109/10520290903048368) (PMID:19548134)

Lyon, H.O. and Horobin, R.W. (2010) News from the biological stain commission no. 6. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 85(2), pp. 149-151. (doi:10.3109/10520290903235460) (PMID:20210516)

Lyon, H.O. and Horobin, R.W. (2010) News from the biological stain commission no. 7. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 85(3), pp. 205-208.

Lyon, H.O. and Horobin, R.W. (2010) News from the biological stain commission no. 9. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 85(6), pp. 389-395. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2010.488156)

Stockert, J.C., Abasolo, M.I., Blázquez-Castro, A., Horobin, R.W. , Revilla, M. and Lombardo, D.M. (2010) Selective labeling of lipid droplets in aldehyde fixed cell monolayers by lipophilic fluorochromes. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 85(5), pp. 277-283. (doi:10.3109/10520290903196183) (PMID:20560872)

2009

Horobin, R. W. and Huff, M. (2009) Bibliography - RW Mowry. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 84(1), pp. 35-36. (doi:10.1080/10520290802670098) (PMID:19115113)

Dapson, R.W. and Horobin, R.W. (2009) Dyes from a twenty-first century perspective. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 84(4), pp. 135-137. (doi:10.1080/10520290902908802) (PMID:19384743)

Delieu, J.M., Horobin, R.W. and Duguid, J.K. (2009) Exploring the relationship of drug-induced neutrophil immaturity & haematological toxicity to drug chemistry using quantitative structure – activity models. Medicinal Chemistry, 5(1), pp. 7-14. (doi:10.2174/157340609787049307) (PMID:19149645)

2008

Trapp, S., Rosania, G. R., Horobin, R. W. and Kornhuber, J. (2008) Quantitative modeling of selective lysosomal targeting for drug design. European Biophysics Journal, 37(8), pp. 1317-1328. (doi:10.1007/s00249-008-0338-4) (PMID:18504571) (PMCID:PMC2711917)

D'Souza, G. G.M., Cheng, S.-M., Boddapati, S. V., Horobin, R. W. and Weissig, V. (2008) Nanocarrier-assisted sub-cellular targeting to the site of mitochondria improves the pro-apoptotic activity of paclitaxel. Journal of Drug Targeting, 16(7-8), pp. 578-585. (doi:10.1080/10611860802228855) (PMID:18686127)

Hope-Roberts, M., Wainwright, M. and Horobin, R.W. (2008) A nitrobenzofuran-conjugated phosphatidylcholine (C12-NBD-PC) as a stain for membrane lamellae for both microscopic imaging and spectrofluorimetry. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 83(1), pp. 25-28. (doi:10.1080/10520290801886224) (PMID:18568674)

Horobin, R. W. (2008) How do histological stains work? In: Bancroft, J. D. and Ganble, M. (eds.) Theory and Practise of Histological Techniques, 6th Edition. Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier: Philadelphia, PA, pp. 105-119. ISBN 9780443102790

Lyon, H.O. and Horobin, R. W. (2008) News from the Biological stain commission. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 83(2), pp. 97-100. (doi:10.1080/10520290802041118)

Weissig, V., Boddapati, S., D'Souza, G. and Horobin, R. W. (2008) Functionalization of pharmaceutical nanocarriers for mitochondria-tarteted drug and DNA delivery. In: Torchilin, V. (ed.) Multifunctional Pharmaceutical Nanocarriers. Series: Fundamental biomedical technologies (4). Springer: New York, pp. 363-379. ISBN 9780387765518 (doi:10.1007/978-0-387-76554-9)

2007

Horobin, R. W. , Trapp, S. and Weissig, V. (2007) Mitochondriotropics: a review of their mode of action, and their applications for drug and DNA delivery to mammalian mitochondria. Journal of Controlled Release, 121(3), pp. 125-136. (doi:10.1016/j.jconrel.2007.05.040) (PMID:17658192)

