Professor Paul Younger

  • Rankine Chair of Engineering, Professor of Energy Engineering (Systems Power and Energy)
  • Senate Assessor on Court (Senate Office)

telephone: 0141 330 5042
email: Paul.Younger@glasgow.ac.uk

Research interests

Biography

I’ve enjoyed a varied career ranging from early days in pure science (principally geology), through water resources and environmental engineering (especially groundwater engineering), on through mining environmental engineering to energy engineering. There are several persistent threads running through all of these experiences, mainly to do with quantitative geoscience, numerical modelling of fluid flow and reactive mass transfer, and the translation of high-level conceptual principles into hands-on engineering solutions, invariably for purposes which I believe are socially and environmentally benign.  I owe my formal education to two universities: Newcastle University in the UK (BSc and PhD), and Oklahoma State University in the USA (MS), where I spent two very happy years as a Harkness Fellow (1984-86), taking advantage of burgeoning activities in the then-National Centre for Groundwater Research and the EPA’s RSKERL Lab in Ada. My education was extended – and continues to be – by industrial experience, with Yorkshire Water, the National Rivers Authority, Centro Yunta (La Paz, Bolivia), NIREX, Northumbrian Water, Project Dewatering Ltd, Cluff Geothermal Ltd, Five-Quarter Energy Ltd and various consultancy missions worldwide. I spent just under 20 years at Newcastle University, where I: taught water and environmental engineering; founded and led the HERO research group (which won the University the Queen’s Anniversary Prize for the first time in 2005); established what is now the Sir Joseph Swan Centre for Energy Research; founded and Directed the Newcastle Institute for Research on Sustainability; served as the University’s Public Orator; and was the UK's first-ever Pro-Vice-Chancellor for Engagement. I joined Glasgow University in August 2012.

I currently serve as Chair of the Global Scientific Committee of the Plant Earth Institute, an intermational NGO (of which I am also a Trustee) which aims to promote South-South collaboration in science-based projects that further the cause of 'scientific independence for Africa'. I am also a Trustee of Arran Community Energy, which is striving to implement renewables in a manner compatible with the important tourist industry of that beautiful Scottish island. 

Research Interests

Researcher ID (www.researcherid.com): F-7139-2015 

My current research is entirely focused in the energy sector, and besides engaging with the broad challenges of keeping the lights on and homes and businesses warm whilst decarbonising our energy systems, I focus specifically on three areas in which my particular skills and experience can be put to best use:

Geothermal Energy:

  • Deep geothermal energy in for direct-use in non-volcanic regions. (In recent years I led the drilling and testing of the only three deep (≤ 1821m) geothermal exploration boreholes to be drilled in the UK since the 1980s)
  • Volcanogenic geothermal resources (especially in developing countries) for combined heat and power, especially through enhanced Organic Rankine Cycle systems
  • Ground-coupled heating and cooling systems (including ground-source heat pumps)

Responsible Use of Fossil Fuels:

  • Underground coal gasification tightly coupled to carbon capture and storage
  • Environmental impacts of shale gas developments; I became involved in this issue through serving on advisory panels to both the UK (2012) and Scottish Governments (2014)

Hydropower:
- Maximising the contribution of mini- and micro-hydro to the low-carbon prosperity of rural communities in Scotland and the Global South
- Examining new materials and conversion cycles for increased scope (e.g. for renewable heat) and efficiency in hydropower applications at all scales
- Engineering the elimination of greenhouse gas emissions from large hydropower reservoirs in tropical regions

Expertise

I was elected a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering (FREng) in 2007.
Principal professional affiliations and qualifications: FGS, C.Geol., FNEIMME, FICE, FIChemE, C.Sci., C.Eng.
Other memberships: International Geothermal Association, Geothermal Resources Council, European Geothermal Energy Council, International Mine Water Association, International Hydropower Association

I am a fluent Spanish speaker, and hold Honorary Doctorates from:
1.    School of Mines, University of Oviedo, Spain (2010)
2.    Universidad Nacional de San Agustín, Arequipa, Perú (2010)

Tha Gàidhlig agam cuideachd, agus mise ag obair mar riochdaire a’ Cholaiste Saidheans is Innleadaireachd air Comataidh Ghàidhlig an Oilthigh Ghlaschu. (I also speak Gaelic, and represent the College of Science and Engineering on the Gaelic Committee of the University of Glasgow).

Selected publications

Amezaga, J.M., Rotting, T.S., Younger, P.L., Nairn, R.W., Noles, A.-J., Oyarzun, R., and Quintanilla, J. (2011) A rich vein? Mining and the pursuit of sustainability. Environmental Science & Technology, 45(1), pp. 21-26. (doi:10.1021/es101430e)

Roddy, D.J., and Younger, P.L. (2010) Underground coal gasification with CCS: A pathway to decarbonising industry. Energy and Environmental Science, 3(4), pp. 400-407. (doi:10.1039/b921197g)

Clarkson, M.H., Birks, D., Younger, P.L., Carter, A., and Cone, S. (2009) Groundwater cooling at the Royal Festival Hall, London. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 42, pp. 335-346. (doi:10.1144/1470-9236/08-080)

Bowden, L.I., Jarvis, A.P., Younger, P.L., and Johnson, K.L. (2009) Phosphorus removal from waste waters using basic oxygen steel slag. Environmental Science & Technology, 43(7), pp. 2476-2481. (doi:10.1021/es801626d)

Grants

                       

Project                                                                         

Sponsor   

    Dates 

 Role

Radiothermal granite reservoirs: the Hill of Banchory Geothermal Energy Project - pre-feasibility study for exploration.

