Assessment and feedback research

The advice contained within the Toolkit is supported by peer-reviewed research, and we hope to encourage staff (and students) at the University to continue researching the best ways to develop their assessment and feedback practice. To assist in this, we have gathered a selection of reading material as a starting point. While this list is not intended to be exhaustive, if you would like to recommend additional research materials to be included, please let us know by getting in contact.

Further reading:

For ease of browsing, the further reading materials have been split into three sections: online resources, which covers websites and good practice resources from different academic institutions; toolkits, where we have gathered relevant assessment and feedback toolkits; and bibliography, for academic publications on assessment and feedback practice.


Chickering, A. W. & Gamson, Z. F. (1987), Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education, American Association of Higher Education Bulletin, 39(7), 3-7.

Evans, C. (2013), Making Sense of Assessment Feedback in Higher Education, Review of Educational Research, 83(1), 70-120.

Gibbs, G., Jessop, T., El-Hakim, Y. (2010), TESTA Manual: a practical guide to improving student learning.

Gibbs, G., & Simpson, C. (2003). Measuring the response of students to assessment: The assessment experience questionnaire. Proceedings of the 11th Improving Student Learning Symposium, Hanover International Hotel, Hinckley, Leicestershire, UK, September 1-3, 2003.

Lizzo A., & Wilson, K. (2008). Feedback on assessment: students’ perceptions of quality and effectiveness. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 33, 263-275.

McDowell, L., Smailes, J., Sambell, K., Sambell, A., & Wakeline, D. (2007). Evaluating assessment strategies through collaborative evidence-based practice: can one tool fit all? Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 45(2), 143–153.

National Union of Students (2008), ‘The Great NUS Feedback Amnesty’ Briefing Paper. Rowntree,D. (1977), Assessing students: How shall we know them? Kogan Page: London.

Nicol, D, J. & Macfarlane-Dick, D. (2006), Formative assessment and self-regulated learning: A model and seven principles of good feedback practice, Studies in Higher Education, 31(2), 199-218.

Nicol, D. (2009), Transforming assessment and feedback: enhancing integration and empowerment in the first year. Published by the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education.

Nicol, D and Draper, S (2009), A blueprint for transformational organisational change in higher education: REAP as a case study. In: Mayes, T; Morrison, D; Meller, H; Bullen, P and Oliver, M (eds) Education through technology-enhanced learning. Higher Education Academy, pp. 191-207.

Nicol, D., Thomson, A. & Breslin, C. (2014). Rethinking feedback practices in higher education: a peer review perspective. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 39 (1) 102–122.

Orsmond, P., Merry, S., & Reiling, K. (2005). Biology students’ utilization of tutors’ formative feedback: A qualitative interview study. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 30, 369-386.

Rust, C. (2007), Towards a scholarship of assessment, Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 32(2), 229-237.

Tuck, J. (2012) Feedback-giving as social practice: teachers’ perspectives on feedback as institutional requirement, work and dialogue. Teaching in Higher Education, 17(2), 209-221.