Horobin, R. W. (2007) Editor's note: a special issue concerning indigo in history and in he twenty-first century: indigo and related dyes, indoxyls and the indoxyl reaction. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 82(2), pp. 47-49. (doi:10.1080/10520290701396779)

Horobin, R. W. (2007) Editorial note: celebration of the life and work of Dietrich Wittekind. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 82(6), pp. 283-284. (doi:10.1080/10520290701779859)

Lyon, H.O. and Horobin, R.W. (2007) Standardization and standards for dyes and stains used in biology and medicine. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 82(1), pp. 1-11. (doi:10.1080/10520290601116590) (PMID:17510808)

Stockert, J.C., Canete, M., Juarranz, A., Villanueva, A., Horobin, R.W. , Borrell, J.I., Teixido, J. and Nonell, S. (2007) Porphycenes: facts and prospects in photodynamic therapy of cancer. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 14(9), pp. 997-1026. (doi:10.2174/092986707780362934) (PMID:17439399)

2006

Horobin, R. W. , Stockert, J. C. and Rashid-Doubell, F. (2006) Fluorescent cationic probes for nuclei of living cells: why are they selective? A quantitative structure–activity relations analysis. Histochemistry and Cell Biology, 126(2), pp. 165-175. (doi:10.1007/s00418-006-0156-7) (PMID:16463179)

Delieu, J.M., Horobin, R.W. and Duguid, J.K. (2006) Formation of immature neutrophil leucocytes in schizophrenic patients treated with various antipsychotic drugs: comparisons and predictions. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 20(6), pp. 824-828. (doi:10.1177/0269881106061112) (PMID:16401649)

2005

Trapp, S. and Horobin, R. W. (2005) A predictive model for the selective accumulation of chemicals in tumor cells. European Biophysics Journal, 34(7), pp. 959-966. (doi:10.1007/s00249-005-0472-1) (PMID:15895221)

Horobin, R. W. and Weissig, V. (2005) A QSAR-modeling perspective on cationic transfection lipids. 1. Predicting efficiency and understanding mechanisms. Journal of Gene Medicine, 7(8), pp. 1023-1034. (doi:10.1002/jgm.746) (PMID:15756714)

2004

Horobin, R.W. (2004) Staining by numbers: a tool for understanding and assisting use of routine and special histopathology stains. Journal of Histotechnology, 27(1), pp. 23-28.

Horobin, R.W. (2004) The failure to specify sources of dyes, chromogens and fluorescent probes: an analysis and some proposals for action. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 79(1), pp. 1-3.

Stockert, J. C. et al. (2004) Photodynamic therapy: selective uptake of photosensitizing drugs into tumor cell. Current Topics in Pharmacology, 8(2), pp. 185-217.

2003

Colston, J., Horobin, R.W. , Rashid-Doubell, F., Pediani, J. and Johal, K.K. (2003) Why fluorescent probes for endoplasmic reticulum are selective: an experimental and QSAR-modelling study. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 78(6), pp. 323-332. (doi:10.1080/10520290310001646659) (PMID:15473580)

2002

Horobin, R. W. and Kiernan, J. A. (Eds.) (2002) Conn's Biological Stains: A Handbook of Dyes, Stains and Fluorochromes for Use in Biology and Medicine, 10th Edition. BIOS Scientific Publishers: Oxford. ISBN 9781859960998

Horobin, R.W. (2002) Biological staining: mechanisms and theory. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 77(1), pp. 3-13. (doi:10.1080/bih.77.1.3.13) (PMID:11991329)

Horobin, R. W. (2002) Theory of histological staining and its practical implications. In: Bancroft, J.D. and Gamble, M. (eds.) Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques, 5th Edition. Churchill Livingstone: London, pp. 109-123. ISBN 9780443064357

2001

Delieu, J.M., Badawoud, M., Williams, M.A., Horobin, R.W. and Duguid, J.K. (2001) Antipsychotic drugs result in the formation of immature neutrophil leucocytes in schizophrenic patients. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 15(3), pp. 191-194. (doi:10.1177/026988110101500306) (PMID:11565627)