Scottish Government

21-6-2015 to

21-12-2015

PI

Shale Gas Exploration and Exploitation Induced Risks (SHEER)

European Commission

01/06/2015 to 31/05/2018

PI

Real-time control of gasifiers to increase tolerance to biomass variety and reduce emissions

Engineering & Physical Sciences Research Council

02/03/2015 to 01/03/2018

Co-I

Modelling high-enthalpy geothermal reservoirs in East Africa

Cluff Geothermal Ltd

01/10/2014 to 30/09/2015

PI

A conceptual hydrogeological model for fault related geothermal energy resources in N. England

Natural Environment Research Council

30/9/2014 to

29/09/2017

 

PI

Low-Carbon After-Life for Coal Mines (LoCAL) – Ground-Source Heat-Pumps

European Commission

01/07/2014 to

30/06/2017

PI

Combustion & Gasification Engineering (CombGEN): development of robust computational tools for optimisation.

Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland and

Engineering & Physical Sciences Research Council

24/02/2014 to

06/06/2015

Co-I

Use of Atomic Dielectric Resonance for Geothermal Resource Exploration

Innovate UK

and

Adrok Ltd

27/01/2014 to

26/04/2016

PI

Technology Options For Coupled Underground Coal Gasification with CO2 Capture and Storage (TOPS)

European Commission

01/11/2013 to

31/10/2016

PI

Subsurface engineering for underground coal gasification and subsequent carbon capture and storage.

Five-Quarter Energy Ltd

01/10/2012 to

31/03/2016

PI

A Systems Approach For Engineered Barriers (SAFE)

Engineering & Physical Sciences Research Council

30/09/2012 to

29/08/2016

Co-I

Geothermal heat networks: modelling for robust design

Scottish Funding Council / Cluff Geothermal Ltd

17/09/2012 to 16/03/2016

PI

Supervision

I am currently lead supervisor for the following PhD students and projects:

  • David Birks: Optimisation of groundwater-based cooling systems for large public buildings in London and other cities. With financial support from Parsons Brinckerhoff. Part-time, 2011-2017.
  • Juan Álvarez-Vázquez: Subsurface Engineering for Underground Coal Gasification and Subsequent Carbon Capture & Storage. University of Glasgow College of Science and Engineering EPSRC DTA, in collaboration with Five-Quarter Energy Ltd.   2012 – 2016.
  • Sotirios Kyriakis: Renewable heat networks: modelling for robust design. Scottish Energy Technology Partnership, in collaboration with University of St Andrews and Cluff Geothermal Ltd. 2012 – 2016.
  • Fernando Guerrero Martínez: Geothermal reservoir modelling: high-enthalpy systems in eastern Africa. CONaCyT, Mexico. 2012-2016
  • Helen Robinson: Conceptual hydrogeological model for caldera-associated high-enthalpy geothermal reservoirs in eastern Africa. 2013-2017.
  • Aaron Williams: deep geothermal resources associated with major faults in northern England and Scotland. NERC funded. 2014 - 2018.
  • Anggoro Wisaksono: barriers to uptake of geothermal energy in Indonesia. Government of Indonesia. 2014-2018.

I am interested in supervising new PhD projects in the following areas:

  • Reservoir engineering and energy conversion system design for medium- and high-enthalpy geothermal resource
  • The geothermal water-energy nexus
  • Enhanced exploration and drilling techniques for deep geothermal resources in non-volcanic regions
  • Improved ground characterisation and modelling for shallow (GSHP) geothermal and groundwater-cooling systems
  • Remote characterisation and engineering of voids produced by underground coal gasification (UCG), and their re-use as carbon dioxide stores
  • Integrating UCG with CBM and shale gas exploitation strategies, within a holistic carbon management framework
  • Optimising the ecologically-friendly, community-focused use of hydropower resources in the Scottish Highlands, East Africa and Latin America

Teaching

I currently lead the following modules:

Integrated Engineering Systems Design (ENG 4085) (stage 4 MEng - all disciplines) - an innovative group design module, originally pioneered by Royal Academy of Engineering Visiting Professor Ross Wilson.

Renewable Energy 4 (ENG 4173) - (stage 4 BEng, MEng and also MSc) - a technically-focused overview of the principal energy conversion technologies, and their pros and cons.

Geology for Civil Engineers 2 (ENG 2080) - a practical introduction to the principles and practice of engineering geology and geological engineering for Stage 2 MEng and BEng students in civil engineering.

All publications

List by: Type | Date

Jump to: 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008
Number of items: 73.

2015

Karimi, N., Agbo, D., Khan, A. T., and Younger, P. L. (2015) On the effects of exothermicity and endothermicity upon the temperature fields in a partially-filled porous channel. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 96, pp. 128-148. (doi:10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2015.05.002)

Younger, P. (2015) New blow to UK fracking is a delay but not the end of the road. New Scientist,

Younger, P. L. (2015) Early end of wind subsidies. Scotsman, p. 36.

Westaway, R., Younger, P. L., and Cornelius, C. (2015) Comment on ‘Life cycle environmental impacts of UK shale gas’ by L. Stamford and A. Azapagic, Applied Energy, 134, 506–518, 2014. Applied Energy, 148, pp. 489-495. (doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.03.008)

Younger, P. (2015) Good luck G7 leaders – we won’t be off fossil fuels by 2100. The Conversation [online],

Westaway, R., Scotney, P. M., Younger, P. L., and Boyce, A. J. (2015) Subsurface absorption of anthropogenic warming of the land surface: The case of the world's largest brickworks (Stewartby, Bedfordshire, UK). Science of the Total Environment, 508(2015), pp. 585-603. (doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.09.109) (PMID:25481718)

Younger, P. L., and Mayes, W. M. (2015) The potential use of exhausted open pit mine voids as sinks for atmospheric CO2: insights from natural reedbeds and mine water treatment wetlands. Mine Water and the Environment, 34(1), pp. 112-120. (doi:10.1007/s10230-014-0293-5)

Younger, P. (2015) Why strangle at birth this exciting new fuel source? Times (Scottish Edition)(71423), p. 7.

