Dr James Boyle

  • Honorary Clinical Associate Professor (School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing)
  • Associate (Institute of Cardiovascular & Medical Sciences)

email: James.Boyle@glasgow.ac.uk

Room 340, School of Medicine, Wolfson Medical School Building, G12 8qq

Publications

List by: Type | Date

Jump to: 2021 | 2020 | 2019 | 2018 | 2017 | 2016 | 2015 | 2014 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2008 | 2007 | 2003
Number of items: 39.

2021

Nicoll, R., White, M., Loureiro Harrison, L., Cordiner, R. L.M., Daniel, M., Choo-Kang, B. and Boyle, J. G. (2021) Improving the quality of weekend medical handover on non-receiving medical hospital wards. BMJ Open Quality, 10(4), e000991. (doi: 10.1136/bmjoq-2020-000991)

Robertson, C., Al-Moasseb, Z., Noonan, Z. and Boyle, J.G. (2021) The 3-D skills model: a randomised controlled pilot study comparing a novel 1–1 near-peer teaching model to a formative OSCE with self-regulated practice. Medical Science Educator, (doi: 10.1007/s40670-021-01369-w) (Early Online Publication)

Boyle, J. G., Walters, M. R., Jamieson, S. and Durning, S. J. (2021) Sharing the bandwidth in cognitively overloaded teams and systems: mechanistic insights from a walk on the wild side of clinical reasoning. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, (doi: 10.1080/10401334.2021.1924723) (PMID:34167387) (Early Online Publication)

Timmons, J. G. et al. (2021) Metformin and carotid intima-media thickness in never-smokers with type 1 diabetes: the REMOVAL trial. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 23(6), pp. 1371-1378. (doi: 10.1111/dom.14350) (PMID:33591613)

Sattar, N. , Boyle, J. G. and Al-Ozairi, E. (2021) Testosterone replacement to prevent type 2 diabetes? Not just yet. Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, 9(1), pp. 5-6. (doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30373-9) (PMID:33338416)

Anderson, J. J. et al. (2021) Ethnic differences in prevalence of actionable HbA1c levels in UK Biobank: implications for screening. BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care, 9(1), e002176. (doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2021-002176) (PMID:34353880) (PMCID:PMC8344314)

2020

Boyle, J.G., Colquhoun, I., Noonan, Z. , McDowall, S. , Walters, M.R. and Leach, J.P. (2020) Viva la VOSCE. BMC Medical Education, 20, 514. (doi: 10.1186/s12909-020-02444-3) (PMID:33334327) (PMCID:PMC7746425)

Petrie, J. R. , Boyle, J. G., Ali, K., Smith, C., Morrison, D. and Kar, P. (2020) A post COVID‐19 ‘Marshall Plan’ for type 2 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine, (doi: 10.1111/dme.14439)

Boyle, J. G., Walters, M. R. , Jamieson, S. and Durning, S. J. (2020) Clinical reasoning in the wild: premature closure during the COVID-19 pandemic. Diagnosis, 7(3), pp. 177-179. (doi: 10.1515/dx-2020-0061) (PMID:32710716)

Livingstone, R. , Boyle, J.G. and Petrie, J.R. (2020) How tightly controlled do fluctuations in blood glucose levels need to be to reduce the risk of developing complications in people with Type 1 diabetes? Diabetic Medicine, 37(4), pp. 513-521. (doi: 10.1111/dme.13911) (PMID:30697804)

Noonan, Z. , Boyle, J. G., Pope, L. , Ditchfield, C. , Leach, J. P. and McDowall, S. (2020) Quarantining the OSCE: reflections on the Glasgow experience. Clinical Teacher, 17(1), pp. 94-97. (doi: 10.1111/tct.12993) (PMID:30592158)

2019

Pearsall, R., Shaw, R. J. , McLean, G., Connolly, M., Hughes, K. A., Boyle, J. G., Park, J., Smith, D. J. and Mackay, D. (2019) Health screening, cardiometabolic disease and adverse health outcomes in individuals with severe mental illness. BJPsych Open, 5(6), e97. (doi: 10.1192/bjo.2019.76) (PMID:31699180) (PMCID:PMC6854356)

2018

Oje, M., Linn, A., Rea, P. , Livingstone, D., Nally, J. and Boyle, J. (2018) Twine Open-Source Software as a Tool for Creating Serious Digital Games with Virtual Patient’s - Enhancing Undergraduate and Postgraduate Diabetes Education. 2nd Visualisation in Science Conference 2018, Glasgow, UK, 03 Dec 2018.

