OOL Home

Abstract (2001)

  1. Critical Aspects
  2. Energy Supplies
  3. Flow reactor
  4. Flatbed reactor
  5. Electrochem reactor
  6. The code
  7. Organic membrane
  8. Coda


Figures 1-25

The Origin of Life at a submarine alkaline seepage
Michael J. Russell, Allan J. Hall, Laiq Rahman & Dugald Turner


Abbott, D.H. & Hoffman, S.E. 1984. Archaean plate tectonics revisited 1. heat flow, spreading rate, and the age of subducting oceanic lithosphere and their effects on the origin and evolution of continents. Tectonics, 3: 429-448.

Anderson, T.B. & Jackson, R. 1968. Fluid mechanical description of fluidized beds. Industrial Engineering Chemical Fundamentals, 7, 12-21.

Arrhenius, G. 1986. Dysoxic environments as models for primordial mineralisation. In Cairns-Smith et al., A.G. and Hartman, H.(eds) Clay and Clay Minerals and the Origin of Life. Cambridge University Press, 97-104.

Arrhenius, G. 1987. The first 800 million years: Environmental models for the early Earth. Earth, Moon and Planets , 37, 187-199.

Banks, D 1985. A fossil hydrothermal worm assemblage from the Tynagh lead-zinc deposit in Ireland. Nature, 313, 128-131.

Barnes, I., Hinckle, M.E., Rapp, J.B., Heropoulos, C. and Vaughn, W.W. 1973. Chemical composition of naturally occurring fluids in relation to mercury deposits in part of North-Central California. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin,1382-A.

Berg, J.M. & Holm, R.H. 1982. Structures and reactions of iron-sulfur protein clusters and their synthetic analogues In: Spiro, T.G. (ed) Iron-sulfur proteins. Wiley-Interscience, 1-66.

Bernal, J.D. 1960. The problem of stages in biopoesis. In: Florkin, M. (ed.) Aspects of the Origin of Life, .New York, Pergamon Press, 30-45.

Bethke, C. 1992a. The Geochemist's Workbench (code). The Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois.

Bethke, C. 1992b. The Geochemist's Workbench: A Users Guide to Rxn, Tact, React and Gtplot. University of Illinois.

Bethke, C. 1996. Geochemical Reaction Modeling. Oxford University Press. Bischoff, J.L. 1969. Red Sea geothermal brine deposits: Their mineralogy, chemistry and genesis. In E.T. Degens and D.A. Ross, Hot Brines and Recent Heavy Metal Deposits in the Red Sea, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 368-401.

Bischoff, J.L. and Rosenbauer, R.J. 1984. The critical point and two-phase boundary of seawater, 200-500°C. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 68, 172-180.

Black, S. 2000. A theory on the Origin of Life plus a brief history of biochemistry. Vantage Press, New York.

Bonomi, F., Werth, M.T. & Kurtz, D.M. 1985. Assembly of FenSn(SR)2- (n=2,4) in aqueous media from iron salts, thiols and sulfur, sulfide, thiosulfide plus rhodonase. Inorganic Chemistry, 24, 4331-4335.

Boyce, A.J., Coleman, M.L. & Russell, M.J. 1983. Formation of fossil hydrothermal chimneys and mounds from Silvermines, Ireland. Nature, 306, 545-550.

Braterman, P.S. and Cairns-Smith, A.G. 1987. Iron photoprecipitation and the genesis of the banded iron formations. In Precambrian Iron-Formations, Appel, P.W.U. and LaBerge, G.L. eds, Theophrastus Publications, S.A. Athens. 215-245.

Braterman, P.S., Cairns-Smith, A.G. and Sloper, R.A. 1983. Photo-oxidation of hydrated Fe2+ - significance for banded iron formations. Nature, 303, 163-164.

Braterman, P.S., Cairns-Smith, A.G. & Sloper, R.A., Truscott, T.G. & Craw, M. 1984. Photo-oxidation of iron(II) in water between pH 7.5 and 4.0. Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions, 1441-1445.

