Power Systems 4 ENG4104

  • Academic Session: 2019-20
  • School: School of Engineering
  • Credits: 20
  • Level: Level 4 (SCQF level 10)
  • Typically Offered: Semester 2
  • Available to Visiting Students: Yes

Short Description

This is an advanced course in Power Systems, with a focus on the generation, transmission and distribution of electrical power.  Students will learn how to model and analyse such systems under normal and abnormal (fault) conditions, in order correctly design and operate them.  Students will understand how to identify weaknesses in pre-existing systems, both in the steady-state and transient regimes, and be able to put forward technical solutions for network reinforcement.


4 hours of lectures per week.

Requirements of Entry

Mandatory Entry Requirements


Recommended Entry Requirements


Excluded Courses

ENG5029 Electrical Energy Systems M




90% Written Exam 

10% Laboratory Reports

Main Assessment In: April/May

Are reassessment opportunities available for all summative assessments? No

Reassessments are normally available for all courses, except those which contribute to the Honours classification. For non Honours courses, students are offered reassessment in all or any of the components of assessment if the satisfactory (threshold) grade for the overall course is not achieved at the first attempt. This is normally grade D3 for undergraduate students and grade C3 for postgraduate students. Exceptionally it may not be possible to offer reassessment of some coursework items, in which case the mark achieved at the first attempt will be counted towards the final course grade. Any such exceptions for this course are described below. 

Course Aims

The aims of this course are to:

■ provide an in-depth knowledge of the modern theory and practice of electric power systems;

■ provide a solid understanding of the operation and design of electrical power equipment;

■ undertake related analysis and design calculations.

Intended Learning Outcomes of Course

By the end of this course students will be able to:


■ list key components of the UK electricity generation, transmission and distribution network;

■ describe general techniques of transmission system balancing (including demand side response, storage, and smart networks);

■ classify a broad range of power supply problems (including momentary interruption, long term outage, sag/swell, surge and distortion), the causes and typical solutions of these problems;

■ reproduce standard equations for 3-phase systems and calculate fundamental network parameters;

■ derive per-unit values for real networks, and apply these values in network analysis;

■ describe fundamental transmission line physical and electrical characteristics;

■ select appropriate models to analyse transmission line problems for short, medium and long lines under 50 Hz (e.g. voltage regulation) and short pulse (e.g. lightning strike) conditions;

■ derive the four terminal line representation for medium transmission lines;

■ calculate power flow in transmission lines, and apply these calculations to evaluate line conditions;

■ calculate fault currents for transmission systems;

■ formulate detailed phasor diagrams for transmission networks, and use these to perform systems design;

■ formulate phasor diagrams for synchronous generators and use these to calculate supplied generator power and classify conditions for generator stability;

■ describe the need for automatic voltage regulators;

■ explain the nature of transient and sub-transient reactances with regard to generator fault analysis;

■ identify surge impedance loadings, voltage drop and thermal limits for practical transmission lines;

■ classify the limitations to bulk power flow over a transmission system with passive and active loads;

■ explain how bulk power flow is managed in transmission systems;

■ calculate load flow and fault level conditions for generation, transmission and distribution networks;

■ derive the Short Circuit Ratio for transmission systems, and use it to judge system strength;

■ summarise the underlying physics, and key approximations behind the Equal Area Criterion (EAC) in the analysis of transmission system transient stability;

■ compute generator response to faults using the EAC, and use the method to evaluate the stability of transmission systems to transient faults;

■ explain the term 'power quality' and classify measures of power quality;

■ calculate harmonic distortion in power systems, and design filter packages for system optimisation;

Minimum Requirement for Award of Credits

Students must attend the degree examination and submit at least 75% by weight of the other components of the course's summative assessment.


Students must attend the timetabled laboratory classes.


Students should attend at least 75% of the timetabled classes of the course.


Note that these are minimum requirements: good students will achieve far higher participation/submission rates.  Any student who misses an assessment or a significant number of classes because of illness or other good cause should report this by completing a MyCampus absence report.