Professor Annette MacLeod

  • Professor (Institute of Biodiversity Animal Health & Comparative Medicine)
  • Associate Academic (School of Veterinary Medicine)
  • Associate Academic (Institute of Infection Immunity & Inflammation)

telephone: 01413303650
email: Annette.MacLeod@glasgow.ac.uk

Research interests

RESEARCH INTERESTS

I work on single-celled parasites called African trypanosomes. African trypanosomes present a significant burden to large areas of sub-Saharan Africa, leading to an estimated $1.3 billion annual loss to the African economy. The majority of this economic cost is attributable to the veterinary disease Nagana, caused by the animal trypanosome species T. vivax, T. congolense and T. b. brucei. Nagana affects over 20 million livestock animals, lowering herd productivity and increasing mortality. This renders large areas of sub-Saharan Africa inhospitable for the more profitable livestock species and breeds. More directly, in humans, African trypanosomes cause the debilitating and often fatal disease African sleeping sickness, leading to a loss of 1.3 million disability-adjusted life years (DALY) to the African economy annually. The majority of trypanosome species are unable to infect humans due to an innate resistance mechanism. However, the T. brucei subspecies T. b. rhodesiense and T. b. gambiense have evolved to overcome this innate resistance and can infect humans. Of the two human-infective subspecies, T. b. gambiense is the more prevalent, causing more than 95% of human cases.

My research, funded by my Wellcome Trust senior fellowship, is focused on studying two main aspects of T.b. gambiense infections.

1. How the parasites cause infection?
2. How humans fight that infection?

How the parasites cause infection? T.b. gambiense is able to infect humans and cause severe disease while the highly related T.b. brucei subspecies is not? My group is using the latest molecular and sequencing technologies to determine the genes that vary in the parasite species to find out which of these genes are responsible for making some parasites able to infect humans. Recent breakthroughs include identifying mutations in two proteins that are crucial for T.b. gambiense to resist human innate immunity. By understanding the process of resistance to human innate immunity we can hopefully interfere with it and prevent disease.

How humans fight that infection? Some people are highly susceptible to trypanosomiasis, while others are asymptomatic or even resistant to infection. There is genetic variation in the host that contributes to the disease outcome. So we are using similar molecular techniques to find out the genetic differences in people that determine why they get more or less severe disease. In a similar way other animals that are resistant to infection by trypanosomes. By examining these animals and determining how they are resistant to infection, we can exploit their resistance mechanism to try to develop a treatment for the disease. 
To this end I have founded an international collaborative research network called TrypanoGEN. Funded by the Wellcome Trust as part of the H3Africa initiative, the overall aim of TrypanoGEN is to improve the health of people living in some of the poorest countries in the world which carry a disproportionate burden of infectious diseases. Despite their importance, the study of many tropical diseases has lagged behind that of diseases of developed countries. The TrypanoGEN network is redressing the balance by performing high quality research into human African trypanosomiasis. The data generated by this network will extend beyond trypanosomiasis susceptibility by providing a unique resource to study human genetic variation across Africa.

TrypanoGEN has 4 main aims:

1 Generate a database of human genetic variation in different African countries and perform a genome-wide association study for susceptibility to trypanosomiasis. 
2 Create an extensive biobank housed in network hubs.
3. Develop infrastructure in African laboratories.
4. Provide training for African scientists.

More details about TrypanoGEN can be found at www.trypanogen.net

Google Scholar - Publications Profile


Grants

Grants and Awards listed are those received whilst working with the University of Glasgow.

  • The skin as a reservoir for trypanosomes: the key to transmission and idsease pathology
    Wellcome Trust
    2018 - 2023
     
  • The potential use of synthetic HDL as a therapy for African trypanosomiasis
    The Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland
    2015 - 2015
     
  • The Wellcome Centre for Molecular Parasitology ( Core Support )
    Wellcome Trust
    2014 - 2021
     
  • Genetic Determinants of Trypanotolerance in Humans (ISSF Catalyst)
    Wellcome Trust
    2014 - 2015
     
  • The TrypanoGEN Network
    Wellcome Trust
    2013 - 2018
     
  • Diamidine transporters and resistance in livestock trypanosomes
    Department for International Development
    2012 - 2013
     
  • The origins and mechanisms of human infectivity in African trypanosomes.
    Wellcome Trust
    2011 - 2017
     
  • Wellcome VIP award
    Wellcome Trust
    2011 - 2011
     
  • Wellcome Trust VIP award
    Wellcome Trust
    2010 - 2010
     
  • Human infectivity in African trypanosomes - a genetic and population based approach
    Wellcome Trust
    2007 - 2010
     
  • The genetics of drug resistance in African trypanosomes
    Wellcome Trust
    2005 - 2010
     
  • Human infectivity in African trypanosomes
    Tenovus Scotland
    2005 - 2007
     
  • Human infectivity in African trypanosomes - a genetic and population based approach
    The Royal Society of Edinburgh
    2005 - 2007
     

Additional information

Editorial Board

  • 2010: Parasite Immunology - Editor for Special Edition

Grant Advisory Board

  • 2010 - present: EUpathDB - TritrypDB advisory board

Invited International Presentations

  • 2010: Melbourne, Australia - International Congress of Parasitology Association Meeting
  • 2009: Edinburgh, UK - British Society for Parasitology Joint Malaria and Spring Meeting
  • 2009: Philadelphia, USA - Kinetoplastid Bioinformatics Strategic Planning Meeting
  • 2008: London, UK - Wellcome Trust Fellows meeting
  • 2008: Liverpool, UK - Animal Trypanosomiasis Meeting
  • 2008: Montpellier, France - Seminar
  • 2008: CIRDES Burkino Faso - Seminar
  • 2007: Glasgow, UK - COST Action B22 Drug development for parasite diseases
  • 2004: London, UK - Seminar

Prizes, Awards and Distinctions

  • 2009: Tenovus Scotland - Sir Robert MacLellan Travel Award

Professional Learned Society

  • 1994 - present: British Society for Parasitology - Member
  • 1993 - present: Genetics Society - Member

Research Fellowship

  • 2007 - 2010: Wellcome Trust Research Career Development Fellowship
  • 2004 - 2006: Royal Society Edinburgh Fellowship

Publications

List by: Type | Date

Jump to: 2018 | 2017 | 2016 | 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 | 2000 | 1999 | 1997
Number of items: 81.

