Jamie Barnes

Profile

PhD Candidate in Archaeology

Qualifications

MLitt (Distinction)
Celtic and Viking Archaeology
University of Glasgow, 2014

MA (Honours)
Archaeology
University of Glasgow, 2013

Photo

Contact Information

Department of Archaeology
Gregory Building
Room 217a
Lilybank Gardens
University of Glasgow
G12 8QQ

j.barnes.1@research.gla.ac.uk

Professional Memberships

British Archaeological Association
Viking Society for Northern Research
European Association of Archaeologists
Scottish Society for Northern Studies
Runes, Monuments and Memorial Carvings
Society for Medieval Archaeology
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland

Research Interests

Viking Age archaeology; Early Medieval Scotland; Early Medieval Northern England; Isle of Man; Irish Sea region; Viking Age carved stones; hogbacks; hammerhead crosses; identity; hybrid practice; religious syncretism; landscape theory; beach markets; Pictish carved stones‌‌

 

Research Title

Of Warriors and Beasts: The Hogbacks and Hammerhead Crosses of the Viking Age Landscapes of Strathclyde and Northumbria

Abstract

In considering issues of cultural contact and the negotiation of ideas in and between the Viking Age landscapes of Strathclyde and Northumbria, this study examines hogbacks and hammerhead crosses. Both are insular, and often enigmatic, forms of Viking Age carved stone sculpture often found in Christian contexts. This study aims to highlight the significance of these carved stones within a contemporary landscape dominated by a complex historical and archaeological narrative, with the overall aim of ascribing functional properties to them, beyond those of funerary. The approach of this study is predominantly theoretical in its construct, both methodologically and analytically, and is grounded in the phenomenological principles of Maurice Merleau-Ponty. It is also the hope that this study will break down the perceived barrier imposed on research by the modern Scottish/English Border, and thus potentially alleviate the implied disconnect between Viking Age Strathclyde and Northumbria.

Acknowledging the existing art-historical work, this study archaeologically reappraises hogbacks and also provides an original and detailed archaeological treatise of hammerhead crosses. Additionally, this study espouses a conceptual framework for approaching, analysing and interpreting carved stones, which considers the idea of what makes space become a place. This involves the adoption of a reflexive phenomenological approach to the recording of carved stone monuments in the landscape, and, in approaching material, the adoption and adaption of the concepts of hybrid practice, supervenience, Deleuzian difference, common difference, third space, and art and agency. In integrating these approaches and concepts, the idea of place-making emerges, discerned via non-dialectical interrelations between people, material, and space, and conceptualised here in abstract form as the person <-> object <-> space framework.

In applying this framework to postulate functional properties of carved stones in the landscape, the following, non-mutually exclusive, themes are considered: political space, mythological space, sacred space, economic space, commemorative space, and liturgical space. In considering these themes in the application of the conceptual framework to approaching notable carved stones, functional landscapes can be proposed. These theoretical landscapes emerge and are understood through a network of functional places, developing out of particular carved stone monuments inhabiting specific spaces. Ascribing functional properties to Viking Age carved stones allows for interpretation beyond the traditional and uncritical narrative that hogbacks and hammerhead crosses are simply Viking ‘calling cards’ or gravestones. Furthermore, in considering the Christian context and syncretic nature of specific hogbacks, this study challenges the idea that their origins and models often lie solely in Scandinavian paganism and culture. 

Supervisors

Dr Colleen E Batey

Dr Stephen H Harrison

Keywords

Viking Age archaeology; Early Medieval; Scotland; Northern England; Irish Sea; carved stones; landscape; hogbacks; hammerhead crosses; hybrid practice; Strathclyde; Northumbria; Cumbria

 