Li, W., Younger, P. L., Cheng, Y., Zhang, B., Zhou, H., Liu, Q., Dai, T., Kong, S., Jin, K., and Yang, Q. (2015) Addressing the CO2 emissions of the world's largest coal producer and consumer: lessons from the Haishiwan Coalfield, China. Energy, 80, pp. 400-413. (doi:10.1016/j.energy.2014.11.081)

Younger, P. (2015) Carbon risk: not a binary choice. Investment and Pensions Europe, 19(2), p. 53.

Thorogood, J. L., and Younger, P. L. (2015) Discussion of "Oil and gas wells and their integrity: Implications for shale and unconventional resource exploitation" by R. J. Davies, S. Almond, R.S., Ward, R.B. Jackson, C. Adams, F. Worrall, L.G. Herringshaw, J.G. Gluyas and M.A. Whitehead. (Marine and Petroleum Geology 2014). Marine and Petroleum Geology, 59, pp. 671-673. (doi:10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2014.07.011)

Birks, D., Younger, P.L., Tavendale, L., Coutts, C., Parkin, G., Button, P., and Whittall, S. (2015) Groundwater reinjection and heat dissipation: lessons from the operation of a large groundwater cooling system in Central London. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 48(2), pp. 94-103. (doi:10.1144/qjegh2014-090)

Fairs, T. H., Younger, P., and Parkin, G. (2015) Parsimonious numerical modelling of deep geothermal reservoirs. Proceedings of the ICE: Energy, (doi:10.1680/ener.14.00026) (Early Online Publication)

Feliks, M. E., Elliott, T. P., Delacherois Day, G., Percy, G. D., and Younger, P. L. (2015) Direct Use of Low Enthalpy Deep Geothermal Resources in the East African Rift Valley. In: World Geothermal Congress 2015, Melbourne, Australia, 19-25 April 2015,

Guerrero-Martinez, F. J., Verma, S. P., Younger, P. L., and Paul, M. (2015) Geothermal Systems Simulation: A Case Study. In: World Geothermal Congress 2015, Melbourne, Australia, 19-25 April 2015,

Li, J., Paul, M. C., Younger, P. L., Watson, I., Hossain, M., and Welch, S. (2015) Characterization of biomass combustion at high temperatures based on an upgraded single particle model. Applied Energy, (doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.04.027) (Early Online Publication)

Li, J., Paul, M. C., Younger, P. L., Watson, I., Hossain, M., and Welch, S. (2015) Combustion modelling of pulverized biomass particles at high temperatures. Energy Procedia, 66, pp. 273-276. (doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2015.02.055)

Younger, P. (2015) Geothermal Energy: Delivering on the Global Potential. Guest editor of Special Issue. Energies, 7,

Younger, P. L., Boyce, A. J., and Waring, A. J. (2015) Chloride waters of Great Britain revisited: from subsea formation waters to onshore geothermal fluids. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, (doi:10.1016/j.pgeola.2015.04.001) (Early Online Publication)

Younger, P. L., Feliks, M. E.J., Westaway, R., McCay, A. T., Harley, T. L., Elliott, T., Stove, G. D.C., Ellis, J., Watson, S., and Waring, A. J. (2015) Renewing the Exploration Approach for Mid-Enthalpy Systems: Examples from Northern England and Scotland. In: World Geothermal Congress 2015, Melbourne, Australia, 19-25 April 2015,

2014

Younger, P. L., and Westaway, R. (2014) Review of the Inputs of Professor David Smythe in Relation to Planning Applications for Shale Gas Development in Lancashire (Planning Applications LCC/2014/0096 /0097 /0101 and /0102) and Associated Recommendations. Other. University of Glasgow.

Younger, P. (2014) Carbon: problem … and solution. Tablet, 268(9079), pp. 4-5.

Younger, P. (2014) The Church can and must pronounce on scientific matters. [Website]

Younger, P., and Ratcliffe, T. (2014) It's do or divest. New Scientist, 224(2995), pp. 26-27. (doi:10.1016/S0262-4079(14)62190-4)

Westaway, R., and Younger, P. L. (2014) Quantification of potential macroseismic effects of the induced seismicity that might result from hydraulic fracturing for shale gas exploitation in the UK. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 47(4), pp. 333-350. (doi:10.1144/qjegh2014-011)

Younger, P.L. (2014) Energy. In: The Times Comprehensive Atlas of the World: 14th Edition. HarperCollins: London, pp. 32-33. ISBN 9780007551408

McCay, A., Harley, T., Younger, P., Sanderson, D., and Cresswell, A. (2014) Gamma-ray spectrometry in geothermal exploration: state of the art techniques. Energies, 7(8), pp. 4757-4780. (doi:10.3390/en7084757)

Masters, C., Shipton, Z., Gatliff, R., Haszeldine, R.S., Sorbie, K., Stuart, F., Waldron, S., Younger, P.L., and Curran, J. (2014) Independent Expert Scientific Panel – Report on Unconventional Oil and Gas. Project Report. The Scottish Government, Edinburgh.