Brisson, D., Vohl, M.-C., St-Pierre, J., Hudson, T.J. and Gaudet, D. 2001. Glycerol: a neglected variable in metabolic processes? BioEssays, 23.6, 534-542.

Cairns-Smith, A.G. 1978. Precambrian solution photochemistry, inverse segregation, and banded iron formations. Nature, 276, 808-809.

Cairns-Smith, A.G. Hall, A.J. & Russell, M.J. 1992 Mineral theories of the origin of life and an iron sulphide example. Origins Life Evol. Bios., 22, 161-180.

Cairns-Smith, A.G. 1978. Precambrian solution photochemistry, inverse segregation, and banded iron formations. Nature, 276, 808-809.

Cairns-Smith, A.G. 1982. Genetic Takeover and the Mineral Origins of Life. Cambridge University Press. Canil, D. 1997. Vanadium partitioning and the oxidation state of Archaean komatiite lavas. Nature, 389, 842-845.

Cathles, L.M. 1990. Scales and Effects of fluid flow in the upper crust. Science, 248, 323-329.

Chen, Q.W. and Bahnemann, D.W. 2000. Reduction of carbon dioxide by magnetite: Implications for the primordial synthesis of organic molecules. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2000, 970-971.

Coatman, R.D., Thomas, N.L. & Double, D.D. 1980. Studies of the growth of "silicate gardens" and related phenomena. Journal of Materials Science, 15, 2 17-2026.

Couderc J-P (1985) Incipient fluidization and particulate systems. In: Davidson JF, Clift R and Harrison D (eds) Fluidization, pp1-46. Academic Press, New York.

Corliss, J.B. 1986b. On the creation of living cells in submarine hot spring flow reactors: Attractors and bifurcations in the natural hierarchy dissipative systems. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, 19, 381-382.

Couderc J-P 1985. Incipient fluidization and particulate systems. In: Davidson JF, Clift R and Harrison D (eds) Fluidization, pp1-46. Academic Press, New York.

Coveney, R.M., Goebel, E.D., Zeller, E.J., Dreschhoff, G.A.M. & Angino, E.E. 1987. Serpentinization and the origin of hydrogen gas in Kansas. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 71, 39-48.

Daniel, R.M. & Danson, M.J. 1995. Did primitive microorganisms use nonheme iron proteins in place of NAD/P? Journal of Molecular Evolution, 40, 559-563.

Danson, M.J., Hough, D.W. & Lunt, G.G. 1992. Archaebacteria: Biochemistry and Biotechnology. Biochemical Society Symposium, No. 58. Colchester U. K., Portland Press Ltd.

Dayhoff M.O. 1983. Evolutionary connections of biological kingdoms based on protein and nucleic acid sequence evidence. Precambrian Research,. 20, 299-318

Dayhoff M.O. 1972. Evolution of proteins. In Exobiology, C. Ponnamperuma (ed.), Amsterdam, North-Holland Publishing Co. 266-300.

Delano, J.W. 2001. Redox history of the Earth's interior since 3900 Ma: Implications for prebiuotic molecules. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, in press.

Derry, D.R., Clark, G.R. and Gillatt, N. 1965. The Northgate base metal deposit at Tynagh, County Galway, Ireland. Economic Geology, 60, 1218-1237.

Dobbeck, H., Svetlitchnyi, V., Gremer, L., Huber, R. and Meyer, O. 2001. Crystal structure of a carbon monoxide dehydrogenase reveals a [Ni-4Fe-5S] cluster. Science, 293, 1281-1285.

Drennan, C., Heo, J., Sintchak, M.D., Schreiter, E. and Ludden, P.W. 2001. Life on carbon monoxide: X-ray structure of Rhodospirillum rubrum Ni-Fe-S carbon monoxide dehydrogenase. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 98, 11973-11978.

Eck, R.V. & Dayhoff, M.O. 1966. Evolution of the structure of ferredoxin based on living relics of primitive amino acid sequences. Science, 152, 363-366.

El-Kaissy, M.M. and Homsy, G.M. 1976. Instability waves and the origin of bubbles in fluidized beds. International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 13, 459-475.

Eschenmoser, A. 1994. Chemistry of potentially prebiological natural products. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, 24, 389-423.

