Helen Green

Heritage and landscape researcher

MA Archaeology, University of Glasgow: 2012
MSc Landscape: Integrated Research and Practice, University of Glasgow: 2013

Contact Information
Department of Archaeology
The Gregory Building, Lilybank Gardens
University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ

0141 330 3925 h.green.1@research.gla.ac.uk

Memberships and Affiliations
Member of Heritage, Philosophy & Practice Research Group
Member of the European Network for Archaeology and Integrated Landscape Research
Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland
Member of the Landscape Research Group
Member of the European Association of Archaeologists
Member of the Neolithic Studies Group

Research Interests

Archaeology; heritage; landscape; policy; spatial planning; renewable energy

Research Title
Renewable Energy and the Historic Environment: An Analysis of Policy and Practice in Scotland

Research Abstract
As the renewable energy sector in Scotland, particularly in the past fifteen years onshore wind, has grown, so have landscape impacts and impacts on the settings of heritage assets – on how they are perceived and experienced in their landscape context. Such non-physical impacts, characterised in archaeology as ‘indirect’, nonetheless affect the cultural fabric of society, and are linked with issues such as social tensions, tourism, local identity and political values. Moreover, setting impacts have been the subject of intense disagreement within the archaeological profession. My research aims to critically examine the concept of setting and the effectiveness of various related decision-making processes and of recent policy and practice, the causes of tension and disagreement, and the value of strategies proposed to redress the balance where setting impacts have been deemed insufficient to prevent development.

I approach these issues using a conceptual framework based on perceptual experience, values and ethics, which sees these as relational in nature and broadly supports a discourse of sustainability to which the cultural dimension is fundamental. The aims are addressed through a focus on three case studies, dating between 2004 and 2009: all windfarm proposals culminating in public inquiries, in Orkney, Caithness and Clydesdale. The time elapsed enables reflection both grounded in hindsight, and taking account of subsequent changes; and in the cases of consented and built developments, additional insight into actual, as opposed to potential, impacts that was unavailable during the case study period to the actors involved. I investigated the case studies through public inquiry reports, landscape visualisations and setting assessments, other available online and documentary sources, fieldtrips and informal qualitative interviews.

I found that the concept of setting has evolved over the past decade, in part as a result of testing through onshore wind energy developments, and the work of heritage professionals of all kinds, whose different roles and remits have contributed to strong differences of opinion. Setting also must be differentiated from landscape impacts and from more general windfarm opposition: it is fundamentally about the cultural significance of heritage assets as experienced by people, in the widest sense of the term. However, how people value and experience heritage remains under-researched and undertheorised. I also found that investigating this debate touched upon a series of injustices, some of which are quite embedded. I argue that development-related processes can contribute positively to this situation in a variety of different ways.

Dr Kenny Brophy
Dr Chris Dalglish

Scotland • Archaeology • Landscape • Heritage • Renewable Energy • Planning • Policy • Perception

This research has been funded by the Caledonian Scholarship, adminstered by the Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland.
Additional contributions for research expenses and conference attendance came from the Glasgow University College of Arts Research Support Award.

Graduate Teaching Assistant
Archaeology of Scotland (level 1)
Archaeology in the Modern World (level 1)
Archaeology in Theory and Practice (level 2)
Archaeology of Europe and the Mediterranean (level 2)

Guest Graduate Teaching Assistant
Landscape Archaeologies Past and Present (Honours)

Other Relevant Recent Work
Supervisor, SERF project
Supervisor, Cochno Stone Project
Joint leader, Landscape Discussion Group
Postgraduate Research Representative

Green, H. 2017. Tilting at Windmills: Renewable Energy and the Historic Environment in Scotland, AD 2004-2009.
Presented at the Archaeology Departmental Seminar, University of Glasgow. March 2017.

Green, H. 2016. Renewable Energy and the Historic Environment: Reflections on Process and Practice.
Presented at the Historic Environment Scotland Caseworkers' Forum. November 2016.

Green, H. 2015. Environmental Policy, Landscape and Cultural Heritage: Sustainability and Activism.
Presented at the Ecocultures conference, Govan. October 2015.

Green, H. 2015. Conflicting Values of Heritage, Landscape and Wind Energy: A Case Study in Perception, the Past and Planning in Scotland
Presented at the Landscape Research Group Conference, Dresden. September 2015.

Green, H., Leslie, A., Brophy, K., Dalglish, C., Sorotou, A. 2015. Drawing Value from the Past: Innovating Responses to Archaeological Loss.
Presented at the European Association of Archaeologists Conference, Glasgow. September 2015.

Dalglish, C., Brophy, K., Soroutou, A., Leslie, A., Macgregor, G., and Green, H. 2015. Landscapes and Heritage: Research-Practice-Action.
Presented at the Archaeology Departmental Seminar, University of Glasgow. January 2015.

Green, H. 2014. The 'March of the Turbines' and the Destruction/Creation of Scotland's Landscapes.
Presented at the 'Inventing the Landscape' symposium at the French Institute, Edinburgh. December 2014.

Brophy, K., Dalglish, C., Leslie, A., Green, H., MacGregor, G., and Sorotou, A. 2014. Practice for the Long Term: Collaborative Landscape Histories, Co-produced Landscape Futures.
Presented at the 'Combining Scientific Expertise with Participation: The Challenge of the European Landscape Convention' conference, Brussels, Belgium. April 2014.

Green, H. 2014. Heritage and Landscape Change: Past and Perception in the Planning Processes of Scotland.
Presented at the Institute for Archaeologists conference, Glasgow. April 2014.

Green, H. and Brophy, K. 2014. The Last Days of a Stone Circle.
Presented at the Institute for Archaeologists conference, Glasgow. April 2014.

Brophy, K. and Green, H. 2013. Thatcher's Petrified Children: The Sighthill Stone Circle in Glasgow.
Presented at the Theoretical Archaeology Group (TAG) conference, Bournemouth. December 2013.


Lead organiser of session: Translating Values of the Past: How Can We Compensate for Impacted Heritage?
at the European Association of Archaeologists, Glasgow, 5th September 2015


Brophy, J., Brophy, K. and Green, H. 2014. Better Late than Never: Using the Sighthill Stone Circle. Archaeology Scotland, 21 (Winter 2014).

Brophy, K., Green, H. and Welfare, A. 2014. The Last Days of Glasgow's Stone Circle. British Archaeology, July-August 2014 issue.

Green, H. 2013. Review of North Sea Archaeologies: A Maritime Biography, 10,000 BC to AD 1500, by Robert Van de Noort, in The Kelvingrove Review, 11.