2018

Kaboré, J. et al. (2018) Differences in pathogenicity and virulence of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense field isolates in experimentally infected Balb/C mice. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 63, pp. 269-276. (doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2018.05.018) (PMID:29807131)

Steketee, P. C. et al. (2018) Benzoxaborole treatment perturbs S-adenosyl-L-methionine metabolism in Trypanosoma brucei. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 12(5), e0006450. (doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006450) (PMID:29758036) (PMCID:PMC5976210)

Büscher, P. et al. (2018) Do cryptic reservoirs threaten gambiense-sleeping sickness elimination? Trends in Parasitology, (doi:10.1016/j.pt.2017.11.008) (PMID:29396200) (In Press)

Currier, R. B., Cooper, A., Burrell-Saward, H., MacLeod, A. and Alsford, S. (2018) Decoding the network of Trypanosoma brucei proteins that determines sensitivity to apolipoprotein-L1. PLoS Pathogens, 14(1), e1006855. (doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1006855) (PMID:29346416) (PMCID:PMC5790291)

2017

Ofon, E. et al. (2017) A polymorphism in the haptoglobin, haptoglobin related protein locus is associated with risk of human sleeping sickness within Cameroonian populations. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 11(10), e0005979. (doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005979) (PMID:29077717) (PMCID:PMC5697879)

Ahouty, B. et al. (2017) Candidate genes-based investigation of susceptibility to Human African Trypanosomiasis in Côte d’Ivoire. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 11(10), e0005992. (doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005992) (PMID:29059176) (PMCID:PMC5695625)

Kaboré, J. W. et al. (2017) Candidate gene polymorphisms study between human African trypanosomiasis clinical phenotypes in Guinea. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 11(8), e0005833. (doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005833) (PMID:28827791) (PMCID:PMC5595334)

Luintel, A., Lowe, P., Cooper, A., MacLeod, A., Büscher, P., Brooks, T. and Brown, M. (2017) Case of Nigeria-acquired Human African trypanosomiasis in United Kingdom, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(7), pp. 1225-1227. (doi:10.3201/eid2307.170695) (PMID:28628444) (PMCID:PMC5512500)

Ilboudo, H. et al. (2017) Introducing the TrypanoGEN biobank: a valuable resource for the elimination of human African trypanosomiasis. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 11(6), e0005438. (doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005438) (PMID:28570558) (PMCID:PMC5453417)

Cooper, A. et al. (2017) APOL1 renal risk variants have contrasting resistance and susceptibility associations with African trypanosomiasis. eLife, 6, e25461. (doi:10.7554/eLife.25461) (PMID:28537557) (PMCID:PMC5495568)

2016

Capewell, P. et al. (2016) The skin is a significant but overlooked anatomical reservoir for vector-borne African trypanosomes. eLife, 5, e17716. (doi:10.7554/eLife.17716) (PMID:27653219) (PMCID:PMC5065312)

Cooper, A., Capewell, P., Clucas, C., Veitch, N., Weir, W., Thomson, R., Raper, J. and MacLeod, A. (2016) A primate APOL1 variant that kills Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 10(8), e0004903. (doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004903) (PMID:27494254) (PMCID:PMC4975595)

Weir, W. et al. (2016) Population genomics reveals the origin and asexual evolution of human infective trypanosomes. eLife, 5, e11473. (doi:10.7554/eLife.11473) (PMID:26809473) (PMCID:PMC4739771)

2015

Koffi, M. et al. (2015) Population genetics and reproductive strategies of African Trypanosomes: revisiting available published data. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 9(10), e0003985. (doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003985) (PMID:26491968) (PMCID:PMC4619596)

Pyana, P. P., Sere, M., Kaboré, J., De Meeûs, T., MacLeod, A., Bucheton, B., Van Reet, N., Büscher, P., Belem, A. M. G. and Jamonneau, V. (2015) Population genetics of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in sleeping sickness patients with treatment failures in the focus of Mbuji-Mayi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 30, pp. 128-133. (doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2014.12.017) (PMID:25535944)

Capewell, P., Cooper, A., Clucas, C., Weir, W. and MacLeod, A. (2015) A co-evolutionary arms race: trypanosomes shaping the human genome, humans shaping the trypanosome genome. Parasitology, 142(S1), S108-S119. (doi:10.1017/S0031182014000602) (PMID:25656360) (PMCID:PMC4413828)

Capewell, P., Cooper, A., Clucas, C., Weir, W., Vaikkinen, H., Morrison, L., Tait, A. and MacLeod, A. (2015) Exploiting genetic variation to discover genes involved in important disease phenotypes. Methods in Molecular Biology, 1201, pp. 91-107. (doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-1438-8_5) (PMID:25388109)

Carnes, J. et al. (2015) Genome and phylogenetic analyses of trypanosoma evansi reveal extensive similarity to T. brucei and multiple independent origins for dyskinetoplasty. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 9(1), e3404. (doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003404) (PMID:25568942) (PMCID:4288722)

2014

Matovu, E. et al. (2014) Enabling the genomic revolution in Africa. Science, 344(6190), pp. 1346-1348. (doi:10.1126/science.1251546)

Munday, J. C. et al. (2014) Trypanosoma brucei aquaglyceroporin 2 is a high-affinity transporter for pentamidine and melaminophenyl arsenic drugs and the main genetic determinant of resistance to these drugs. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 69(3), pp. 651-663. (doi:10.1093/jac/dkt442) (PMID:24235095) (PMCID:PMC3922157)

Pickrell, W. O. et al. (2014) Human African Trypanosomiasis presenting at least 29 years after infection—what can this teach us about the pathogenesis and control of this neglected tropical disease? PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 8(12), e3349. (doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003349)

2013

Kaboré, J., De Meeûs, T., MacLeod, A., Ilboudo, H., Capewell, P., Camara, M., Gaston Belem, A.M., Bucheton, B. and Jamonneau, V. (2013) A protocol to improve genotyping of problematic microsatellite loci of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense from body fluids. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 20, pp. 171-176. (doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2013.08.006)

Capewell, P., Clucas, C., Weir, W., Veitch, N. and MacLeod, A. (2013) Normal human serum lysis of non-human trypanosomes and resistance of T. b. rhodesiense and T. b. gambiense. In: Magez, S. and Radwanska, M. (eds.) Trypanosomes and Trypanosomiasis. Springer, pp. 139-160. ISBN 9783709115558 (doi:10.1007/978-3-7091-1556-5_6)

Capewell, P., Clucas, C., DeJesus, E., Kieft, R., Hajduk, S., Veitch, N., Steketee, P.C., Cooper, A., Weir, W. and MacLeod, A. (2013) The TgsGP gene is essential for resistance to human serum in Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. PLoS Pathogens, 9(10), e1003686. (doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003686) (PMID:24098129) (PMCID:PMC3789759)

Capewell, P., Cooper, A., Duffy, C.W., Tait, A., Turner, C.M.R., Gibson, W., Mehlitz, D. and MacLeod, A. (2013) Human and animal trypanosomes in Côte d'Ivoire form a single breeding population. PLoS ONE, 8(7), e67852. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067852) (PMID:23844111) (PMCID:PMC3699513)