Linn, A., Boyle, J., Gibson, D., Lawler, H., Berent, S. and Spaeth, E. (2018) Working in Partnership With Health Professional Students to Understand their Perceptions of Digital Identity Management and to Embed Digital Skills into the Curriculum. AMEE 2018, Basel, Switzerland, 25-29 Aug 2018.

Boyle, J. G., Livingstone, R. and Petrie, J. R. (2018) Cardiovascular benefits of GLP-1 agonists in type 2 diabetes: a comparative review. Clinical Science, 132(15), pp. 1699-1709. (doi: 10.1042/CS20171299) (PMID:30115742)

Linn, A., Dowell, F., Boyle, J. and Spaeth, E. (2018) Working in Partnership With Medical Students to Embed Digital Skills Development into the Curriculum. 8th National Scottish Medical Education Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, 26-27 Apr 2018. (Unpublished)

Spaeth, E. et al. (2018) Student Partnerships Focus on Embedding Digital Skills into the Curriculum. 11th Annual University of Glasgow Learning and Teaching Conference, Glasgow, UK, 28-29 Mar 2018.

Quail, N., Holmes, K., Linn, A., Rea, P. , Livingstone, D. and Boyle, J. (2018) Serious Digital Games Using Virtual Patients and Digital Chalk-talk Videos: a Novel Approach to Teaching Acute Diabetes Care in the Undergraduate Medical Curriculum. Diabetes UK Professional Conference 2018, London, UK, 14 -16 Mar 2018. (doi: 10.1111/dme.33_13571)

2017

Livingstone, R. , Boyle, J. G. and Petrie, J. R. (2017) A new perspective on metformin therapy in type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia, 60(9), pp. 1594-1600. (doi: 10.1007/s00125-017-4364-6) (PMID:28770327)

Martin, S., Hussain, Z. and Boyle, J.G. (2017) A beginner’s guide to the literature search in medical education. Scottish Medical Journal, 62(2), pp. 58-62. (doi: 10.1177/0036933017707163) (PMID:28606006)

Kueh, C. J.L., Connelly, P. , Harte, R., Smith, C. and Boyle, J. G. (2017) The impact of dapagliflozin on HbA1c, systolic blood pressure and weight: a review of dapagliflozin use in a Scottish city. Practical Diabetes, 34(4), pp. 129-130. (doi: 10.1002/pdi.2100)

Boyle, J., Quail, N., Loo, X. Y. and Linn, A. (2017) Flipping the classroom: is it worth the bother? Clinical Teacher, 14(2), pp. 137-138. (doi: 10.1111/tct.12533) (PMID:27151290)

Linn, A., Boyle, J., McVey, M. , McKerlie, R. , Noble-Jones, R. , Dowell, F., McLeod, G., Copsey, D. and Murray, J.-A. (2017) Digital Identity: Understanding How Students View their Digital Identity Working in Partnership with Students to Develop a Positive Digital Identity. 10th Annual University of Glasgow Learning and Teaching Conference, Glasgow, UK, 30 Mar 2017.

