Grading class participation
Grading class participation makes a clear statement to the students in that class that participation and contribution is highly valued. When that grading is consistent and regular it can encourage students to come to class prepared to participate. It is not, however, without it’s challenges as the teacher has to not only facilitate the class, but also grade the participation. And in-class participation itself can be affected by group size and dynamics, culture, shyness, gender and a myriad of other complications.
To support your students to really understand this process, get them to help you design the criteria against which they will be marked. Then support them to provide self- and peer-feedback based on those criteria before using them summatively.