Younger, P. (2014) Scotland’s renewable energy transition: quo vadis? Geographer: The Newsletter of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society, pp. 6-7.

Younger, P. L. (2014) Missing a trick in geothermal exploration. Nature Geoscience, 7(7), pp. 479-480. (doi:10.1038/ngeo2193)

Younger, P.L., and Henderson, R. (2014) Single artificial wetland successfully treats different types of wastewater. Science for Environment Policy, 375,

Preene, M., and Younger, P.L. (2014) Can you take the heat? – Geothermal energy in mining. Mining Technology, 123(2), pp. 107-118. (doi:10.1179/1743286314Y.0000000058)

Younger, P. L., and Henderson, R. (2014) Synergistic wetland treatment of sewage and mine water: pollutant removal performance of the first full-scale system. Water Research, 55, pp. 74-82. (doi:10.1016/j.watres.2014.02.024)

Elliot, T., and Younger, P. L. (2014) Detection of mixing dynamics during pumping of a flooded coal mine. Groundwater, 52(2), pp. 251-263. (doi:10.1111/gwat.12057)

Younger, P. L. (2014) Hydrogeological challenges in a low carbon economy. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 47(1), pp. 7-27. (doi:10.1144/qjegh2013-063)

Durucan, S. et al. (2014) TOPS: technology options for coupled underground coal gasification and CO2 capture and storage. Energy Procedia, 63, pp. 5827-5835. (doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.616)

Ellis, J., Mannino, I., Johnson, G., Feliks, M. E.J., Younger, P. L., and Vaughan, A. P.M. (2014) Shiremoor geothermal heat project: reducing uncertainty around fault geometry and permeability using Move™ for structural model building and stress analysis. In: European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2014, Vienna, Austria, 27 Apr - 2 May 2014,

Younger, P. L. (2014) Energy: All That Matters. Hodder & Stoughton: London. ISBN 9781473601888

2013

Westaway, R., and Younger, P.L. (2013) Accounting for palaeoclimate and topography: a rigorous approach to correction of the British geothermal dataset. Geothermics, 48, pp. 31-51. (doi:10.1016/j.geothermics.2013.03.009)

Birks, D., Whittall, S., Savill, I., Younger, P.L., and Parkin, G. (2013) Groundwater cooling of a large building using a shallow alluvial aquifer in central London. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 46(2), pp. 189-202. (doi:10.1144/qjegh2012-059)

Westaway, R., Green, P.F., Manning, D.A.C., and Younger, P.L. (2013) Reply to 'discussion on cenozoic cooling and denudation in the North Pennines (northern England, UK) constrained by apatite fission-track analysis of cuttings from the Eastgate Borehole, Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, vol. 123, 2012, pp. 450–463, by Martin H.P. Bott. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 124(3), pp. 549-551. (doi:10.1016/j.pgeola.2012.12.002)

Younger, P.L. (2013) New water for old? Geology and the long view on water resources. Geology Today, 29(2), pp. 68-72. (doi:10.1111/gto.12004)

Younger, P.L. (2013) Water in the balance. Geographical Communications, 85(3), pp. 46-49.

Kortas, L., and Younger, P.L. (2013) Fracture patterns in the Permian Magnesian Limestone Aquifer, Co. Durham, UK. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 59(3), pp. 161-171. (doi:10.1144/pygs2013-322)

Younger, P.L. (2013) Deep geothermal: the Newcastle science central borehole. Geothermal Association of Ireland Newsletter, 21, pp. 9-13.

Álvarez, R., Ordóñez, A., Loredo, J., and Younger, P.L. (2013) Wetland-based passive treatment systems for gold ore processing effluents containing residual cyanide, metals and nitrogen species. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 15(11), pp. 2115-2124. (doi:10.1039/c3em00410d)

2012

Mair, R. et al. (2012) Shale gas extraction in the UK: a review of hydraulic fracturing. Project Report. Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering.

Oyarzún, J., Castillo, D., Maturana, H., Kretschmer, N., Soto, G., Amezaga, J.M., Rötting, T.S., Younger, P.L., and Oyarzún, R. (2012) Abandoned tailings deposits, acid drainage and alluvial sediments geochemistry, in the arid Elqui River Basin, North-Central Chile. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 115, pp. 47-58. (doi:10.1016/j.gexplo.2012.02.008)

Armitt, J., Haste, N., Ion, S., Thomas, H., and Younger, P. (2012) Review of Options for Acceleration of Geological Disposal. Other. Royal Academy of Engineering.

Brown, E., Cloke, J., Blanchard, R., Fisk, D., Gluyas, J., Jones, A., Read, D., and Younger, P. (2012) What are the key issues regarding the role of geothermal energy in meeting energy needs in the global south? Other. Low Carbon Energy for Development Network, Durham, UK.

Gluyas, J.G., and Younger, P. (2012) Getting into hot water: the geothermal potential of NE England. Yorkshire Geological Society Circular, 570, p. 8.

Green, P.F., Westaway, R., Manning, D.A.C., and Younger, P.L. (2012) Cenozoic cooling and denudation in the North Pennines (northern England, UK) constrained by apatite fission-track analysis of cuttings from the Eastgate Borehole. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 123(3), pp. 450-463. (doi:10.1016/j.pgeola.2011.11.003)

Younger, P., and Potter, H.A.B. (2012) Parys in Springtime: Hazard Management and Steps Towards Remediation of the UK's Most Polluted Acidic Mine Discharge. In: 9th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD), Ottawa, Canada, 20th-26th May 2012, p. 12.