2016

Haven, L., Linn, A. and Boyle, J. (2016) Teaching digital professionalism: a role for problem-based learning? Clinical Teacher, 13(6), p. 463. (doi: 10.1111/tct.12559) (PMID:27870328)

Boyle, J.G., Cullen, J.M., Sneddon, S. , Sartania, N. and Shepherd, M. (2016) Using Facebook as a platform for self-regulated curriculum evaluation and feedback for medical students. Medical Teacher, 38(9), pp. 959-960. (doi: 10.1080/0142159X.2016.1209473) (PMID:27552338)

MacEwen, A.W., Carty, D.M., McConnachie, A. , McKay, G.A. and Boyle, J.G. (2016) A "Diabetes Acute Care Day" for medical students increases their knowledge and confidence of diabetes care: a pilot study. BMC Medical Education, 16, p. 88. (doi: 10.1186/s12909-016-0600-x) (PMID:26956764) (PMCID:PMC4784451)

2015

Petrie, M.C. , Boyle, J.G. and McKay, G.A. (2015) Use of metformin in chronic kidney disease should continue to be based on common sense in the absence of an evidence base. Diabetic Medicine, 32(7), pp. 981-982. (doi: 10.1111/dme.12709) (PMID:25645049)

Livingstone, R. and Boyle, J. (2015) Improving the quality of assessment and management of hypoglycaemia in hospitalised patients with diabetes mellitus by introducing 'hypo boxes' to general medical wards with a specialist interest in diabetes. BMJ Quality Improvement Reports, 4(1), u207686.w3. (doi: 10.1136/bmjquality.u207686.w3067)

Logan, J., Ingram, E., Ling, L., Macewen, A.W., McConnachie, A. , Linn, A. and Boyle, J.G. (2015) eLearning Among Medical Undergraduates: How Students Use Educational Materials. AMEE 2015, Glasgow, UK, 27-31 Aug 2015.

2014

Boyle, K. R., Boyle, J. G., Fisher, M. and McKay, G. (2014) Olanzapine. Practical Diabetes, 31(7), 304-305a. (doi: 10.1002/pdi.1891)

2012

McKay, G.A. and Boyle, J.G. (2012) Patient education on the benefit and risks of medications goes beyond metformin. Diabetic Medicine, 29(11), pp. 1471-1472. (doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03754.x) (PMID:22817327)

2011

Combet, E. , Lean, M.E.J. , Boyle, J., Crozier, A. and Davidson, D.F. (2011) Dietary flavonols contribute to false-positive elevation of homovanillic acid, a marker of catecholamine-secreting tumours. Clinica Chimica Acta, 412(1-2), pp. 165-169. (doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2010.09.037)

Boyle, J.G., Logan, P.J., Jones, G.C., Small, M., Sattar, N. , Connell, J.M.C., Cleland, S.J. and Salt, I.P. (2011) AMP-activated protein kinase is activated in adipose tissue of individuals with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin: a randomised glycaemia-controlled crossover study. Diabetologia, 54(7), pp. 1799-1809. (doi: 10.1007/s00125-011-2126-4)

2010

Boyle, J.G., Salt, I.P. and McKay, G.A. (2010) Metformin action on AMP-activated protein kinase: a translational research approach to understanding a potential new therapeutic target. Diabetic Medicine, 27(10), pp. 1097-1106. (doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03098.x) (PMID:20854376)

Boyle, J. G., McKay, G. A. and Fisher, M. (2010) Drugs for diabetes: part 1 metformin. British Journal of Cardiology, 17(5), pp. 231-234.

Boyle, J. and Fisher, M. (2010) The addition of insulin to metformin and sulphonylureas: results of the 4-T study. Practical Diabetes International, 27(1), pp. 5-6. (doi: 10.1002/pdi.1427) (PMID:9521121) (PMCID:PMC2143916)

2008

Boyle, J. G., Logan, P. J., Ewart, M.-A., Reihill, J. A., Ritchie, S. A., Connell, J. M.C., Cleland, S. J. and Salt, I. P. (2008) Rosiglitazone stimulates nitric oxide synthesis in human aortic endothelial cells via AMP-activated protein kinase. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 283(17), pp. 11210-11217. (doi: 10.1074/jbc.M710048200)

2007

Boyle, J.G., Davidson, D.F., Perry, C.G. and Connell, J. (2007) Comparison of diagnostic accuracy of urinary free metanephrines, vanillyl mandelic acid, and catecholamines and plasma catecholamines for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 92(12), pp. 4602-4608.