Evans, W.C., White, L.D., Tuttle, M.L., Kling, G.W., Tanyileke, G. & Michel, R.L. 1994. Six years of change at Lake Nyos, Cameroon, yield clues to the past and cautions for the future. Geochemical Journal, 28, 139-162.

Fallick, A.E., Ashton, J.H., Boyce, A.J., Ellam, R.M. & Russell, M.J. 2001, Bacteria were responsible for the magnitude of the world-class hydrothermal base-metal orebody at Navan, Ireland. Economic Geology, 96, 885-890.

Fehn, U. & Cathles, L.M. 1986. The influence of plate movement on the evolution of hydrothermal convection cells in the oceanic crust. Tectonophysics, 125, 289-312.

Ferris, J.P. 1992. Chemical markers of prebiotic chemistry in hydrothermal systems. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, 22, 109-134.

Ferris, J.P. & Orgel, L.E. 1966. An unusual photochemical rearrangement in the synthesis of adenine. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 88, 1074.

Ferris, J.P. and Hagan, W.J. 1984. HCN and chemical evolution: The possible role of cyano compounds in prebiotic sythesis. Tetrahedron, 40, 1093-1120.

Ferris, J.P., Hill, A.R. Liu, R. and Orgel, L.E. 1996. Synthesis of long prebiotic oligomers on mineral surfaces. Nature, 381, 59-61.

Forterre, P. & Philippe, H. 1999. Where is the root of the universal tree of life? Bioessays, 21, 871-879.

Freund, F., Gupta, A.D. and Kumar, D. 1999. Carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids extracted from crushed magnesium oxide single crystals. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, 29, 489-509.

Freund, F., Staple, A. and Scoville, J. 2001. Organic protomolecule assembly in igneous minerals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 98, 2142-2147.

Fuerstenau, M.C. (ed.) 1976. Flotation: A. M. Gaudin Memorial Volume, American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers, New York, Volume 1.

Fyfe, W.S. 1974. Heats of chemical reactions and submarine heat production. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 37, 213-215.

Gaffey, M.J. 1997. The early solar system. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, 27, 185-203.

Gerlach, T.M. 1981. Restoration of new volcanic gas analyses from basalts of the Afar region: Further evidence of CO2-degassing trends. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 10, 83-91.

Goldreich, P. 1966. History of the lunar orbit. Reviews in Geophysics, 4, 411-439.

Heinen, W. & Lauwers, A.M. 1996. Organic sulfur compounds resulting from the interaction of iron sulfide, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide in an anaerobic aqueous environment. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, 26, 131-150.

Heinen, W. and Lauwers, A.M. 1997. The iron-sulfur world and the origins of life: Abiotic synthesis from metallic iron, H2S and CO2: a comparison of the thiol generating FeS/HCl(H2S)/CO2-system and its Fe0/H2S/CO2-counterpart. Proceedings Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam, 100, 11-25.

Helgeson, H.C., LaRowe, D.E., and Dick, J.M. 2001. Thermodynamic and chemical constraints on the biotic and abiotic synthesis of biomacromolecules. Eleventh Annual V.M. Goldschmidt Conference, Abstract 3447. Contribution No.1088, Lunar and Planetary Institiute, Houston (CD-ROM).

Hennet, R.J-C, Holm, N.G. & Engel, M.H. 1992. Abiotic synthesis of amino acids under hydrothermal conditions and the origin of life: A perpetual phenomenon? Naturwissenschaften, 79, 361-365.

Huber, C. & Wächtershäuser, G 1997. Activated acetic acid by carbon fixation on (Fe,Ni)S under primordial conditions. Science, 276, 245-247.

Imai, E.-i., Honda, H., Hatori, K., Brack, A. and Matsuno, K. 1999. Elongation of oligopeptides in a simulated submarine hydrothermal system. Science, 283, 831-833.

Johnson, M.K. 1996. Iron-sulfur proteins. In Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry, R.B.King, (ed.), vol. 4, Chichester, Wiley, 1896-1915.