Horobin, R.W. (2001) The misnaming of dyes and fluorescent probes - a survey of practical problems arising from errors and ambiguities in nomenclature seen in current documents and some remedial proposals. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 76(4), pp. 207-213. (doi:10.1080/bih.76.4.207.213) (PMID:11549132)

Horobin, R.W. (2001) The problem of proprietary dyes, with special reference to alamar blue, a proprietary dye revealed. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 76(4), pp. 163-164. (doi:10.1080/bih.76.4.163.164) (PMID:11549128)

Horobin, R. W. (2001) Uptake, distribution, and accumulation of dyes and fluorescent probes within living cells. A structure-activity modelling approach. Advances in Colour Science and Technology, 4, pp. 101-107.

Horobin, R. W. (2001) Histochemical staining. In: eLS. Wiley. (doi:10.1038/npg.els.0002644)

2000

Churukian, C. J., Frank, M. and Horobin, R. W. (2000) Alcian blue pyridine variant–a superior alternative to alcian blue 8GX: staining performance and stability. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 75(3), pp. 147-150. (doi:10.3109/10520290009066493) (PMID:10950177)

This list was generated on Wed Jul 17 06:27:46 2019 BST.
Number of items: 68.

Articles

Stockert, J. C., Horobin, R. W. , Colombo, L. L. and Blázquez-Castro, A. (2018) Tetrazolium salts and formazan products in cell biology: viability assessment, fluorescence imaging, and labeling perspectives. Acta Histochemica, 120(3), pp. 159-167. (doi:10.1016/j.acthis.2018.02.005) (PMID:29496266)

Hope-Roberts, M. and Horobin, R.W. (2017) A review of curcumin as a biological stain and as a self-visualizing pharmaceutical agent. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 92(5), pp. 315-323. (doi:10.1080/10520295.2017.1310925) (PMID:28506128)

Uchinomiya, S., Horobin, R. , Alvarado-Martínez, E., Peña-Cabrera, E. and Chang, Y.-T. (2016) Prediction of intracellular localization of fluorescent dyes using QSAR models. Combinatorial Chemistry and High Throughput Screening, 19(5), pp. 378-383. (doi:10.2174/1386207319666160408150528)

Xie, B. et al. (2015) Necrosis avid near infrared fluorescent cyanines for imaging cell death and their use to monitor therapeutic efficacy in mouse tumor models. Oncotarget, 6(36), pp. 39036-39049. (doi:10.18632/oncotarget.5498) (PMID:26472022) (PMCID:PMC4770755)

Min, K. A. et al. (2015) Massive bioaccumulation and self-assembly of phenazine compounds in live cells. Advanced Science, 2(8), 150002. (doi:10.1002/advs.201500025) (PMID:26380168) (PMCID:PMC4569013)

Horobin, R.W. , Stockert, J.C. and Rashid-Doubell, F. (2015) Uptake and localization mechanisms of fluorescent and colored lipid probes: part 2. QSAR models that predict localization of fluorescent probes used to identify ('specifically stain') various biomembranes and membranous organelles. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 90(4), pp. 241-254. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2015.1005129) (PMID:25801297)

Horobin, R.W. , Stockert, J.C. and Rashid-Doubell, F. (2015) Uptake and localization mechanisms of fluorescent and colored lipid probes: part 3. protocols for predicting intracellular localization of lipid probes using QSAR models. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 90(4), pp. 255-263. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2015.1006680) (PMID:25801295)

Horobin, R. W. (2014) Where do dyes go inside living cells? Predicting uptake, intracellular localisation, and accumulation using QSAR models. Coloration Technology, 130(3), pp. 155-173. (doi:10.1111/cote.12093)

Lyon, H.O. and Horobin, R.W. (2014) News from the Biological Stain Commission No. 15. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 89(3), pp. 232-239. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2014.895044)