Younger, P.L. (2012) Crouching enemy, hidden ally: the decisive role of groundwater discharge features in two major British battles, Flodden 1513 and Prestonpans 1745. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 362(1), pp. 19-33. (doi:10.1144/SP362.2)

Younger, P.L. (2012) Water. All that matters. Hodder Education: London, UK. ISBN 9781444156812

Younger, P.L., Gluyas, J.G., and Stephens, W.E. (2012) Development of deep geothermal energy resources in the UK. Proceedings of the ICE: Energy, 165(1), pp. 19-32. (doi:10.1680/ener.11.00009)

2011

Amezaga, J.M., Rotting, T.S., Younger, P.L., Nairn, R.W., Noles, A.-J., Oyarzun, R., and Quintanilla, J. (2011) A rich vein? Mining and the pursuit of sustainability. Environmental Science & Technology, 45(1), pp. 21-26. (doi:10.1021/es101430e)

Kuma, J.S., Younger, P., and Buah, W.K. (2011) Numerical indices of the severity of acidic mine drainage: Broadening the applicability of the Gray Acid Mine Drainage Index. Mine Water and the Environment, 30(1), pp. 67-74. (doi:10.1007/s10230-010-0133-1)

Younger, P. (2011) Hydrogeological and geomechanical aspects of underground coal gasification and its direct coupling to carbon capture and storage. Mine Water and the Environment, 30(2), pp. 127-140. (doi:10.1007/s10230-011-0145-5)

Younger, P., and Manning, D.A.C. (2011) Reply to discussion on 'Hyper-permeable granite: lessons from test pumping in the Eastgate Geothermal Borehole, Weardale, UK' by P.L. Younger and D.A.C. Manning: Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 43, 5-10. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 44(3), pp. 405-407. (doi:10.1144/1470-9236/11-017)

2010

Gandy, C.J., Clarke, L., Banks, D., and Younger, P. (2010) Predictive modelling of groundwater abstraction and artificial recharge of cooling water. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 43(3), pp. 279-288. (doi:10.1144/1470-9236/08-093)

Younger, P.L. (2010) Reconnaissance assessment of the prospects for development of high-enthalpy geothermal energy resources, Montserrat. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 43(1), pp. 11-22. (doi:10.1144/1470-9236/08-083)

Younger, P.L., and Manning, D.A.C. (2010) Hyper-permeable granite: Lessons from test-pumping in the Eastgate Geothermal Borehole, Weardale, UK. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 43(1), pp. 5-10. (doi:10.1144/1470-9236/08-085)

Roddy, D.J., and Younger, P.L. (2010) Underground coal gasification with CCS: A pathway to decarbonising industry. Energy and Environmental Science, 3(4), pp. 400-407. (doi:10.1039/b921197g)

2009

Banks, D., Gandy, C.J., Younger, P.L., Withers, J., and Underwood, C. (2009) Anthropogenic thermogeological 'anomaly' in Gateshead, Tyne and Wear, UK. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 42(3), pp. 307-312. (doi:10.1144/1470-9236/08-024)

Clarkson, M.H., Birks, D., Younger, P.L., Carter, A., and Cone, S. (2009) Groundwater cooling at the Royal Festival Hall, London. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 42, pp. 335-346. (doi:10.1144/1470-9236/08-080)

Mayes, W.M., Batty, L.C., Younger, P.L., Jarvis, A.P., Kõiv, M., Vohla, C., and Mander, U. (2009) Wetland treatment at extremes of pH: a review. Science of the Total Environment, 407(13), pp. 3944-3957. (doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.06.045)

Bowden, L.I., Jarvis, A.P., Younger, P.L., and Johnson, K.L. (2009) Phosphorus removal from waste waters using basic oxygen steel slag. Environmental Science & Technology, 43(7), pp. 2476-2481. (doi:10.1021/es801626d)

Brassington, F.C., and Younger, P.L. (2009) A proposed framework for hydrogeological conceptual modelling. Water and Environment Journal, 24(4), pp. 261-273. (doi:10.1111/j.1747-6593.2009.00173.x)

Kruse, N.A., and Younger, P.L. (2009) Development of thermodynamically-based models for simulation of hydrogeochemical processes coupled to channel flow processes in abandoned underground mines. Applied Geochemistry, 24(7), pp. 1301-1311. (doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2009.04.003)

Kruse, N.A.S., and Younger, P.L. (2009) Sinks of iron and manganese in underground coal mine workings. Environmental Geology, 57(8), pp. 1893-1899. (doi:10.1007/s00254-008-1478-7)

2008

Gandy, C.J., and Younger, P.L. (2008) Predicting long-term contamination potential of perched groundwater in a mine-waste heap using a random-walk method. Hydrogeology Journal, 16(3), pp. 447-459. (doi:10.1007/s10040-007-0243-4)

Mayes, W.M., Younger, P.L., and Aumônier, J. (2008) Hydrogeochemistry of alkaline steel slag leachates in the UK. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 195(1-4), pp. 35-50. (doi:10.1007/s11270-008-9725-9)

This list was generated on Wed Jul 29 19:33:53 2015 BST.
Number of items: 73.

Articles

Karimi, N., Agbo, D., Khan, A. T., and Younger, P. L. (2015) On the effects of exothermicity and endothermicity upon the temperature fields in a partially-filled porous channel. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 96, pp. 128-148. (doi:10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2015.05.002)

Younger, P. (2015) New blow to UK fracking is a delay but not the end of the road. New Scientist,

Younger, P. L. (2015) Early end of wind subsidies. Scotsman, p. 36.