Duffy, C.W., MacLean, L., Sweeney, L., Cooper, A., Turner, C.M.R., Tait, A., Sternberg, J., Morrison, L.J. and MacLeod, A. (2013) Population genetics of trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense: clonality and diversity within and between foci. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 7(11), e2526. (doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002526)

Goodhead, I. et al. (2013) Whole-genome sequencing of trypanosoma brucei reveals introgression between subspecies that is associated with virulence. mBio, 4(4), e00197-13. (doi:10.1128/mBio.00197-13)

MacLeod, A., Morrison, L. J. and Tait, A. (2013) Virulence in African trypanosomes: genetic and molecular approaches. In: Sibley, L. D., Howlett, B. J. and Heitman, J. (eds.) Evolution of Virulence in Eukaryotic Microbes. Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 307-323. ISBN 9781118038185 (doi:10.1002/9781118308165.ch16)

2012

Stephens, N.A., Kieft, R., MacLeod, A. and Hajduk, S.L. (2012) Trypanosome resistance to human innate immunity: targeting Achilles’ heel. Trends in Parasitology, 28(12), pp. 539-545. (doi:10.1016/j.pt.2012.09.002)

Bullard, W., Kieft, R., Capewell, P., Veitch, N. J., Macleod, A. and Hajduk, S. (2012) Haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor independent killing of African trypanosomes by human serum and trypanosome lytic factors. Virulence, 3(1), pp. 72-76. (doi:10.4161/viru.3.1.18295) (PMID:22286709) (PMCID:PMC3337153)

Bullard, W., Kieft, R., Capewell, P., Veitch, N.J., MacLeod, A. and Hajduk, S.L. (2012) Haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor independent killing of African trypanosomes by human serum. Virulence, 3(1), pp. 72-76. (doi:10.4161/viru.3.1.18295)

Harrington, J.M., Scelsi, C., Hartel, A., Jones, N.G., Engstler, M., Capewell, P., MacLeod, A. and Hajduk, S. (2012) Novel African trypanocidal agents: membrane rigidifying peptides. PLoS ONE, 7(9), e44384. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044384) (PMID:22970207) (PMCID:PMC3436892)

Kieft, R., Stephens, N.A., Capewell, P., MacLeod, A. and Hajduk, S.L. (2012) Role of expression site switching in the development of resistance to human Trypanosome Lytic Factor-1 in Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 183(1), pp. 8-14. (doi:10.1016/j.molbiopara.2011.12.004)

2011

Kaboré, J., Koffi, M., Bucheton, B., MacLeod, A., Duffy, C., Ilboudo, H., Camara, M., De Meeûs, T., Belem, A.M.G. and Jamonneau, V. (2011) First evidence that parasite infecting apparent aparasitemic serological suspects in human African trypanosomiasis are Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and are similar to those found in patients. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 11(6), pp. 1250-1255. (doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2011.04.014)

Kaboré, J., MacLeod, A., Jamonneau, V., Ilboudo, H., Duffy, C., Camara, M., Camara, O., Belem, A.M.G., Bucheton, B. and De Meeûs, T. (2011) Population genetic structure of Guinea Trypanosoma brucei gambiense isolates according to host factors. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 11(5), pp. 1129-35. (doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2011.04.011)

Bucheton, B., MacLeod, A. and Jamonneau, V. (2011) Human host determinants influencing the outcome of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infections. Parasite Immunology, 33(8), pp. 438-447. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-3024.2011.01287.x)

Capewell, P., Veitch, N.J., Turner, C.M.R., Raper, J., Berriman, M., Hajduk, S.L. and MacLeod, A. (2011) Differences between Trypanosoma brucei gambiense groups 1 and 2 in their resistance to killing by Trypanolytic factor 1. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 5(9), e1287. (doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001287)

Morrison, L.J. and MacLeod, A. (2011) Editorial: African trypanosomiasis. Parasite Immunology, 33(8), pp. 421-422. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-3024.2011.01302.x)

Tait, A., Morrison, L.J., Duffy, C.W., Cooper, A., Turner, C.M.R. and MacLeod, A. (2011) Trypanosome genetics: Populations, phenotypes and diversity. Veterinary Parasitology, 181(1), pp. 61-68. (doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.04.024)

2010

Kieft, R., Capewell, P., Turner, C.M.R., Veitch, N.J., MacLeod, A. and Hajduk, S. (2010) Mechanism of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (group 1) resistance to human trypanosome lytic factor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(37), pp. 16137-16141. (doi:10.1073/pnas.1007074107)

Jackson, A. et al. (2010) The genome sequence of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, causative agent of chronic Human African Trypanosomiasis. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 4(4), e658. (doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000658)

Morrison, L.J., McLellan, S., Sweeney, L., Chan, C.N., MacLeod, A., Tait, A. and Turner, C.M.R. (2010) Role for parasite genetic diversity in differential host responses to Trypanosoma brucei infection. Infection and Immunity, 78(3), pp. 1096-1108. (doi:10.1128/IAI.00943-09)

Stewart, M.L. et al. (2010) Multiple genetic mechanisms lead to loss of functional TbAT1 expression in drug-resistant trypanosomes. Eukaryotic Cell, 9(2), pp. 336-343.

Harrington, J. M., Widener, J., Stephens, N., Johnson, T., Francia, M., Capewell, P., MacLeod, A. and Hajduk, S. L. (2010) The Plasma Membrane of Bloodstream-form African Trypanosomes Confers Susceptibility and Specificity to Killing by Hydrophobic Peptides. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 285(37), pp. 28659-28666. (doi:10.1074/jbc.M110.151886)

Veitch, N.J., Johnson, P.C.D. , Trivedi, U., Terry, S., Wildridge, D. and MacLeod, A. (2010) Digital gene expression analysis of two life cycle stages of the human-infective parasite, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense reveals differentially expressed clusters of co-regulated genes. BMC Medical Genomics, 11, p. 124. (doi:10.1186/1471-2164-11-124)

2009

Duffy, C. W., Morrison, L. J., Black, A., Pinchbeck, G. L., Christley, R. M., Schoenefeld, A., Tait, A., Turner, C.M. and MacLeod, A. (2009) Trypanosoma vivax displays a clonal population structure. International Journal for Parasitology, 39(13), 1475 -1483. (doi:10.1016/j.ijpara.2009.05.012) (PMID:19520081)

Morrison, L.J., Tait, A., McLellan, S., Sweeney, L., Turner, C.M.R. and MacLeod, A. (2009) A major genetic locus in Trypanosoma brucei is a determinant of host pathology. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 3(12), e557. (doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000557)

Morrison, L.J. et al. (2009) Discovery of mating in the major African livestock pathogen Trypanosoma congolense. PLoS ONE, 4(5), e5564. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005564)

2008

Cooper, A., Tait, A., Sweeney, L., Tweedie, A., Morrison, L., Turner, C.M.R. and MacLeod, A. (2008) Genetic analysis of the human infective trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei gambiense: chromosomal segregation, crossing over, and the construction of a genetic map. Genome Biology, 9(6), R103. (doi:10.1186/gb-2008-9-6-r103)