Funding Awards

2017             
Viking Society for Northern Research

2016 - 2017   
The Scottish International Education Trust

2017            
Confederation of Scandinavian Societies

2017            
Susan Green Memorial Bursary

2017             
University of Glasgow Research Support Award

2016 - 2017   
The Sir Richard Stapley Educational Trust

2015 - 2016   
The Scottish International Education Trust

2015 - 2016   
The Sir Richard Stapley Educational Trust

2015             
The Scottish Society for Northern Studies

2014 - 2015   
The Catherine Mackichan Trust

2014 - 2015   
The Strathmartine Trust 

2014             
University of Glasgow Research Support Award

2014             
York Archaeological Trust 

2014             
Viking Society for Northern Research

2012             
University of Glasgow Student Bursary

2012             
Leonardo da Vinci Fund: European Commission Lifelong Learning Programme

Publications

Barnes, J. 2017. Hammerhead Crosses of the Viking Age. In C. Cooijmans (ed.), Traversing the Inner Seas: Contacts and Continuity in and around Western Scotland, the Hebrides, and the North of Ireland, 232-73. Edinburgh: Scottish Society for Northern Studies.

Barnes, J. 2017. Aberlemno Sculptured Stones: Aberlemno I. Statement of Significance. Historic Environment Scotland.

Barnes, J. 2017. Aberlemno Churchyard Cross Slab. Statement of Significance. Historic Environment Scotland.

Barnes, J. 2017. Aberlemno Sculptured Stones: Aberlemno III. Statement of Significance. Historic Environment Scotland.

Barnes, J. 2017. Aberlemno Sculptured Stones: Aberlemno IV. Statement of SignificanceHistoric Environment Scotland.

Barnes, J. 2017. Dunfallandy Stone. Statement of Significance. Historic Environment Scotland. 

Barnes, J. 2017. Dupplin Cross. Statement of Significance. Historic Environment Scotland.

Barnes, J. 2017. Eassie Sculptured Stone. Statement of Significance. Historic Environment Scotland.

Barnes, J. 2017. Maiden Stone. Statement of Significance. Historic Environment Scotland.

Barnes, J. 2017. St Orland's Stone. Statement of Significance. Historic Environment Scotland.

 

Talks

Hammerhead Crosses of the Viking (Version 2). Presented at the Early Medieval Archaeology Student Symposium, University of Glasgow, April 2018.

Beastly Govan: the hogbacks and their siblings. Presented at Govan Old Parish Church, Glasgow, March 2017.

Hogbacks and Hammerheads: Enigmas of the Viking Age? Presented at the Department of Archaeology, University of Glasgow, March 2017.

Hammerhead Crosses of the Viking (Version 1)Presented at the School of History, Classics and Archaeology, University of Edinburgh, October 2016.

SERF: A Student's Perspective. Presented at the Cradle of Scotland exhibition, University of Glasgow, October 2015. 

Of Warriors and Beasts: Viking Age interactions between the Kingdoms of Strathclyde and Northumbria (Version 2). Presented at the Runes, Monuments and Memorial Carvings Network, Glasgow, April 2015.

Of Warriors and Beasts: Viking Age interactions between the Kingdoms of Strathclyde and Northumbria (Version 1). Presented at the Scottish Society for Northern Studies, Isle of Coll, April 2015.

Interpreting the Viking Age stone sculpture of the British Isles: production, consumption, and negotiation. Presented at the Nordic Research Network, University of Edinburgh, February 2015.

Interpreting Viking Age stone sculpture: the evidence of hybrid practice in the Irish Sea region (Version 2). Presented at the First Millennial Studies Group, University of Glasgow, February 2015.

Interpreting Viking Age stone sculpture: The evidence of hybrid practice in the Irish Sea region (Version 1). Presented at the Society for Medieval Archaeology Student Colloquium, Queen's University, Belfast, November 2014.

Posters

Of Warriors and Beasts: Searching for meaning in the hogbacks and hammerhead crosses of the Viking Age landscapes of Strathclyde and Northumbria. Presented at the Eighteenth Viking Congress, Copenhagen and Ribe, Denmark, August 2017.

Dissertations

The Vikings in Western Scotland: From the Firth of Clyde to the Solway Firth. Unpublished MLitt Dissertation. University of Glasgow, September 2014.

From Ragnarök to Crucifixion. Aspects of Viking Age Identity in the Irish Sea Region: interpreting sculpture through Hybrid Practice. Unpublished MA (Hons) Dissertation. University of Glasgow, April 2013.