2003

Stirling, C., Houston, J., Robertson, S., Boyle, J.G., Allan, A., Norrie, J. and Isles, C. (2003) Diarrhoea, vomiting and ACE inhibitors: – an important cause of acute renal failure. Journal of Human Hypertension, 17(6), pp. 419-423. (doi: 10.1038/sj.jhh.1001571) (PMID:12764405)

This list was generated on Thu Dec 9 07:43:59 2021 GMT.
Number of items: 39.

Articles

Nicoll, R., White, M., Loureiro Harrison, L., Cordiner, R. L.M., Daniel, M., Choo-Kang, B. and Boyle, J. G. (2021) Improving the quality of weekend medical handover on non-receiving medical hospital wards. BMJ Open Quality, 10(4), e000991. (doi: 10.1136/bmjoq-2020-000991)

Robertson, C., Al-Moasseb, Z., Noonan, Z. and Boyle, J.G. (2021) The 3-D skills model: a randomised controlled pilot study comparing a novel 1–1 near-peer teaching model to a formative OSCE with self-regulated practice. Medical Science Educator, (doi: 10.1007/s40670-021-01369-w) (Early Online Publication)

Boyle, J. G., Walters, M. R., Jamieson, S. and Durning, S. J. (2021) Sharing the bandwidth in cognitively overloaded teams and systems: mechanistic insights from a walk on the wild side of clinical reasoning. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, (doi: 10.1080/10401334.2021.1924723) (PMID:34167387) (Early Online Publication)

Timmons, J. G. et al. (2021) Metformin and carotid intima-media thickness in never-smokers with type 1 diabetes: the REMOVAL trial. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 23(6), pp. 1371-1378. (doi: 10.1111/dom.14350) (PMID:33591613)

Sattar, N. , Boyle, J. G. and Al-Ozairi, E. (2021) Testosterone replacement to prevent type 2 diabetes? Not just yet. Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, 9(1), pp. 5-6. (doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30373-9) (PMID:33338416)

Anderson, J. J. et al. (2021) Ethnic differences in prevalence of actionable HbA1c levels in UK Biobank: implications for screening. BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care, 9(1), e002176. (doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2021-002176) (PMID:34353880) (PMCID:PMC8344314)

Boyle, J.G., Colquhoun, I., Noonan, Z. , McDowall, S. , Walters, M.R. and Leach, J.P. (2020) Viva la VOSCE. BMC Medical Education, 20, 514. (doi: 10.1186/s12909-020-02444-3) (PMID:33334327) (PMCID:PMC7746425)

Petrie, J. R. , Boyle, J. G., Ali, K., Smith, C., Morrison, D. and Kar, P. (2020) A post COVID‐19 ‘Marshall Plan’ for type 2 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine, (doi: 10.1111/dme.14439)

Boyle, J. G., Walters, M. R. , Jamieson, S. and Durning, S. J. (2020) Clinical reasoning in the wild: premature closure during the COVID-19 pandemic. Diagnosis, 7(3), pp. 177-179. (doi: 10.1515/dx-2020-0061) (PMID:32710716)

Livingstone, R. , Boyle, J.G. and Petrie, J.R. (2020) How tightly controlled do fluctuations in blood glucose levels need to be to reduce the risk of developing complications in people with Type 1 diabetes? Diabetic Medicine, 37(4), pp. 513-521. (doi: 10.1111/dme.13911) (PMID:30697804)

Noonan, Z. , Boyle, J. G., Pope, L. , Ditchfield, C. , Leach, J. P. and McDowall, S. (2020) Quarantining the OSCE: reflections on the Glasgow experience. Clinical Teacher, 17(1), pp. 94-97. (doi: 10.1111/tct.12993) (PMID:30592158)

Pearsall, R., Shaw, R. J. , McLean, G., Connolly, M., Hughes, K. A., Boyle, J. G., Park, J., Smith, D. J. and Mackay, D. (2019) Health screening, cardiometabolic disease and adverse health outcomes in individuals with severe mental illness. BJPsych Open, 5(6), e97. (doi: 10.1192/bjo.2019.76) (PMID:31699180) (PMCID:PMC6854356)