Morrison, L.J., Mallon, M.E., Smith, H.V., MacLeod, A., Xiao, L. and Tait, A. (2008) The population structure of the Cryptosporidium parvum population in Scotland: a complex picture. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 8(2), pp. 121-129. (doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2007.10.010)

Morrison, L., Tait, A., McCormack, G., Sweeney, L., Black, A., Truc, P., Likeufack, A., Turner, C.M.R. and MacLeod, A. (2008) Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Type 1 populations from human patients are clonal and display geographical genetic differentiation. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 8(6), pp. 847-854. (doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2008.08.005)

2007

MacLean, L., Odiit, M., MacLeod, A., Morrison, L., Sweeney, L., Cooper, A., Kennedy, P.G.E. and Sternberg, J.M. (2007) Spatially and genetically distinct African trypanosome virulence variants defined by host interferon-g response. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 196(11), pp. 1620-1628. (doi:10.1086/522011)

Morrison, L.J., McCormack, G., Sweeney, L., Likeufack, A.C.L., Truc, P., Turner, C.M.R., Tait, A. and MacLeod, A. (2007) The use of Multiple Displacement Amplification to increase the detection and genotyping of Trypanosoma samples immobilised on FTA filters. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 76(6), pp. 1132-1137.

MacLean, L., Odiit, M., MacLeod, A., Morrison, L., Sweeney, L., Cooper, A., Kennedy, P. and Sternberg, J. (2007) Spatially and genetically distinct African trypanosome virulence variants defined by host interferon-gamma response. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 196(s3), pp. 1620-1628. (doi:10.1086/522011)

MacLeod, A., Turner, C.M.R. and Tait, A. (2007) The system of genetic exchange in Trypanosoma brucei and other trypanosomatids. In: Barry, D., McCulloch, R., Mottram, J. and Acosta-Serrano, A. (eds.) Trypanosomes: after the genome. Horizon Press, pp. 71-90. ISBN 9781904933274

Morrison, L., McCormack, G., Sweeney, L., Likeufack, A., Truc, P., Turner, C., Tait, A. and MacLeod, A. (2007) Use of multiple displacement amplification to increase the detection and genotyping of Trypanosoma species samples immobilized on FTA filters. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 76, pp. 1132-1137.

Tait, A., MacLeod, A., Tweedie, A., Masiga, D. and Turner, C.M.R. (2007) Genetic exchange in Trypanosoma brucei: Evidence for mating prior to metacyclic stage development. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 151, pp. 133-136. (doi:10.1016/j.molbiopara.2006.10.009)

2006

Balmer, O., Palma, C., Macleod, A. and Caccone, A. (2006) Characterization of di-, tri- and tetranucleotide microsatellite markers with perfect repeats for Trypanosoma brucei and related species. Molecular Ecology Notes, 6, pp. 508-510. (doi:10.1111/j.1471-8286.2006.01297.x)

2005

MacLeod, A., Tweedie, A., McLellan, S., Taylor, S., Hall, N., Berriman, M., El-Sayed, N.M., Hope, M., Turner, C.M.R. and Tait, A. (2005) The genetic map and comparative analysis with the physical map of Trypanosoma brucei. Nucleic Acids Research, 33(21), pp. 6688-6693. (doi:10.1093/nar/gki980)

Berriman, M. et al. (2005) The genome of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei. Science, 309(5733), pp. 416-422. (doi:10.1126/science.1112642)

Smith, H.V., Nichols, R.A., Mallon, M., MacLeod, A., Tait, A., Reilly, W.J., Browning, L.M., Gray, D., Reid, S.W.J. and Wastling, J.M. (2005) Natural Cryptosporidium hominis infections in Scottish cattle. Veterinary Record, 156(22), pp. 710-711.

MacLeod, A., Tweedie, A., McLellan, S., Taylor, S., Cooper, A., Sweeney, L., Turner, C. and Tait, A. (2005) Allelic segregation and independent assortment in T-brucei crosses: Proof that the genetic system is Mendelian and involves meiosis. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 143, pp. 12-19. (doi:10.1016/j.molbiopara.2005.04.009)

MacLeod, A., Tweedie, A., McLellan, S., Taylor, S., Cooper, A., Sweeney, L., Turner, C.M.R. and Tait, A. (2005) Allelic segregation and independent assortment in T. brucei crosses: proof that the genetic system is Mendelian and involves meiosis. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 143(1), pp. 12-19. (doi:10.1016/j.molbiopara.2005.04.009)

Tait, A., MacLeod, A., Tweedie, A., Masiga, D. and Turner, C.M.R. (2005) Genetic exchange in Trypanosoma brucei: evidence for mating prior to metacyclic stage development. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 151(1), pp. 133-136. (doi:10.1016/j.molbiopara.2006.10.009)

2004

Turner, C.M.R., McLellan, S., Lindergard, L.A.G., Bisoni, L., Tait, A. and MacLeod, A. (2004) Human infectivity trait in Trypanosoma brucei: stability, heritability and relationship to sra expression. Parasitology, 129(4), pp. 445-454. (doi:10.1017/S0031182004005906)

MacLeod, A. (2004) Minisatellites and MVR-PCR for the individual identification of parasite isolates. In: Melville, S. E. (ed.) Parasite Genomics Protocols. Series: Methods in molecular biology, 270 (270). Humana Press: Totowa, N.J., pp. 187-202. ISBN 9781588290625 (doi:10.1385/1-59259-793-9:187)

Turner, C., McLellan, S., Lindergard, L., Bisoni, L., Tait, A. and MacLeod, A. (2004) Human infectivity trait in Trypanosoma brucei: stability, heritability and relationship to sra expression. Parasitology, 129, pp. 445-454. (doi:10.1017/S0031182004005906)

2003

Mallon, M.E., MacLeod, A., Wastling, J.M., Smith, H. and Tait, A. (2003) Multilocus genotyping of Cryptosporidium parvum Type 2: population genetics and sub-structuring. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 3(3), pp. 207-218. (doi:10.1016/S1567-1348(03)00089-3)

Hall, N. et al. (2003) The DNA sequence of chromosome I of an African trypanosome: gene content, chromosome organisation, recombination and polymorphism. Nucleic Acids Research, 31(16), pp. 4864-4873. (doi:10.1093/nar/gkg674) (PMID:12907729) (PMCID:PMC169939)

Mallon, M., MacLeod, A., Wastling, J., Smith, H., Reilly, B. and Tait, A. (2003) Population structures and the role of genetic exchange in the zoonotic pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 56(4), pp. 407-417. (doi:10.1007/s00239-002-2412-3) (PMID:12664161)

El-Sayed, N. et al. (2003) The sequence and analysis of Trypanosoma brucei chromosome II. Nucleic Acids Research, 31, pp. 4856-4863. (doi:10.1093/nar/gkg673)

2002

Tait, A., Masiga, D., Ouma, J., MacLeod, A., Sasse, J., Melville, S., Lindegard, G., McIntosh, A. and Turner, M. (2002) Genetic analysis of phenotype in Trypanosoma brucei: a classical approach to potentially complex traits. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 357, pp. 89-99. (doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.1050)

2001

MacLeod, A., Tait, A. and Turner, C. M. (2001) The population genetics of Trypanosoma brucei and the origin of human infectivity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 356, pp. 1035-1044. (doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.0892)

MacLeod, A., Welburn, S., Maudlin, I., Turner, C. and Tait, A. (2001) Evidence for multiple origins of human infectivity in Trypanosoma brucei revealed by minisatellite variant repeat mapping. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 52, pp. 290-301.