Kassim, J., Baird, T. and Fryer, J.R. 1982. Electron microscope studies of iron corrsion products in water at room temperature. Corrosion Science, 22, 147-158.

Kasting, J.F. 1993. Earth's earliest atmosphere. Science, 259, 920-926.

Kasting, J.F. & Brown, L.L. 1998. The early atmosphere as a source of biogenic compounds. In The Molecular Origins of Life, Brack, A., editor, Cambridge University Press pp. 35-56.

Kasting, J.F. & Ackerman, T.P. 1986. Climatic consequences of very high carbon dioxide levels in the Earth's early atmosphere. Science, 234, 1383-1385.

Kelley, D.S et al. 2001. An off-axis hydrothermal vent field near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 30° N. Nature, 412, p145-149.

Kling, G.W., Tuttle, M.L. & Evans, W.C. 1989. The evolution of thermal structure and water chemistry in Lake Nyos. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 39, 151-165.

Krauskopf, C. 1979. Introduction to Geochemistry. London, McGraw-Hill Book Co.

Krishnamurthy, R. Arrhenius, G and Echenmoser, A. 1999. Formation of glycolaldehyde phosphate from glyceraldehyde in aqueous solution. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, 29, 333-354.

Krishnamurthy, R., Pitsch, S and Arrhenius, G 1999. Mineral induced formation of pentose-2,4-biphosphates. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, 29, 139-152.

Krishnarao, J.S.R. 1964. Native nickel-iron alloy, its mode of occurrence, distribution and origin. Economic Geology, 59, 443-448.

Krupp, R.E. 1994. Phase relations and phase transformations between the low-temperature iron sulfides mackinawite, greigite, and smythite. European Journal of Mineralogy, 6, 265-278.

Kuma, K., Paplawsky, W., Gedulin, B. and Arrhenius, G. 1989. Mixed-valence hydroxides as bioorganic host minerals. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, 19, 573-602.

Lafon, G.M. & Mackenzie, F.T. 1974. Early evolution of the oceans: a weathering model, In: Hay, W.W. (ed) Studies in Paleo-oceanography, Special Publication, Society of Economic Paleontolgists and Mineralogists, 20, Tulsa, 205-218.

Lagabrielle, Y., Goslin, J., Martin, H., Thirot, J.-L. and Auzende, J.-M. 1997. Multiple active spreading centres in the hot North Fiji Basin (Southwest Pacific): a possible model for Archaean seafloor dynamics? Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 149, 1-13.

Larter, R.C.L.,Boyce, A.J. & Russell, M.J. 1981. Hydrothermal pyrite chimneys from the Ballynoe Baryte deposit, Silvermines, County Tipperary, Ireland. Mineralium Deposita, 16, 309-318.

Leja, J. 1982. Surface Chemistry of Froth Flotation. New York, Plenum Press.

Lennie, A.R., Redfern, S.A.T., Schofield, P.F. & Vaughan, D.J. 1995. Synthesis and Rietveld crystal structure refinement of mackinawite, tetragonal FeS. Mineralogical Magazine, 59, 677-683.

Lennie, A.R., Redfern, S.A.T., Champness, P.E., Stoddart, C.P., Schofield, P.F. & Vaughan, D.J. 1997. Transformation of mackinawite to greigite: An in situ X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscope study. American Mineralogist, 82, 302-309.

Liu, S.V., Zhou, J., Zhang, C., Cole, D.R., Gajdarziska-Josifovska, M. and Phelps, T.J. 1997. Thermophilic Fe(III)-reducing bacteria from the deep subsurface: the evolutionary implications. Science, 277, 1106-1109.

Macleod, G., McKeown, C., Hall, A.J. & Russell, M.J. 1994. Hydrothermal and oceanic pH conditions of possible relevance to the origin of life. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, 23, 19-41.

Marshall, W.L. 1994. Hydrothermal synthesis of amino acids. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 58, 2099-2106. Mason, S.F. 1984. Origins of biomolecular handedness. Nature, 311, 19-23.

McCollom, T.M., Ritter, G & Simoneit, B.R.T. 1999. Lipid synthesis under hydrothermal conditions by Fischer-Tropsch-Type reactions. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, 29, 153-166.

