National and Subnational Approaches to Regulating Private and Vocational Education and Training: Comparative Insights from Asia and Africa

This is a background paper prepared to inform and shape the UNESCO Global Education Monitoring Report 2021. As the fast-growing cities in Africa and Asia face increasing poverty, inequality, and insecurity, technical and vocational education and training (TVET) is considered as a solution as TVET facilitates skilled employment. However, one key issue is the governance of the TVET system, which has become more complex in recent years due to the participation of both state and non-state actors. In the study, we devoted particular attention to the role of non-state actors, as countries increasingly rely on non-state provision of TVET. We relied on the analysis of TVET governance and regulations in seven countries: Bangladesh, China, India, the Philippines, Rwanda, South Africa, and Tanzania. In particular, we looked at how non-state providers of TVET are regulated and governed by states to ensure their citizens receive quality and effective TVET that equips them with skills and knowledge relevant for their local labour markets.

PI and Co-I

PI – Dr Yulia Nesterova - University of Glasgow, School of Education

Co-I – Dr Queralt Capsada-Munsech - University of Glasgow, School of Education


Start and End date

May 2020 - November 2020


Funder and Funding amount

UNESCO, USD 6,000