Westaway, R., Younger, P. L., and Cornelius, C. (2015) Comment on ‘Life cycle environmental impacts of UK shale gas’ by L. Stamford and A. Azapagic, Applied Energy, 134, 506–518, 2014. Applied Energy, 148, pp. 489-495. (doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.03.008)

Younger, P. (2015) Good luck G7 leaders – we won’t be off fossil fuels by 2100. The Conversation [online],

Westaway, R., Scotney, P. M., Younger, P. L., and Boyce, A. J. (2015) Subsurface absorption of anthropogenic warming of the land surface: The case of the world's largest brickworks (Stewartby, Bedfordshire, UK). Science of the Total Environment, 508(2015), pp. 585-603. (doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.09.109) (PMID:25481718)

Younger, P. L., and Mayes, W. M. (2015) The potential use of exhausted open pit mine voids as sinks for atmospheric CO2: insights from natural reedbeds and mine water treatment wetlands. Mine Water and the Environment, 34(1), pp. 112-120. (doi:10.1007/s10230-014-0293-5)

Younger, P. (2015) Why strangle at birth this exciting new fuel source? Times (Scottish Edition)(71423), p. 7.

Li, W., Younger, P. L., Cheng, Y., Zhang, B., Zhou, H., Liu, Q., Dai, T., Kong, S., Jin, K., and Yang, Q. (2015) Addressing the CO2 emissions of the world's largest coal producer and consumer: lessons from the Haishiwan Coalfield, China. Energy, 80, pp. 400-413. (doi:10.1016/j.energy.2014.11.081)

Younger, P. (2015) Carbon risk: not a binary choice. Investment and Pensions Europe, 19(2), p. 53.

Thorogood, J. L., and Younger, P. L. (2015) Discussion of "Oil and gas wells and their integrity: Implications for shale and unconventional resource exploitation" by R. J. Davies, S. Almond, R.S., Ward, R.B. Jackson, C. Adams, F. Worrall, L.G. Herringshaw, J.G. Gluyas and M.A. Whitehead. (Marine and Petroleum Geology 2014). Marine and Petroleum Geology, 59, pp. 671-673. (doi:10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2014.07.011)

Birks, D., Younger, P.L., Tavendale, L., Coutts, C., Parkin, G., Button, P., and Whittall, S. (2015) Groundwater reinjection and heat dissipation: lessons from the operation of a large groundwater cooling system in Central London. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 48(2), pp. 94-103. (doi:10.1144/qjegh2014-090)

Fairs, T. H., Younger, P., and Parkin, G. (2015) Parsimonious numerical modelling of deep geothermal reservoirs. Proceedings of the ICE: Energy, (doi:10.1680/ener.14.00026) (Early Online Publication)

Li, J., Paul, M. C., Younger, P. L., Watson, I., Hossain, M., and Welch, S. (2015) Characterization of biomass combustion at high temperatures based on an upgraded single particle model. Applied Energy, (doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.04.027) (Early Online Publication)

Li, J., Paul, M. C., Younger, P. L., Watson, I., Hossain, M., and Welch, S. (2015) Combustion modelling of pulverized biomass particles at high temperatures. Energy Procedia, 66, pp. 273-276. (doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2015.02.055)

Younger, P. (2015) Geothermal Energy: Delivering on the Global Potential. Guest editor of Special Issue. Energies, 7,

Younger, P. L., Boyce, A. J., and Waring, A. J. (2015) Chloride waters of Great Britain revisited: from subsea formation waters to onshore geothermal fluids. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, (doi:10.1016/j.pgeola.2015.04.001) (Early Online Publication)

Younger, P. (2014) Carbon: problem … and solution. Tablet, 268(9079), pp. 4-5.

Younger, P., and Ratcliffe, T. (2014) It's do or divest. New Scientist, 224(2995), pp. 26-27. (doi:10.1016/S0262-4079(14)62190-4)

Westaway, R., and Younger, P. L. (2014) Quantification of potential macroseismic effects of the induced seismicity that might result from hydraulic fracturing for shale gas exploitation in the UK. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 47(4), pp. 333-350. (doi:10.1144/qjegh2014-011)

McCay, A., Harley, T., Younger, P., Sanderson, D., and Cresswell, A. (2014) Gamma-ray spectrometry in geothermal exploration: state of the art techniques. Energies, 7(8), pp. 4757-4780. (doi:10.3390/en7084757)

Younger, P. (2014) Scotland’s renewable energy transition: quo vadis? Geographer: The Newsletter of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society, pp. 6-7.

Younger, P. L. (2014) Missing a trick in geothermal exploration. Nature Geoscience, 7(7), pp. 479-480. (doi:10.1038/ngeo2193)

Younger, P.L., and Henderson, R. (2014) Single artificial wetland successfully treats different types of wastewater. Science for Environment Policy, 375,

Preene, M., and Younger, P.L. (2014) Can you take the heat? – Geothermal energy in mining. Mining Technology, 123(2), pp. 107-118. (doi:10.1179/1743286314Y.0000000058)

Younger, P. L., and Henderson, R. (2014) Synergistic wetland treatment of sewage and mine water: pollutant removal performance of the first full-scale system. Water Research, 55, pp. 74-82. (doi:10.1016/j.watres.2014.02.024)

Elliot, T., and Younger, P. L. (2014) Detection of mixing dynamics during pumping of a flooded coal mine. Groundwater, 52(2), pp. 251-263. (doi:10.1111/gwat.12057)

Younger, P. L. (2014) Hydrogeological challenges in a low carbon economy. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 47(1), pp. 7-27. (doi:10.1144/qjegh2013-063)