Boyle, J. G., Livingstone, R. and Petrie, J. R. (2018) Cardiovascular benefits of GLP-1 agonists in type 2 diabetes: a comparative review. Clinical Science, 132(15), pp. 1699-1709. (doi: 10.1042/CS20171299) (PMID:30115742)

Livingstone, R. , Boyle, J. G. and Petrie, J. R. (2017) A new perspective on metformin therapy in type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia, 60(9), pp. 1594-1600. (doi: 10.1007/s00125-017-4364-6) (PMID:28770327)

Martin, S., Hussain, Z. and Boyle, J.G. (2017) A beginner’s guide to the literature search in medical education. Scottish Medical Journal, 62(2), pp. 58-62. (doi: 10.1177/0036933017707163) (PMID:28606006)

Kueh, C. J.L., Connelly, P. , Harte, R., Smith, C. and Boyle, J. G. (2017) The impact of dapagliflozin on HbA1c, systolic blood pressure and weight: a review of dapagliflozin use in a Scottish city. Practical Diabetes, 34(4), pp. 129-130. (doi: 10.1002/pdi.2100)

Boyle, J., Quail, N., Loo, X. Y. and Linn, A. (2017) Flipping the classroom: is it worth the bother? Clinical Teacher, 14(2), pp. 137-138. (doi: 10.1111/tct.12533) (PMID:27151290)

Haven, L., Linn, A. and Boyle, J. (2016) Teaching digital professionalism: a role for problem-based learning? Clinical Teacher, 13(6), p. 463. (doi: 10.1111/tct.12559) (PMID:27870328)

Boyle, J.G., Cullen, J.M., Sneddon, S. , Sartania, N. and Shepherd, M. (2016) Using Facebook as a platform for self-regulated curriculum evaluation and feedback for medical students. Medical Teacher, 38(9), pp. 959-960. (doi: 10.1080/0142159X.2016.1209473) (PMID:27552338)

MacEwen, A.W., Carty, D.M., McConnachie, A. , McKay, G.A. and Boyle, J.G. (2016) A "Diabetes Acute Care Day" for medical students increases their knowledge and confidence of diabetes care: a pilot study. BMC Medical Education, 16, p. 88. (doi: 10.1186/s12909-016-0600-x) (PMID:26956764) (PMCID:PMC4784451)

Petrie, M.C. , Boyle, J.G. and McKay, G.A. (2015) Use of metformin in chronic kidney disease should continue to be based on common sense in the absence of an evidence base. Diabetic Medicine, 32(7), pp. 981-982. (doi: 10.1111/dme.12709) (PMID:25645049)

Livingstone, R. and Boyle, J. (2015) Improving the quality of assessment and management of hypoglycaemia in hospitalised patients with diabetes mellitus by introducing 'hypo boxes' to general medical wards with a specialist interest in diabetes. BMJ Quality Improvement Reports, 4(1), u207686.w3. (doi: 10.1136/bmjquality.u207686.w3067)

Boyle, K. R., Boyle, J. G., Fisher, M. and McKay, G. (2014) Olanzapine. Practical Diabetes, 31(7), 304-305a. (doi: 10.1002/pdi.1891)

McKay, G.A. and Boyle, J.G. (2012) Patient education on the benefit and risks of medications goes beyond metformin. Diabetic Medicine, 29(11), pp. 1471-1472. (doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03754.x) (PMID:22817327)

Combet, E. , Lean, M.E.J. , Boyle, J., Crozier, A. and Davidson, D.F. (2011) Dietary flavonols contribute to false-positive elevation of homovanillic acid, a marker of catecholamine-secreting tumours. Clinica Chimica Acta, 412(1-2), pp. 165-169. (doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2010.09.037)

Boyle, J.G., Logan, P.J., Jones, G.C., Small, M., Sattar, N. , Connell, J.M.C., Cleland, S.J. and Salt, I.P. (2011) AMP-activated protein kinase is activated in adipose tissue of individuals with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin: a randomised glycaemia-controlled crossover study. Diabetologia, 54(7), pp. 1799-1809. (doi: 10.1007/s00125-011-2126-4)

Boyle, J.G., Salt, I.P. and McKay, G.A. (2010) Metformin action on AMP-activated protein kinase: a translational research approach to understanding a potential new therapeutic target. Diabetic Medicine, 27(10), pp. 1097-1106. (doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03098.x) (PMID:20854376)

Boyle, J. G., McKay, G. A. and Fisher, M. (2010) Drugs for diabetes: part 1 metformin. British Journal of Cardiology, 17(5), pp. 231-234.