Stockert, J. C., Blázquez-Castro, A. and Horobin, R. W. (2014) Identifying different types of chromatin using Giemsa staining. Methods in Molecular Biology, 1094, pp. 25-38. (doi:10.1007/978-1-62703-706-8_3)

Dapson, R.W. and Horobin, R.W. (2013) Alternative methods for estimating common descriptors for QSAR studies of dyes and fluorescent probes using molecular modeling software. 2. Correlations between log P and the hydrophilic/lipophilic index, and new methods for estimating degrees of amphiphilicity. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 88(8), pp. 489-497. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2013.811287)

Dapson, R.W. and Horobin, R.W. (2013) Biological stain commission symposium, 2012: fluorochromes. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 88(8), pp. 426-427. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2013.811288)

Horobin, R.W. and Rashid-Doubell, F. (2013) Predicting small molecule fluorescent probe localization in living cells using QSAR modeling. 2. Specifying probe, protocol and cell factors; selecting QSAR models; predicting entry and localization. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 88(8), pp. 461-476. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2013.780635)

Horobin, R.W. , Rashid-Doubell, F., Pediani, J.D. and Milligan, G. (2013) Predicting small molecule fluorescent probe localization in living cells using QSAR modeling. 1. Overview and models for probes of structure, properties and function in single cells. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 88(8), pp. 440-460. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2013.780634)

Horobin, R.W. , Stockert, J.C. and Rashid-Doubell, F. (2013) Uptake and localisation of small-molecule fluorescent probes in living cells: a critical appraisal of QSAR models and a case study concerning probes for DNA and RNA. Histochemistry and Cell Biology, 139(5), pp. 623-637. (doi:10.1007/s00418-013-1090-0)

Stockert, J. C., Blázquez-Castro, A., Cañete, M., Horobin, R. W. and Villanueva, Á. (2012) MTT assay for cell viability: Intracellular localization of the formazan product is in lipid droplets. Acta Histochemica, 114(8), pp. 785-796. (doi:10.1016/j.acthis.2012.01.006) (PMID:22341561)

Hope-Roberts, M. and Horobin, R.W. (2012) Biomedical applications and chemical nature of three dyes first synthesized by Raphael Meldola: isamine blue, Meldola's blue and naphthol green B. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 87(4), pp. 295-299. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2011.639722)

Lyon, H.O. and Horobin, R.W. (2012) News from the Biological Stain Commission no. 11. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 87(1), pp. 72-77. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2011.634376)

Horobin, R.W. (2012) Report on the 2nd workshop on fluorescence chemosensors and bioimaging, Dalian, China: one participant’s view. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 87(1), pp. 69-71. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2011.552437)

Horobin, R. W. (2012) Dyes & fluorochromes as imaging agents in biology and medicine - new opportunities for dyestuff and textile chemists. Advanced Materials Research, 441, pp. 366-370. (doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.441.366)

Thompson, K., Dockery, P. and Horobin, R.W. (2012) Predicting and avoiding subcellular compartmentalization artifacts arising from acetoxymethyl ester calcium imaging probes. The case of fluo-3 AM and a general account of the phenomenon including a problem avoidance chart. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 87(7), pp. 468-483. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2012.703691)

Øresland, V. and Horobin, R.W. (2012) Tracking living decapod larvae: mass staining of eggs with neutral red prior to hatching. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 87(3), pp. 229-234. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2011.639718) (PMID:22149046)

Hope-Roberts, M., Horobin, R.W. and Wainwright, M. (2011) Identifying apoptotic cells with the 3-hydroxyflavone derivative F2N12S, a ratiometric fluorescent small molecule probe selective for plasma membranes: a possible general mechanism for selective uptake into apoptotic cell. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 86(4), pp. 255-261. (doi:10.3109/10520291003723426)

Hope-Roberts, M., Wainwright, M. and Horobin, R.W. (2011) Real-time imaging of bacteria in living mice using a fluorescent dye. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 86(2), pp. 104-107. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2010.498295)