Durucan, S. et al. (2014) TOPS: technology options for coupled underground coal gasification and CO2 capture and storage. Energy Procedia, 63, pp. 5827-5835. (doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.616)

Westaway, R., and Younger, P.L. (2013) Accounting for palaeoclimate and topography: a rigorous approach to correction of the British geothermal dataset. Geothermics, 48, pp. 31-51. (doi:10.1016/j.geothermics.2013.03.009)

Birks, D., Whittall, S., Savill, I., Younger, P.L., and Parkin, G. (2013) Groundwater cooling of a large building using a shallow alluvial aquifer in central London. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 46(2), pp. 189-202. (doi:10.1144/qjegh2012-059)

Westaway, R., Green, P.F., Manning, D.A.C., and Younger, P.L. (2013) Reply to 'discussion on cenozoic cooling and denudation in the North Pennines (northern England, UK) constrained by apatite fission-track analysis of cuttings from the Eastgate Borehole, Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, vol. 123, 2012, pp. 450–463, by Martin H.P. Bott. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 124(3), pp. 549-551. (doi:10.1016/j.pgeola.2012.12.002)

Younger, P.L. (2013) New water for old? Geology and the long view on water resources. Geology Today, 29(2), pp. 68-72. (doi:10.1111/gto.12004)

Younger, P.L. (2013) Water in the balance. Geographical Communications, 85(3), pp. 46-49.

Kortas, L., and Younger, P.L. (2013) Fracture patterns in the Permian Magnesian Limestone Aquifer, Co. Durham, UK. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 59(3), pp. 161-171. (doi:10.1144/pygs2013-322)

Younger, P.L. (2013) Deep geothermal: the Newcastle science central borehole. Geothermal Association of Ireland Newsletter, 21, pp. 9-13.

Álvarez, R., Ordóñez, A., Loredo, J., and Younger, P.L. (2013) Wetland-based passive treatment systems for gold ore processing effluents containing residual cyanide, metals and nitrogen species. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 15(11), pp. 2115-2124. (doi:10.1039/c3em00410d)

Oyarzún, J., Castillo, D., Maturana, H., Kretschmer, N., Soto, G., Amezaga, J.M., Rötting, T.S., Younger, P.L., and Oyarzún, R. (2012) Abandoned tailings deposits, acid drainage and alluvial sediments geochemistry, in the arid Elqui River Basin, North-Central Chile. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 115, pp. 47-58. (doi:10.1016/j.gexplo.2012.02.008)

Gluyas, J.G., and Younger, P. (2012) Getting into hot water: the geothermal potential of NE England. Yorkshire Geological Society Circular, 570, p. 8.

Green, P.F., Westaway, R., Manning, D.A.C., and Younger, P.L. (2012) Cenozoic cooling and denudation in the North Pennines (northern England, UK) constrained by apatite fission-track analysis of cuttings from the Eastgate Borehole. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 123(3), pp. 450-463. (doi:10.1016/j.pgeola.2011.11.003)

Younger, P.L. (2012) Crouching enemy, hidden ally: the decisive role of groundwater discharge features in two major British battles, Flodden 1513 and Prestonpans 1745. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 362(1), pp. 19-33. (doi:10.1144/SP362.2)

Younger, P.L., Gluyas, J.G., and Stephens, W.E. (2012) Development of deep geothermal energy resources in the UK. Proceedings of the ICE: Energy, 165(1), pp. 19-32. (doi:10.1680/ener.11.00009)

Amezaga, J.M., Rotting, T.S., Younger, P.L., Nairn, R.W., Noles, A.-J., Oyarzun, R., and Quintanilla, J. (2011) A rich vein? Mining and the pursuit of sustainability. Environmental Science & Technology, 45(1), pp. 21-26. (doi:10.1021/es101430e)

Kuma, J.S., Younger, P., and Buah, W.K. (2011) Numerical indices of the severity of acidic mine drainage: Broadening the applicability of the Gray Acid Mine Drainage Index. Mine Water and the Environment, 30(1), pp. 67-74. (doi:10.1007/s10230-010-0133-1)

Younger, P. (2011) Hydrogeological and geomechanical aspects of underground coal gasification and its direct coupling to carbon capture and storage. Mine Water and the Environment, 30(2), pp. 127-140. (doi:10.1007/s10230-011-0145-5)

Younger, P., and Manning, D.A.C. (2011) Reply to discussion on 'Hyper-permeable granite: lessons from test pumping in the Eastgate Geothermal Borehole, Weardale, UK' by P.L. Younger and D.A.C. Manning: Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 43, 5-10. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 44(3), pp. 405-407. (doi:10.1144/1470-9236/11-017)

Gandy, C.J., Clarke, L., Banks, D., and Younger, P. (2010) Predictive modelling of groundwater abstraction and artificial recharge of cooling water. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 43(3), pp. 279-288. (doi:10.1144/1470-9236/08-093)

Younger, P.L. (2010) Reconnaissance assessment of the prospects for development of high-enthalpy geothermal energy resources, Montserrat. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 43(1), pp. 11-22. (doi:10.1144/1470-9236/08-083)

Younger, P.L., and Manning, D.A.C. (2010) Hyper-permeable granite: Lessons from test-pumping in the Eastgate Geothermal Borehole, Weardale, UK. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 43(1), pp. 5-10. (doi:10.1144/1470-9236/08-085)

Roddy, D.J., and Younger, P.L. (2010) Underground coal gasification with CCS: A pathway to decarbonising industry. Energy and Environmental Science, 3(4), pp. 400-407. (doi:10.1039/b921197g)