McFadden, B.A. & Shively, J.M. 1991. Bacterial assimilation of carbon dioxide by the Calvin cycle. In: Shively, J.M. & Barton, L.L. (eds) Variation in Autotrophic Life. Academic Press, 25-50.

Mellersh, A.R. 1993. A model for the prebiotic synthesis of peptides which throws light on the origin of the genetic code and the observed chirality of life. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, 23, 261-274.

Mellersh, A.R. & Wilkinson, A-S. 2000. RNA bound to a solid phase can select an amino acid and facilitate subsequent amide bond formation. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, 30, 3-7.

Melosh, H.J. 1989. Impact Cratering: A Geologic Process. Oxford University Press.

Michaels, A. 1996. Fugitive Pieces. McClelland & Stewart. Canada Mitchell, P. 1961. Coupling of phosphorylation to electron and hydrogen transfer by a chemiosmotic mechanism. Nature, 191, 144-148.

Mitchell, P. 1979. Keilin's respiratory chain concept and its chemiosmotic consequences. Science, 206, 1148-1159.

Morse, J.W. & Arakaki, T. 1993. Adsorption and coprecipitation of divalent metals with mackinawite (FeS). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 57, 3635-3640.

Mottl, M.J., Wheat, G. et al., 1998. Warm springs discovered on 3.5 Ma oceanic crust, easrn flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Geology, 26, 51-54.

Muth, G.W., Orteleva-Donnelly, L. & Strobel, S.A. 2000. A single adenosine with a neutral pKa in the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center. Science, 289, 947-950.

Naughton, J.J., Lewis, V.A. Hammond, D. and Nishimoto, D. 1974. The chemistry of sublimates collected directly from lava fountains at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Geochimica Cosmochimica Actas, 38, 1679-1690.

Neal, C. & Stanger, G. 1984. Calcium and magnesium hydroxide precipitation from alkaline groundwater in Oman, and their significance to the process of serpentinization. Mineralogical Magazine, 48, 237-241.

Oró, J. & Kimball, A.P. 1961. Synthesis of purines under possible primitive Earth conditions 1. Adenine from hydrogen cyanide. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 94, 217-227.

Oró, J. & Kimball, A.P. 1962. Synthesis of purines under possible primitive Earth conditions II. Purine intermediates from hydrogen cyanide. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 96, 293-313.

Pitsch, S. Eschenmoser, A., Gedulin, B, Hui, S. & Arrhenius, G. 1995. Mineral induced formation of sugar phosphates. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, 25, 297-334.

Ponnamperuma, C. and MacDermott, A.J. 1994. Cosmic asymmetry: the meaning of life. Chemistry in Britain, 30, 487-490.

Potter, J.M., Pohl, D.C. and Rimstidt, J.D. 1987. Fluid-flow systems for kinetic and solubility studies. In Hydrothermal Experimental Techniques, G.C. Ulmer and Barnes, H.L. (eds). New York, John Wiley and Sons, 240-260.

Pourbaix, M.J.N. 1949. Thermodynamics of Dilute Aqueous Solutions. London, Arnold.

Pourbaix, M.J.N., Van Muylder, J. and de Zhoubov, N. 1963. Atlas d'Eqhilbres Electrochimiques à 25°C. paris, Gauthier-Villars.

Price, N. 2001. Major Impacts and Plate tectonics: A Model for the Phanerozoic Evolution of the Earth's Lithosphere. London, Routledge.

Qiu, D., Kumar, M., Ragsdale, S.W. and Spiro, T.G. 1994. Nature's carbonylation catalyst: Raman spectroscopic evidence that carbon monoxide binfds to iron, not nickel, in carbon monoxide dehydrogenase. Science, 264, 817-819.

Reid, C. and Orgel, L.E. 1967. Synthesis of sugars inpotentially prebiotic conditions. Nature, 216, 455.

Righter, K and Drake, M.J. 1997. Metal-silicate equilibrium in a homogeneously accreting earth: new results for Re. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 146, 541-553.