Boyle, J. and Fisher, M. (2010) The addition of insulin to metformin and sulphonylureas: results of the 4-T study. Practical Diabetes International, 27(1), pp. 5-6. (doi: 10.1002/pdi.1427) (PMID:9521121) (PMCID:PMC2143916)

Boyle, J. G., Logan, P. J., Ewart, M.-A., Reihill, J. A., Ritchie, S. A., Connell, J. M.C., Cleland, S. J. and Salt, I. P. (2008) Rosiglitazone stimulates nitric oxide synthesis in human aortic endothelial cells via AMP-activated protein kinase. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 283(17), pp. 11210-11217. (doi: 10.1074/jbc.M710048200)

Boyle, J.G., Davidson, D.F., Perry, C.G. and Connell, J. (2007) Comparison of diagnostic accuracy of urinary free metanephrines, vanillyl mandelic acid, and catecholamines and plasma catecholamines for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 92(12), pp. 4602-4608.

Stirling, C., Houston, J., Robertson, S., Boyle, J.G., Allan, A., Norrie, J. and Isles, C. (2003) Diarrhoea, vomiting and ACE inhibitors: – an important cause of acute renal failure. Journal of Human Hypertension, 17(6), pp. 419-423. (doi: 10.1038/sj.jhh.1001571) (PMID:12764405)

Conference or Workshop Item

Oje, M., Linn, A., Rea, P. , Livingstone, D., Nally, J. and Boyle, J. (2018) Twine Open-Source Software as a Tool for Creating Serious Digital Games with Virtual Patient’s - Enhancing Undergraduate and Postgraduate Diabetes Education. 2nd Visualisation in Science Conference 2018, Glasgow, UK, 03 Dec 2018.

Linn, A., Boyle, J., Gibson, D., Lawler, H., Berent, S. and Spaeth, E. (2018) Working in Partnership With Health Professional Students to Understand their Perceptions of Digital Identity Management and to Embed Digital Skills into the Curriculum. AMEE 2018, Basel, Switzerland, 25-29 Aug 2018.

Linn, A., Dowell, F., Boyle, J. and Spaeth, E. (2018) Working in Partnership With Medical Students to Embed Digital Skills Development into the Curriculum. 8th National Scottish Medical Education Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, 26-27 Apr 2018. (Unpublished)

Spaeth, E. et al. (2018) Student Partnerships Focus on Embedding Digital Skills into the Curriculum. 11th Annual University of Glasgow Learning and Teaching Conference, Glasgow, UK, 28-29 Mar 2018.

Quail, N., Holmes, K., Linn, A., Rea, P. , Livingstone, D. and Boyle, J. (2018) Serious Digital Games Using Virtual Patients and Digital Chalk-talk Videos: a Novel Approach to Teaching Acute Diabetes Care in the Undergraduate Medical Curriculum. Diabetes UK Professional Conference 2018, London, UK, 14 -16 Mar 2018. (doi: 10.1111/dme.33_13571)

Linn, A., Boyle, J., McVey, M. , McKerlie, R. , Noble-Jones, R. , Dowell, F., McLeod, G., Copsey, D. and Murray, J.-A. (2017) Digital Identity: Understanding How Students View their Digital Identity Working in Partnership with Students to Develop a Positive Digital Identity. 10th Annual University of Glasgow Learning and Teaching Conference, Glasgow, UK, 30 Mar 2017.

Logan, J., Ingram, E., Ling, L., Macewen, A.W., McConnachie, A. , Linn, A. and Boyle, J.G. (2015) eLearning Among Medical Undergraduates: How Students Use Educational Materials. AMEE 2015, Glasgow, UK, 27-31 Aug 2015.

This list was generated on Thu Dec 9 07:43:59 2021 GMT.