Banks, D., Gandy, C.J., Younger, P.L., Withers, J., and Underwood, C. (2009) Anthropogenic thermogeological 'anomaly' in Gateshead, Tyne and Wear, UK. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 42(3), pp. 307-312. (doi:10.1144/1470-9236/08-024)

Clarkson, M.H., Birks, D., Younger, P.L., Carter, A., and Cone, S. (2009) Groundwater cooling at the Royal Festival Hall, London. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 42, pp. 335-346. (doi:10.1144/1470-9236/08-080)

Mayes, W.M., Batty, L.C., Younger, P.L., Jarvis, A.P., Kõiv, M., Vohla, C., and Mander, U. (2009) Wetland treatment at extremes of pH: a review. Science of the Total Environment, 407(13), pp. 3944-3957. (doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.06.045)

Bowden, L.I., Jarvis, A.P., Younger, P.L., and Johnson, K.L. (2009) Phosphorus removal from waste waters using basic oxygen steel slag. Environmental Science & Technology, 43(7), pp. 2476-2481. (doi:10.1021/es801626d)

Brassington, F.C., and Younger, P.L. (2009) A proposed framework for hydrogeological conceptual modelling. Water and Environment Journal, 24(4), pp. 261-273. (doi:10.1111/j.1747-6593.2009.00173.x)

Kruse, N.A., and Younger, P.L. (2009) Development of thermodynamically-based models for simulation of hydrogeochemical processes coupled to channel flow processes in abandoned underground mines. Applied Geochemistry, 24(7), pp. 1301-1311. (doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2009.04.003)

Kruse, N.A.S., and Younger, P.L. (2009) Sinks of iron and manganese in underground coal mine workings. Environmental Geology, 57(8), pp. 1893-1899. (doi:10.1007/s00254-008-1478-7)

Gandy, C.J., and Younger, P.L. (2008) Predicting long-term contamination potential of perched groundwater in a mine-waste heap using a random-walk method. Hydrogeology Journal, 16(3), pp. 447-459. (doi:10.1007/s10040-007-0243-4)

Mayes, W.M., Younger, P.L., and Aumônier, J. (2008) Hydrogeochemistry of alkaline steel slag leachates in the UK. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 195(1-4), pp. 35-50. (doi:10.1007/s11270-008-9725-9)

Books

Younger, P. L. (2014) Energy: All That Matters. Hodder & Stoughton: London. ISBN 9781473601888

Younger, P.L. (2012) Water. All that matters. Hodder Education: London, UK. ISBN 9781444156812

Book Sections

Younger, P.L. (2014) Energy. In: The Times Comprehensive Atlas of the World: 14th Edition. HarperCollins: London, pp. 32-33. ISBN 9780007551408

Research Reports or Papers

Younger, P. L., and Westaway, R. (2014) Review of the Inputs of Professor David Smythe in Relation to Planning Applications for Shale Gas Development in Lancashire (Planning Applications LCC/2014/0096 /0097 /0101 and /0102) and Associated Recommendations. Other. University of Glasgow.

Masters, C., Shipton, Z., Gatliff, R., Haszeldine, R.S., Sorbie, K., Stuart, F., Waldron, S., Younger, P.L., and Curran, J. (2014) Independent Expert Scientific Panel – Report on Unconventional Oil and Gas. Project Report. The Scottish Government, Edinburgh.

Mair, R. et al. (2012) Shale gas extraction in the UK: a review of hydraulic fracturing. Project Report. Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering.

Armitt, J., Haste, N., Ion, S., Thomas, H., and Younger, P. (2012) Review of Options for Acceleration of Geological Disposal. Other. Royal Academy of Engineering.

Brown, E., Cloke, J., Blanchard, R., Fisk, D., Gluyas, J., Jones, A., Read, D., and Younger, P. (2012) What are the key issues regarding the role of geothermal energy in meeting energy needs in the global south? Other. Low Carbon Energy for Development Network, Durham, UK.

Conference Proceedings

Feliks, M. E., Elliott, T. P., Delacherois Day, G., Percy, G. D., and Younger, P. L. (2015) Direct Use of Low Enthalpy Deep Geothermal Resources in the East African Rift Valley. In: World Geothermal Congress 2015, Melbourne, Australia, 19-25 April 2015,

Guerrero-Martinez, F. J., Verma, S. P., Younger, P. L., and Paul, M. (2015) Geothermal Systems Simulation: A Case Study. In: World Geothermal Congress 2015, Melbourne, Australia, 19-25 April 2015,

Younger, P. L., Feliks, M. E.J., Westaway, R., McCay, A. T., Harley, T. L., Elliott, T., Stove, G. D.C., Ellis, J., Watson, S., and Waring, A. J. (2015) Renewing the Exploration Approach for Mid-Enthalpy Systems: Examples from Northern England and Scotland. In: World Geothermal Congress 2015, Melbourne, Australia, 19-25 April 2015,

Ellis, J., Mannino, I., Johnson, G., Feliks, M. E.J., Younger, P. L., and Vaughan, A. P.M. (2014) Shiremoor geothermal heat project: reducing uncertainty around fault geometry and permeability using Move™ for structural model building and stress analysis. In: European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2014, Vienna, Austria, 27 Apr - 2 May 2014,

Younger, P., and Potter, H.A.B. (2012) Parys in Springtime: Hazard Management and Steps Towards Remediation of the UK's Most Polluted Acidic Mine Discharge. In: 9th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD), Ottawa, Canada, 20th-26th May 2012, p. 12.

Website

Younger, P. (2014) The Church can and must pronounce on scientific matters. [Website]

This list was generated on Wed Jul 29 19:33:53 2015 BST.