Horobin, R.W. (2011) How Romanowsky stains work and why they remain valuable — including a proposed universal Romanowsky staining mechanism and a rational troubleshooting scheme. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 86(1), pp. 36-51. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2010.515491) (PMID:21235292)

Horobin, R.W. and Stockert, J.C. (2011) Uptake and localization mechanisms of fluorescent and colored lipid probes. 1. Physicochemistry of probe uptake and localization, and the use of QSAR models for selectivity prediction. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 86(6), pp. 379-393. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2010.515489) (PMID:20818918)

Dapson, R., Horobin, R.W. and Kiernan, J. (2010) Hematoxylin shortages: their causes and duration, and other dyes that can replace hemalum in routine hematoxylin and eosin staining. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 85(1), pp. 55-63. (doi:10.3109/10520290903048400) (PMID:19562570)

Del Castillo, P., Horobin, R.W. , Blázquez-Castro, A. and Stockert, J.C. (2010) Binding of cationic dyes to DNA: distinguishing intercalation and groove binding mechanisms using simple experimental and numerical models. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 85(4), pp. 247-256. (doi:10.3109/10520290903149620) (PMID:20560871)

Kiernan, J.A. and Horobin, R.W. (2010) A special issue devoted to hematoxylin, hematein, and hemalum. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 85(1), pp. 5-6. (doi:10.3109/10520290903048368) (PMID:19548134)

Lyon, H.O. and Horobin, R.W. (2010) News from the biological stain commission no. 6. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 85(2), pp. 149-151. (doi:10.3109/10520290903235460) (PMID:20210516)

Lyon, H.O. and Horobin, R.W. (2010) News from the biological stain commission no. 7. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 85(3), pp. 205-208.

Lyon, H.O. and Horobin, R.W. (2010) News from the biological stain commission no. 9. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 85(6), pp. 389-395. (doi:10.3109/10520295.2010.488156)

Stockert, J.C., Abasolo, M.I., Blázquez-Castro, A., Horobin, R.W. , Revilla, M. and Lombardo, D.M. (2010) Selective labeling of lipid droplets in aldehyde fixed cell monolayers by lipophilic fluorochromes. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 85(5), pp. 277-283. (doi:10.3109/10520290903196183) (PMID:20560872)

Horobin, R. W. and Huff, M. (2009) Bibliography - RW Mowry. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 84(1), pp. 35-36. (doi:10.1080/10520290802670098) (PMID:19115113)

Dapson, R.W. and Horobin, R.W. (2009) Dyes from a twenty-first century perspective. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 84(4), pp. 135-137. (doi:10.1080/10520290902908802) (PMID:19384743)

Delieu, J.M., Horobin, R.W. and Duguid, J.K. (2009) Exploring the relationship of drug-induced neutrophil immaturity & haematological toxicity to drug chemistry using quantitative structure – activity models. Medicinal Chemistry, 5(1), pp. 7-14. (doi:10.2174/157340609787049307) (PMID:19149645)

Trapp, S., Rosania, G. R., Horobin, R. W. and Kornhuber, J. (2008) Quantitative modeling of selective lysosomal targeting for drug design. European Biophysics Journal, 37(8), pp. 1317-1328. (doi:10.1007/s00249-008-0338-4) (PMID:18504571) (PMCID:PMC2711917)

D'Souza, G. G.M., Cheng, S.-M., Boddapati, S. V., Horobin, R. W. and Weissig, V. (2008) Nanocarrier-assisted sub-cellular targeting to the site of mitochondria improves the pro-apoptotic activity of paclitaxel. Journal of Drug Targeting, 16(7-8), pp. 578-585. (doi:10.1080/10611860802228855) (PMID:18686127)

Hope-Roberts, M., Wainwright, M. and Horobin, R.W. (2008) A nitrobenzofuran-conjugated phosphatidylcholine (C12-NBD-PC) as a stain for membrane lamellae for both microscopic imaging and spectrofluorimetry. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 83(1), pp. 25-28. (doi:10.1080/10520290801886224) (PMID:18568674)