MacLeod, A., Turner, C.M.R. and Tait, A. (2001) The detection of geographical substructuring of Trypanosoma brucei populations by the analysis of minisatellite polymorphisms. Parasitology, 123(5), pp. 475-482. (doi:10.1017/S0031182001008666) (PMID:11719958)

2000

MacLeod, A., Tweedie, A., Welburn, S. C., Maudlin, I., Turner, C. M. T. and Tait, A. (2000) Minisatellite marker analysis of Trypanosoma brucei: reconciliation of clonal, panmictic, and epidemic population genetic structures. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(24), pp. 13442-13447. (doi:10.1073/pnas.230434097) (PMID:11078512) (PMCID:PMC27243)

De Koning, H.P. , MacLeod, A., Barrett, M.P. , Cover, B. and Jarvis, S.M. (2000) Further evidence for a link between melarsoprol resistance and P2 transporter function in African trypanosomes. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 106(1), pp. 181-185. (doi:10.1016/S0166-6851(99)00206-6)

1999

Hope, M., MacLeod, A., Leech, V., Melville, S., Sasse, J., Tait, A. and Turner, C. M. R. (1999) Analysis of ploidy (in megabase chromosomes) in Trypanosoma brucei after genetic exchange. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 104(1), pp. 1-9. (doi:10.1016/S0166-6851(99)00103-6) (PMID:10589977)

MacLeod, A., Turner, C. M. R. and Tait, A. (1999) A high level of mixed Trypanosoma brucei infections in tsetse flies detected by three hypervariable minisatellites. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 102(2), pp. 237-248. (doi:10.1016/S0166-6851(99)00101-2) (PMID:10498180)

1997

Barrett, M. P. , MacLeod, A., Tovar, J., Sweetman, J. P., Tait, A., Le Page, R. W.F. and Melville, S. E. (1997) A single locus minisatellite sequence which distinguishes between Trypanosoma brucei isolates. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 86(1), pp. 95-99. (doi:10.1016/S0166-6851(97)02832-6) (PMID:9178271)

MacLeod, A., Turner, C. M. R. and Tait, A. (1997) Detection of single copy gene sequences from single trypanosomes. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 84(2), pp. 267-270. (doi:10.1016/S0166-6851(96)02810-1) (PMID:9084048)

This list was generated on Fri Nov 16 22:41:11 2018 GMT.
Number of items: 81.

Articles

Kaboré, J. et al. (2018) Differences in pathogenicity and virulence of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense field isolates in experimentally infected Balb/C mice. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 63, pp. 269-276. (doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2018.05.018) (PMID:29807131)

Steketee, P. C. et al. (2018) Benzoxaborole treatment perturbs S-adenosyl-L-methionine metabolism in Trypanosoma brucei. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 12(5), e0006450. (doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006450) (PMID:29758036) (PMCID:PMC5976210)

Büscher, P. et al. (2018) Do cryptic reservoirs threaten gambiense-sleeping sickness elimination? Trends in Parasitology, (doi:10.1016/j.pt.2017.11.008) (PMID:29396200) (In Press)

Currier, R. B., Cooper, A., Burrell-Saward, H., MacLeod, A. and Alsford, S. (2018) Decoding the network of Trypanosoma brucei proteins that determines sensitivity to apolipoprotein-L1. PLoS Pathogens, 14(1), e1006855. (doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1006855) (PMID:29346416) (PMCID:PMC5790291)

Ofon, E. et al. (2017) A polymorphism in the haptoglobin, haptoglobin related protein locus is associated with risk of human sleeping sickness within Cameroonian populations. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 11(10), e0005979. (doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005979) (PMID:29077717) (PMCID:PMC5697879)

Ahouty, B. et al. (2017) Candidate genes-based investigation of susceptibility to Human African Trypanosomiasis in Côte d’Ivoire. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 11(10), e0005992. (doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005992) (PMID:29059176) (PMCID:PMC5695625)

Kaboré, J. W. et al. (2017) Candidate gene polymorphisms study between human African trypanosomiasis clinical phenotypes in Guinea. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 11(8), e0005833. (doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005833) (PMID:28827791) (PMCID:PMC5595334)

Luintel, A., Lowe, P., Cooper, A., MacLeod, A., Büscher, P., Brooks, T. and Brown, M. (2017) Case of Nigeria-acquired Human African trypanosomiasis in United Kingdom, 2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23(7), pp. 1225-1227. (doi:10.3201/eid2307.170695) (PMID:28628444) (PMCID:PMC5512500)

Ilboudo, H. et al. (2017) Introducing the TrypanoGEN biobank: a valuable resource for the elimination of human African trypanosomiasis. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 11(6), e0005438. (doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005438) (PMID:28570558) (PMCID:PMC5453417)

Cooper, A. et al. (2017) APOL1 renal risk variants have contrasting resistance and susceptibility associations with African trypanosomiasis. eLife, 6, e25461. (doi:10.7554/eLife.25461) (PMID:28537557) (PMCID:PMC5495568)

Capewell, P. et al. (2016) The skin is a significant but overlooked anatomical reservoir for vector-borne African trypanosomes. eLife, 5, e17716. (doi:10.7554/eLife.17716) (PMID:27653219) (PMCID:PMC5065312)

Cooper, A., Capewell, P., Clucas, C., Veitch, N., Weir, W., Thomson, R., Raper, J. and MacLeod, A. (2016) A primate APOL1 variant that kills Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 10(8), e0004903. (doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004903) (PMID:27494254) (PMCID:PMC4975595)

Weir, W. et al. (2016) Population genomics reveals the origin and asexual evolution of human infective trypanosomes. eLife, 5, e11473. (doi:10.7554/eLife.11473) (PMID:26809473) (PMCID:PMC4739771)

Koffi, M. et al. (2015) Population genetics and reproductive strategies of African Trypanosomes: revisiting available published data. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 9(10), e0003985. (doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003985) (PMID:26491968) (PMCID:PMC4619596)