Rickard, D. 1995. Kinetics of FeS precipitation: Part 1. Competing reaction mechanisms. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, 59, 4367-4379.

Rickard, D., Butler, I.B. and Olroyd, A. 2001. A novel iron sulphide switch and its implications for Earth and planetary science. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 189, 85-91.

Ross, D.A. and Degens, E.T. 1969. Shipboard collection and preservation of sediment samples collected during Chain 61 from the Red Sea. In E.T. Degens and D.A. Ross, Hot Brines and Recent Heavy Metal Deposits in the Red Sea, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 363-367.

Russell, M.J. 1973. Base-metal mineralization in Ireland and Scotland and the formation of Rockall Trough. In: Implications of Continental Drift to the Earth Sciences, eds. Tarling, D H and Runcorn, S.K. Academic Press, London, vol. 1, 581-597.

Russell, M.J. 1975. Lithogeochemical environment of the Tynagh base-metal deposit, Ireland, and its bearing on ore deposition. Trans. Instn Min. Metall., (Appl. Earth Sci.: sect B), 84, B128-133.

Russell, M.J. 1978. Downward-excavating hydrothermal cells and Irish-type ore deposits: importance of an underlying thick Caledonian Prism. Trans. Instn Min. Metall., (Appl. Earth Sci.: sect B), 89, B168-171.

Russell, M.J. 1983. Major sediment-hosted zinc + lead deposits: formation from hydrothermal convection cells that deepen during crustal extension. Short Course in sediment-hosted stratiform lead-zinc deposits. Mineralogical Association of Canada, Short Course Handbook, vol. 8, 251-282.

Russell, M.J. 1988. Chimneys, chemical gardens and feldspar horizons+pyrrhotine in some SEDEX deposits: aspects of alkaline environments of deposition. Proceedings of the seventh IAGOD Symposium. Zachrisson, E. (ed.), Schweizerbartsche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 183-190.

Russell, M.J., 1996. The generation at hot springs of ores, microbialites and life. Ore Geology Reviews, 10, 199-214.

Russell, M.J. and Hall, A.J. 1997. The emergence of life from iron monosulphide bubbles at a submarine hydrothermal redox and pH front. Journal of the Geological Society of London, 154, 377-402.

Russell, M.J. and Hall, A.J. 1999. On the inevitable emergence of life on Mars. In: The search for life on Mars, Hiscox J.A. ed., Proc. 1st UK Conf., British Interplanetary Soc., 26-36.

Russell, M.J. and Hall, A.J. 2001. The onset of life and the dawn of oxygenic photosynthesis: Respective roles of cubane core structures [Fe4S4]2+ and transient [Mn4O4]4+[OCaO]2. Sixth International Conference on Carbon Dioxide Utilization, September 9-14, 2001, Breckenridge, Colorado. Abstracts

Russell, M.J., Solomon, M. & Walshe, J.L. 1981. The genesis of sediment-hosted, exhalative zinc + lead desposits. Mineralium Deposita, 16, 113-127.

Russell, M.J., Hall, A.J. & Turner, D. 1989. In vitro growth of iron sulphide chimneys: Possible culture chambers for origin-of-life experiments. Terra Nova, 1, 238-241.

Russell, M.J., Daniel, R.M. & Hall, A.J. 1993. On the emergence of life via catalytic iron sulphide membranes. Terra Nova, 5, 343-347.

Russell, M.J. Daia D.E. & Hall, A.J. 1998. The emergence of life from FeS bubbles at alkaline hot springs in an acid ocean. in Thermophiles: The keys to molecular evolution and the origin of life, eds Wiegel J. & Adams, M.W.W. Taylor and Francis, Washington, 77-125.

Russell, M.J., Hall, A.J., Cairns-Smith, A.G. & Braterman, P.S. 1988. Submarine hot springs and the origin of life. -correspondence- Nature, 336, 117.

Russell, M.J., Hall, A.J., Mellersh, A.R. 2000. The first bacterial habitats: what was normal, what was extreme? In Tenth Annual V.M. Goldschmidt Conference, Abstract. Oxford, (CD_ROM).