Lyon, H.O. and Horobin, R. W. (2008) News from the Biological stain commission. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 83(2), pp. 97-100. (doi:10.1080/10520290802041118)

Horobin, R. W. , Trapp, S. and Weissig, V. (2007) Mitochondriotropics: a review of their mode of action, and their applications for drug and DNA delivery to mammalian mitochondria. Journal of Controlled Release, 121(3), pp. 125-136. (doi:10.1016/j.jconrel.2007.05.040) (PMID:17658192)

Horobin, R. W. (2007) Editor's note: a special issue concerning indigo in history and in he twenty-first century: indigo and related dyes, indoxyls and the indoxyl reaction. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 82(2), pp. 47-49. (doi:10.1080/10520290701396779)

Horobin, R. W. (2007) Editorial note: celebration of the life and work of Dietrich Wittekind. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 82(6), pp. 283-284. (doi:10.1080/10520290701779859)

Lyon, H.O. and Horobin, R.W. (2007) Standardization and standards for dyes and stains used in biology and medicine. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 82(1), pp. 1-11. (doi:10.1080/10520290601116590) (PMID:17510808)

Stockert, J.C., Canete, M., Juarranz, A., Villanueva, A., Horobin, R.W. , Borrell, J.I., Teixido, J. and Nonell, S. (2007) Porphycenes: facts and prospects in photodynamic therapy of cancer. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 14(9), pp. 997-1026. (doi:10.2174/092986707780362934) (PMID:17439399)

Horobin, R. W. , Stockert, J. C. and Rashid-Doubell, F. (2006) Fluorescent cationic probes for nuclei of living cells: why are they selective? A quantitative structure–activity relations analysis. Histochemistry and Cell Biology, 126(2), pp. 165-175. (doi:10.1007/s00418-006-0156-7) (PMID:16463179)

Delieu, J.M., Horobin, R.W. and Duguid, J.K. (2006) Formation of immature neutrophil leucocytes in schizophrenic patients treated with various antipsychotic drugs: comparisons and predictions. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 20(6), pp. 824-828. (doi:10.1177/0269881106061112) (PMID:16401649)

Trapp, S. and Horobin, R. W. (2005) A predictive model for the selective accumulation of chemicals in tumor cells. European Biophysics Journal, 34(7), pp. 959-966. (doi:10.1007/s00249-005-0472-1) (PMID:15895221)

Horobin, R. W. and Weissig, V. (2005) A QSAR-modeling perspective on cationic transfection lipids. 1. Predicting efficiency and understanding mechanisms. Journal of Gene Medicine, 7(8), pp. 1023-1034. (doi:10.1002/jgm.746) (PMID:15756714)

Horobin, R.W. (2004) Staining by numbers: a tool for understanding and assisting use of routine and special histopathology stains. Journal of Histotechnology, 27(1), pp. 23-28.

Horobin, R.W. (2004) The failure to specify sources of dyes, chromogens and fluorescent probes: an analysis and some proposals for action. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 79(1), pp. 1-3.

Stockert, J. C. et al. (2004) Photodynamic therapy: selective uptake of photosensitizing drugs into tumor cell. Current Topics in Pharmacology, 8(2), pp. 185-217.

Colston, J., Horobin, R.W. , Rashid-Doubell, F., Pediani, J. and Johal, K.K. (2003) Why fluorescent probes for endoplasmic reticulum are selective: an experimental and QSAR-modelling study. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 78(6), pp. 323-332. (doi:10.1080/10520290310001646659) (PMID:15473580)

Horobin, R.W. (2002) Biological staining: mechanisms and theory. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 77(1), pp. 3-13. (doi:10.1080/bih.77.1.3.13) (PMID:11991329)