Pyana, P. P., Sere, M., Kaboré, J., De Meeûs, T., MacLeod, A., Bucheton, B., Van Reet, N., Büscher, P., Belem, A. M. G. and Jamonneau, V. (2015) Population genetics of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in sleeping sickness patients with treatment failures in the focus of Mbuji-Mayi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 30, pp. 128-133. (doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2014.12.017) (PMID:25535944)

Capewell, P., Cooper, A., Clucas, C., Weir, W. and MacLeod, A. (2015) A co-evolutionary arms race: trypanosomes shaping the human genome, humans shaping the trypanosome genome. Parasitology, 142(S1), S108-S119. (doi:10.1017/S0031182014000602) (PMID:25656360) (PMCID:PMC4413828)

Capewell, P., Cooper, A., Clucas, C., Weir, W., Vaikkinen, H., Morrison, L., Tait, A. and MacLeod, A. (2015) Exploiting genetic variation to discover genes involved in important disease phenotypes. Methods in Molecular Biology, 1201, pp. 91-107. (doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-1438-8_5) (PMID:25388109)

Carnes, J. et al. (2015) Genome and phylogenetic analyses of trypanosoma evansi reveal extensive similarity to T. brucei and multiple independent origins for dyskinetoplasty. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 9(1), e3404. (doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003404) (PMID:25568942) (PMCID:4288722)

Matovu, E. et al. (2014) Enabling the genomic revolution in Africa. Science, 344(6190), pp. 1346-1348. (doi:10.1126/science.1251546)

Munday, J. C. et al. (2014) Trypanosoma brucei aquaglyceroporin 2 is a high-affinity transporter for pentamidine and melaminophenyl arsenic drugs and the main genetic determinant of resistance to these drugs. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 69(3), pp. 651-663. (doi:10.1093/jac/dkt442) (PMID:24235095) (PMCID:PMC3922157)

Pickrell, W. O. et al. (2014) Human African Trypanosomiasis presenting at least 29 years after infection—what can this teach us about the pathogenesis and control of this neglected tropical disease? PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 8(12), e3349. (doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003349)

Kaboré, J., De Meeûs, T., MacLeod, A., Ilboudo, H., Capewell, P., Camara, M., Gaston Belem, A.M., Bucheton, B. and Jamonneau, V. (2013) A protocol to improve genotyping of problematic microsatellite loci of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense from body fluids. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 20, pp. 171-176. (doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2013.08.006)

Capewell, P., Clucas, C., DeJesus, E., Kieft, R., Hajduk, S., Veitch, N., Steketee, P.C., Cooper, A., Weir, W. and MacLeod, A. (2013) The TgsGP gene is essential for resistance to human serum in Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. PLoS Pathogens, 9(10), e1003686. (doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003686) (PMID:24098129) (PMCID:PMC3789759)

Capewell, P., Cooper, A., Duffy, C.W., Tait, A., Turner, C.M.R., Gibson, W., Mehlitz, D. and MacLeod, A. (2013) Human and animal trypanosomes in Côte d'Ivoire form a single breeding population. PLoS ONE, 8(7), e67852. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067852) (PMID:23844111) (PMCID:PMC3699513)

Duffy, C.W., MacLean, L., Sweeney, L., Cooper, A., Turner, C.M.R., Tait, A., Sternberg, J., Morrison, L.J. and MacLeod, A. (2013) Population genetics of trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense: clonality and diversity within and between foci. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 7(11), e2526. (doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002526)

Goodhead, I. et al. (2013) Whole-genome sequencing of trypanosoma brucei reveals introgression between subspecies that is associated with virulence. mBio, 4(4), e00197-13. (doi:10.1128/mBio.00197-13)

Stephens, N.A., Kieft, R., MacLeod, A. and Hajduk, S.L. (2012) Trypanosome resistance to human innate immunity: targeting Achilles’ heel. Trends in Parasitology, 28(12), pp. 539-545. (doi:10.1016/j.pt.2012.09.002)

Bullard, W., Kieft, R., Capewell, P., Veitch, N. J., Macleod, A. and Hajduk, S. (2012) Haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor independent killing of African trypanosomes by human serum and trypanosome lytic factors. Virulence, 3(1), pp. 72-76. (doi:10.4161/viru.3.1.18295) (PMID:22286709) (PMCID:PMC3337153)

Bullard, W., Kieft, R., Capewell, P., Veitch, N.J., MacLeod, A. and Hajduk, S.L. (2012) Haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor independent killing of African trypanosomes by human serum. Virulence, 3(1), pp. 72-76. (doi:10.4161/viru.3.1.18295)

Harrington, J.M., Scelsi, C., Hartel, A., Jones, N.G., Engstler, M., Capewell, P., MacLeod, A. and Hajduk, S. (2012) Novel African trypanocidal agents: membrane rigidifying peptides. PLoS ONE, 7(9), e44384. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044384) (PMID:22970207) (PMCID:PMC3436892)

Kieft, R., Stephens, N.A., Capewell, P., MacLeod, A. and Hajduk, S.L. (2012) Role of expression site switching in the development of resistance to human Trypanosome Lytic Factor-1 in Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 183(1), pp. 8-14. (doi:10.1016/j.molbiopara.2011.12.004)

Kaboré, J., Koffi, M., Bucheton, B., MacLeod, A., Duffy, C., Ilboudo, H., Camara, M., De Meeûs, T., Belem, A.M.G. and Jamonneau, V. (2011) First evidence that parasite infecting apparent aparasitemic serological suspects in human African trypanosomiasis are Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and are similar to those found in patients. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 11(6), pp. 1250-1255. (doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2011.04.014)

Kaboré, J., MacLeod, A., Jamonneau, V., Ilboudo, H., Duffy, C., Camara, M., Camara, O., Belem, A.M.G., Bucheton, B. and De Meeûs, T. (2011) Population genetic structure of Guinea Trypanosoma brucei gambiense isolates according to host factors. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 11(5), pp. 1129-35. (doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2011.04.011)

Bucheton, B., MacLeod, A. and Jamonneau, V. (2011) Human host determinants influencing the outcome of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infections. Parasite Immunology, 33(8), pp. 438-447. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-3024.2011.01287.x)

Capewell, P., Veitch, N.J., Turner, C.M.R., Raper, J., Berriman, M., Hajduk, S.L. and MacLeod, A. (2011) Differences between Trypanosoma brucei gambiense groups 1 and 2 in their resistance to killing by Trypanolytic factor 1. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 5(9), e1287. (doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001287)

Morrison, L.J. and MacLeod, A. (2011) Editorial: African trypanosomiasis. Parasite Immunology, 33(8), pp. 421-422. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-3024.2011.01302.x)