Russell, M.J., Daniel, R.M., Hall, A.J. & Sherringham, J. 1994. A hydrothermally precipitated catalytic iron sulphide membrane as a first step toward life. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 39, 231-243.

Russell, M.J., Hall, A.J., Rahman, L & Turner, D. 2001. Abiotic organic syntheses in deep submarine, alkaline hydrothermal systems catalysed by Fe0, mackinawite, violarite and green rust. In Eleventh Annual V.M. Goldschmidt Conference, Abstract #3090. LPI Contribution No. 1088, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston (CD_ROM).

Russell, M.J. Ingham, J.K. Zedef, V. Maktav, D. Sunar, F. Hall A.J. & Fallick, A.E. 1999 Search for signs of ancient life on Mars: Expectations from hydromagnesite microbialites, Salda Lake, Turkey . J. Geol. Soc. Lond., 156, 869-888.

Sanchez, R.A., Ferris J.P. & Orgel, L.E. 1967. Studies in prebiotic synthesis II. Synthesis of purine precursors and amino acids from aqueous hydrogen cyanide. Journal of Molecular Biology, 30, 223-253.

Saxena, S.K. 1989. Oxidation state of the mantle. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 53, 89-95.

Schrödinger, E., 1944. What is Life? The Physical Aspects of the Living Cell. Cambridge University Press.

Schulte, M. D. & Shock, E. L. 1995. Thermodynamics of Strecker Synthesis in Hydrothermal Systems. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, 25, 161-173.

Schultz, R.W. 1966. The lower Carboniferous cherty ironstones at Tynagh, Ireland. Economic Geology, 61, 311-342.

Schwartz, A.W. & Goverde, M. 1982. Acceleration of HCN oligomerization by formaldehyde and related compounds: Implications for prebiotic synthesis. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 18, 351-353.

Shock, E.L. 1992. Chemical environments of submarine hydrothermal systems. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, 22, 67-107.

Shock, E.L. 1996. Hydrothermal systems as environments for the emergence of life. Evolution of Hydrothermal Ecosystems on Earth (and Mars?), CIBA Foundation Symposium No. 202, 40-52.

Shock, E.L. 2001. Aqueous abiotic synthesis as a common planetary process. Eleventh Annual V.M. Goldschmidt Conference, Abstract 3815. Contribution No.1088, Lunar and Planetary Institiute, Houston (CD-ROM).

Shock, E.L. & Schulte, M.D. 1995. Hydrothermal systems as locations of organic synthesis on the early Earth and Mars. EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 76/46 Supplement, (P21A-6), F335.

Shock, E.L. & Schulte, M.D. 1998. Organic synthesis during fluid mixing in hydrothermal systems. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103E, 28513-28527.

Shock, E.L., McCollom, T. & Schulte, M.D. 1995. Geochemical constraints on chemolithoautotrophic reactions in hydrothermal systems. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, 25, 141-159.

Solomon, M. 1976. "Volcanic" massive sulphide deposits and their host rocks - a review and an explanation. In Handbook of Stratabound and Stratiform Ore Deposits, Wolf, K.H. (ed.) Vol. 6, Amsterdam, Elsevier, 21-54.

Steigerwald, V.J., Beckler, G.S. & Reeve, J.N. 1990. Conservation of hydrogenase and polyferredoxin structures in the hyperthermophilic Archaebacterium Methanothermus fervidus. Journal of Bacteriology, 172, 4715-4718.

Stetter, K.O. 1996. Hyperthermophilic procaryotes. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 18, 149-158. Taylor, P. 1980. The stereochemistry of iron sulfides-a structural rationale for the crystallization of some metastable phases from aqueous solution. American Mineralogist, 65, 1026-1030.

Taylor, S. and Andrew, C.J. 1978. Silvermines orebodies, Co. Tipperary, Ireland. Trans. Instn Min. Metall., (Appl. Earth Sci.: sect B), 87, B111-124.

Thauer, R.K., Jungermann, K. & Decker, K. 1977. Energy conservation in chemotrophic anaerobic bacteria. Bacteriological Reviews, 41, 100-180.