Delieu, J.M., Badawoud, M., Williams, M.A., Horobin, R.W. and Duguid, J.K. (2001) Antipsychotic drugs result in the formation of immature neutrophil leucocytes in schizophrenic patients. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 15(3), pp. 191-194. (doi:10.1177/026988110101500306) (PMID:11565627)

Horobin, R.W. (2001) The misnaming of dyes and fluorescent probes - a survey of practical problems arising from errors and ambiguities in nomenclature seen in current documents and some remedial proposals. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 76(4), pp. 207-213. (doi:10.1080/bih.76.4.207.213) (PMID:11549132)

Horobin, R.W. (2001) The problem of proprietary dyes, with special reference to alamar blue, a proprietary dye revealed. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 76(4), pp. 163-164. (doi:10.1080/bih.76.4.163.164) (PMID:11549128)

Horobin, R. W. (2001) Uptake, distribution, and accumulation of dyes and fluorescent probes within living cells. A structure-activity modelling approach. Advances in Colour Science and Technology, 4, pp. 101-107.

Churukian, C. J., Frank, M. and Horobin, R. W. (2000) Alcian blue pyridine variant–a superior alternative to alcian blue 8GX: staining performance and stability. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 75(3), pp. 147-150. (doi:10.3109/10520290009066493) (PMID:10950177)

Book Sections

Horobin, R.W. (2018) Theory of histological staining: why and how staining happens. In: Suvarna, K., Layton, C. and Bancroft, J. (eds.) Bancroft's Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. Elsevier: Oxford. ISBN 9780702068645

Horobin, R. W. (2015) Predicting mitochondrial targeting by small molecule xenobiotics with living cells using QSAR models. In: Weissig, V. and Edeas, M. (eds.) Mitochondral Medicine. Vol. II, Manipulating Mitochondral Function. Series: Methods in molecular biology (1265). Humana Press: New York, pp. 13-23. ISBN 9781493922871 (doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-2288-8_2)

Horobin, R. W. (2013) How histological stains work. In: Suvana, S. K., Layton, C. and Bancroft, J. D. (eds.) Bancroft's Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques, 7th Edition. Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier: Oxford, pp. 157-171. ISBN 9780702042263

Horobin, R. W. (2010) Can QSAR models describing small-molecule xenobiotics give useful tips for predicting uptake and localization of nanoparticles in living cells? And if not, why not? In: Weissig, V. and D'Souza, G. G.M. (eds.) Organelle-Specific Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology. Wiley: Hoboken, NJ, pp. 193-205. ISBN 9780470631652 (doi:10.1002/9780470875780.ch11)

Horobin, R. W. (2008) How do histological stains work? In: Bancroft, J. D. and Ganble, M. (eds.) Theory and Practise of Histological Techniques, 6th Edition. Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier: Philadelphia, PA, pp. 105-119. ISBN 9780443102790

Weissig, V., Boddapati, S., D'Souza, G. and Horobin, R. W. (2008) Functionalization of pharmaceutical nanocarriers for mitochondria-tarteted drug and DNA delivery. In: Torchilin, V. (ed.) Multifunctional Pharmaceutical Nanocarriers. Series: Fundamental biomedical technologies (4). Springer: New York, pp. 363-379. ISBN 9780387765518 (doi:10.1007/978-0-387-76554-9)

Horobin, R. W. (2002) Theory of histological staining and its practical implications. In: Bancroft, J.D. and Gamble, M. (eds.) Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques, 5th Edition. Churchill Livingstone: London, pp. 109-123. ISBN 9780443064357

Horobin, R. W. (2001) Histochemical staining. In: eLS. Wiley. (doi:10.1038/npg.els.0002644)

Edited Books

Horobin, R. W. and Kiernan, J. A. (Eds.) (2002) Conn's Biological Stains: A Handbook of Dyes, Stains and Fluorochromes for Use in Biology and Medicine, 10th Edition. BIOS Scientific Publishers: Oxford. ISBN 9781859960998

This list was generated on Wed Jul 17 06:27:46 2019 BST.