Tait, A., Morrison, L.J., Duffy, C.W., Cooper, A., Turner, C.M.R. and MacLeod, A. (2011) Trypanosome genetics: Populations, phenotypes and diversity. Veterinary Parasitology, 181(1), pp. 61-68. (doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.04.024)

Kieft, R., Capewell, P., Turner, C.M.R., Veitch, N.J., MacLeod, A. and Hajduk, S. (2010) Mechanism of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (group 1) resistance to human trypanosome lytic factor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(37), pp. 16137-16141. (doi:10.1073/pnas.1007074107)

Jackson, A. et al. (2010) The genome sequence of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, causative agent of chronic Human African Trypanosomiasis. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 4(4), e658. (doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000658)

Morrison, L.J., McLellan, S., Sweeney, L., Chan, C.N., MacLeod, A., Tait, A. and Turner, C.M.R. (2010) Role for parasite genetic diversity in differential host responses to Trypanosoma brucei infection. Infection and Immunity, 78(3), pp. 1096-1108. (doi:10.1128/IAI.00943-09)

Stewart, M.L. et al. (2010) Multiple genetic mechanisms lead to loss of functional TbAT1 expression in drug-resistant trypanosomes. Eukaryotic Cell, 9(2), pp. 336-343.

Harrington, J. M., Widener, J., Stephens, N., Johnson, T., Francia, M., Capewell, P., MacLeod, A. and Hajduk, S. L. (2010) The Plasma Membrane of Bloodstream-form African Trypanosomes Confers Susceptibility and Specificity to Killing by Hydrophobic Peptides. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 285(37), pp. 28659-28666. (doi:10.1074/jbc.M110.151886)

Veitch, N.J., Johnson, P.C.D. , Trivedi, U., Terry, S., Wildridge, D. and MacLeod, A. (2010) Digital gene expression analysis of two life cycle stages of the human-infective parasite, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense reveals differentially expressed clusters of co-regulated genes. BMC Medical Genomics, 11, p. 124. (doi:10.1186/1471-2164-11-124)

Duffy, C. W., Morrison, L. J., Black, A., Pinchbeck, G. L., Christley, R. M., Schoenefeld, A., Tait, A., Turner, C.M. and MacLeod, A. (2009) Trypanosoma vivax displays a clonal population structure. International Journal for Parasitology, 39(13), 1475 -1483. (doi:10.1016/j.ijpara.2009.05.012) (PMID:19520081)

Morrison, L.J., Tait, A., McLellan, S., Sweeney, L., Turner, C.M.R. and MacLeod, A. (2009) A major genetic locus in Trypanosoma brucei is a determinant of host pathology. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 3(12), e557. (doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000557)

Morrison, L.J. et al. (2009) Discovery of mating in the major African livestock pathogen Trypanosoma congolense. PLoS ONE, 4(5), e5564. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005564)

Cooper, A., Tait, A., Sweeney, L., Tweedie, A., Morrison, L., Turner, C.M.R. and MacLeod, A. (2008) Genetic analysis of the human infective trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei gambiense: chromosomal segregation, crossing over, and the construction of a genetic map. Genome Biology, 9(6), R103. (doi:10.1186/gb-2008-9-6-r103)

Morrison, L.J., Mallon, M.E., Smith, H.V., MacLeod, A., Xiao, L. and Tait, A. (2008) The population structure of the Cryptosporidium parvum population in Scotland: a complex picture. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 8(2), pp. 121-129. (doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2007.10.010)

Morrison, L., Tait, A., McCormack, G., Sweeney, L., Black, A., Truc, P., Likeufack, A., Turner, C.M.R. and MacLeod, A. (2008) Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Type 1 populations from human patients are clonal and display geographical genetic differentiation. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 8(6), pp. 847-854. (doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2008.08.005)

MacLean, L., Odiit, M., MacLeod, A., Morrison, L., Sweeney, L., Cooper, A., Kennedy, P.G.E. and Sternberg, J.M. (2007) Spatially and genetically distinct African trypanosome virulence variants defined by host interferon-g response. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 196(11), pp. 1620-1628. (doi:10.1086/522011)

Morrison, L.J., McCormack, G., Sweeney, L., Likeufack, A.C.L., Truc, P., Turner, C.M.R., Tait, A. and MacLeod, A. (2007) The use of Multiple Displacement Amplification to increase the detection and genotyping of Trypanosoma samples immobilised on FTA filters. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 76(6), pp. 1132-1137.

MacLean, L., Odiit, M., MacLeod, A., Morrison, L., Sweeney, L., Cooper, A., Kennedy, P. and Sternberg, J. (2007) Spatially and genetically distinct African trypanosome virulence variants defined by host interferon-gamma response. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 196(s3), pp. 1620-1628. (doi:10.1086/522011)

Morrison, L., McCormack, G., Sweeney, L., Likeufack, A., Truc, P., Turner, C., Tait, A. and MacLeod, A. (2007) Use of multiple displacement amplification to increase the detection and genotyping of Trypanosoma species samples immobilized on FTA filters. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 76, pp. 1132-1137.

Tait, A., MacLeod, A., Tweedie, A., Masiga, D. and Turner, C.M.R. (2007) Genetic exchange in Trypanosoma brucei: Evidence for mating prior to metacyclic stage development. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 151, pp. 133-136. (doi:10.1016/j.molbiopara.2006.10.009)

Balmer, O., Palma, C., Macleod, A. and Caccone, A. (2006) Characterization of di-, tri- and tetranucleotide microsatellite markers with perfect repeats for Trypanosoma brucei and related species. Molecular Ecology Notes, 6, pp. 508-510. (doi:10.1111/j.1471-8286.2006.01297.x)

MacLeod, A., Tweedie, A., McLellan, S., Taylor, S., Hall, N., Berriman, M., El-Sayed, N.M., Hope, M., Turner, C.M.R. and Tait, A. (2005) The genetic map and comparative analysis with the physical map of Trypanosoma brucei. Nucleic Acids Research, 33(21), pp. 6688-6693. (doi:10.1093/nar/gki980)

Berriman, M. et al. (2005) The genome of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei. Science, 309(5733), pp. 416-422. (doi:10.1126/science.1112642)

Smith, H.V., Nichols, R.A., Mallon, M., MacLeod, A., Tait, A., Reilly, W.J., Browning, L.M., Gray, D., Reid, S.W.J. and Wastling, J.M. (2005) Natural Cryptosporidium hominis infections in Scottish cattle. Veterinary Record, 156(22), pp. 710-711.