Trifonov, E.N. & Bettecken, T. 1997. Sequence fossils, triplet expansion, and reconstruction of earliest codons. Gene, 205, 1-6.

Trifonov, E.N. 2000. Concensus temporal order of amino acids and evolution of the triplet code. Gene, 261, 139-151.

Turcotte D.L. 1980. On the thermal evolution of the Earth. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 48, 53-58.

Vargas, M., Kashefi, K., Blunt-Harris, E.L. and Lovely, D.R. 1998. Microbial evidence for Fe(III) reduction on early Earth". Nature, 395, 65-67.

Vaughan, D.J. 1969. Nickelian mackinawite from Vlakfontein, Transvaal. American Mineralogist, 54, 1190-1193.

Vaughan, D.J. and Craig, J.R. 1978. Mineral Chemistry of Natural Sulfides. Cambridge University Press.

Vaughan, D.J. and Craig, J.R. 1985. The crystal chemistry of iron-nickel thiospinels. American Mineralogist, 70, 1036-1043.

Volbeda, A., Charon, M_H., Piras, C., Hatchikian, E.C., Frey, M. & Fontecilla-Camps, J.C. 1995. Crystal structure of the nickel-iron hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio gigas. Nature, 373, 580-587.

Von Damm, K.L. 1990. Sea floor hydrothermal activity: Black smoker chemistry and chimneys. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 18, 173-204.

Von Damm, K.L. 1995. Controls on the chemistry and temporal variability of seafloor hydrothermal fluids. In: Seafloor Hydrothermal Systems: Physical, Chemical Biological and Geological Interactions. Humphris et al., (eds), Geophys. Monograph,Series., Vol. 91, pp. 222-247, AGU, Washington, D.C.

Von Damm, K.L. 2000. Chemistry of hydrothermal gvent fluids from 9°-10°N, East Pacific Rise: "Time zero", the immediate posteruptive period. Journal of Geophysical Research, 105B, 11,203-11,222.

von Wolzogen Kühr, C.A.H. & van der Vlugt, L.S. 1934. Water, 18, 147.

Wächtershäuser, G. 1998. Towards a reconstruction of ancestral genomes by gene cluster alignment. Systematic Applied Microbiology, 21, 473-477.

Walker, J.C.G. 1985. Carbon dioxide on the early Earth. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, 16, 117-127.

Weber, A.L. 1987. The triose model: Glyceraldehyde as a source of energy and monomers for prebiotic condensation reactions. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, 17, 107-129.

Williams, R.J.P. 1965. Electron migration in iron compounds. In; San Pietro, A. (ed.) Non-Heme Iron Proteins: Role in Energy Conversion. The Antioch Press, Yellow Springs, Ohio, 7-22.

Woese, C.R., Kandler, O. & Wheelis, M.L. 1990. Towards a natural system of organisms: Proposals for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 87, 4576-4579.

Wong, J.T. 1975. A co-evolution theory of the genetic code. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 72, 1909-1912.

Wood, F.J. 1986. Tidal Dynamics. Dordecht, Reidel. Wood, H.G. 1977. Some reactions in which inorganic pyrophosphate replaces ATP and serves as a source of energy. Federation Proceedings of the Federation of the American Societies for Experimental Biology, 36, 2197-2205.

Wood, H.G. 1985. Inorganic pyrophosphate and pyrophosphates as sources of energy. Current Topics in Cellular Regulation, 26, 355-369.

Yamagata, Y., Wanatabe, H., Saitoh, M. & Namba, T. 1991. Volcanic production of polyphosphates and its relevance to prebiotic evolution. Nature, 352, 516-519.

Yamagata, Y., Inoue, H., and Inomata, K., 1995. Specific effect of magnesium ion on 2',3'-cyclic AMP synthesis from adenosine and trimeta phosphate in aqueous solution. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, 25, 47-52.

OOL Home

Abstract (2001)

  1. Critical Aspects
  2. Energy Supplies
  3. Flow reactor
  4. Flatbed reactor
  5. Electrochem reactor
  6. The code
  7. Organic membrane
  8. Coda


Figures 1-25

Page last updated:
18th December 2001