MacLeod, A., Tweedie, A., McLellan, S., Taylor, S., Cooper, A., Sweeney, L., Turner, C. and Tait, A. (2005) Allelic segregation and independent assortment in T-brucei crosses: Proof that the genetic system is Mendelian and involves meiosis. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 143, pp. 12-19. (doi:10.1016/j.molbiopara.2005.04.009)

MacLeod, A., Tweedie, A., McLellan, S., Taylor, S., Cooper, A., Sweeney, L., Turner, C.M.R. and Tait, A. (2005) Allelic segregation and independent assortment in T. brucei crosses: proof that the genetic system is Mendelian and involves meiosis. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 143(1), pp. 12-19. (doi:10.1016/j.molbiopara.2005.04.009)

Tait, A., MacLeod, A., Tweedie, A., Masiga, D. and Turner, C.M.R. (2005) Genetic exchange in Trypanosoma brucei: evidence for mating prior to metacyclic stage development. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 151(1), pp. 133-136. (doi:10.1016/j.molbiopara.2006.10.009)

Turner, C.M.R., McLellan, S., Lindergard, L.A.G., Bisoni, L., Tait, A. and MacLeod, A. (2004) Human infectivity trait in Trypanosoma brucei: stability, heritability and relationship to sra expression. Parasitology, 129(4), pp. 445-454. (doi:10.1017/S0031182004005906)

Turner, C., McLellan, S., Lindergard, L., Bisoni, L., Tait, A. and MacLeod, A. (2004) Human infectivity trait in Trypanosoma brucei: stability, heritability and relationship to sra expression. Parasitology, 129, pp. 445-454. (doi:10.1017/S0031182004005906)

Mallon, M.E., MacLeod, A., Wastling, J.M., Smith, H. and Tait, A. (2003) Multilocus genotyping of Cryptosporidium parvum Type 2: population genetics and sub-structuring. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 3(3), pp. 207-218. (doi:10.1016/S1567-1348(03)00089-3)

Hall, N. et al. (2003) The DNA sequence of chromosome I of an African trypanosome: gene content, chromosome organisation, recombination and polymorphism. Nucleic Acids Research, 31(16), pp. 4864-4873. (doi:10.1093/nar/gkg674) (PMID:12907729) (PMCID:PMC169939)

Mallon, M., MacLeod, A., Wastling, J., Smith, H., Reilly, B. and Tait, A. (2003) Population structures and the role of genetic exchange in the zoonotic pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 56(4), pp. 407-417. (doi:10.1007/s00239-002-2412-3) (PMID:12664161)

El-Sayed, N. et al. (2003) The sequence and analysis of Trypanosoma brucei chromosome II. Nucleic Acids Research, 31, pp. 4856-4863. (doi:10.1093/nar/gkg673)

Tait, A., Masiga, D., Ouma, J., MacLeod, A., Sasse, J., Melville, S., Lindegard, G., McIntosh, A. and Turner, M. (2002) Genetic analysis of phenotype in Trypanosoma brucei: a classical approach to potentially complex traits. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 357, pp. 89-99. (doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.1050)

MacLeod, A., Tait, A. and Turner, C. M. (2001) The population genetics of Trypanosoma brucei and the origin of human infectivity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 356, pp. 1035-1044. (doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.0892)

MacLeod, A., Welburn, S., Maudlin, I., Turner, C. and Tait, A. (2001) Evidence for multiple origins of human infectivity in Trypanosoma brucei revealed by minisatellite variant repeat mapping. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 52, pp. 290-301.

MacLeod, A., Turner, C.M.R. and Tait, A. (2001) The detection of geographical substructuring of Trypanosoma brucei populations by the analysis of minisatellite polymorphisms. Parasitology, 123(5), pp. 475-482. (doi:10.1017/S0031182001008666) (PMID:11719958)

MacLeod, A., Tweedie, A., Welburn, S. C., Maudlin, I., Turner, C. M. T. and Tait, A. (2000) Minisatellite marker analysis of Trypanosoma brucei: reconciliation of clonal, panmictic, and epidemic population genetic structures. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(24), pp. 13442-13447. (doi:10.1073/pnas.230434097) (PMID:11078512) (PMCID:PMC27243)

De Koning, H.P. , MacLeod, A., Barrett, M.P. , Cover, B. and Jarvis, S.M. (2000) Further evidence for a link between melarsoprol resistance and P2 transporter function in African trypanosomes. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 106(1), pp. 181-185. (doi:10.1016/S0166-6851(99)00206-6)

Hope, M., MacLeod, A., Leech, V., Melville, S., Sasse, J., Tait, A. and Turner, C. M. R. (1999) Analysis of ploidy (in megabase chromosomes) in Trypanosoma brucei after genetic exchange. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 104(1), pp. 1-9. (doi:10.1016/S0166-6851(99)00103-6) (PMID:10589977)

MacLeod, A., Turner, C. M. R. and Tait, A. (1999) A high level of mixed Trypanosoma brucei infections in tsetse flies detected by three hypervariable minisatellites. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 102(2), pp. 237-248. (doi:10.1016/S0166-6851(99)00101-2) (PMID:10498180)

Barrett, M. P. , MacLeod, A., Tovar, J., Sweetman, J. P., Tait, A., Le Page, R. W.F. and Melville, S. E. (1997) A single locus minisatellite sequence which distinguishes between Trypanosoma brucei isolates. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 86(1), pp. 95-99. (doi:10.1016/S0166-6851(97)02832-6) (PMID:9178271)

MacLeod, A., Turner, C. M. R. and Tait, A. (1997) Detection of single copy gene sequences from single trypanosomes. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 84(2), pp. 267-270. (doi:10.1016/S0166-6851(96)02810-1) (PMID:9084048)

Book Sections

Capewell, P., Clucas, C., Weir, W., Veitch, N. and MacLeod, A. (2013) Normal human serum lysis of non-human trypanosomes and resistance of T. b. rhodesiense and T. b. gambiense. In: Magez, S. and Radwanska, M. (eds.) Trypanosomes and Trypanosomiasis. Springer, pp. 139-160. ISBN 9783709115558 (doi:10.1007/978-3-7091-1556-5_6)

MacLeod, A., Morrison, L. J. and Tait, A. (2013) Virulence in African trypanosomes: genetic and molecular approaches. In: Sibley, L. D., Howlett, B. J. and Heitman, J. (eds.) Evolution of Virulence in Eukaryotic Microbes. Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 307-323. ISBN 9781118038185 (doi:10.1002/9781118308165.ch16)

MacLeod, A., Turner, C.M.R. and Tait, A. (2007) The system of genetic exchange in Trypanosoma brucei and other trypanosomatids. In: Barry, D., McCulloch, R., Mottram, J. and Acosta-Serrano, A. (eds.) Trypanosomes: after the genome. Horizon Press, pp. 71-90. ISBN 9781904933274

MacLeod, A. (2004) Minisatellites and MVR-PCR for the individual identification of parasite isolates. In: Melville, S. E. (ed.) Parasite Genomics Protocols. Series: Methods in molecular biology, 270 (270). Humana Press: Totowa, N.J., pp. 187-202. ISBN 9781588290625 (doi:10.1385/1-59259-793-9:187)

This list was generated on Fri Nov 16 22:41:11 2018 GMT.