Professor Foo Liew

  • Distinguished Professor in Immunology (Immunology)

Biography

Professor ‘Eddy’ Liew’s research in immunology has revealed new regulatory pathways in the body’s defences against infection. This has clarified how the body strikes a balance between destroying infectious agents and avoiding damage to its own tissues, and opened the way to new and more effective therapies for conditions including rheumatoid arthritis and sepsis. During his career, Professor Liew has made important breakthroughs, including the discovery of T cell heterogeneity, which led to a greater understanding and treatments of the disease Leishmaniasis, and pinpointing the role that Nitric Oxide plays in regulating the body’s immune system.

Since arriving in Glasgow in 1991, Professor Liew has transformed the Scottish immunological scene and, under his leadership, Glasgow has grown into one of the leading international centres of Immunology. In 2012 Liew was elected as a FRS due to his pioneering work in the field of immunology and inflammatory diseases in a career spanning four decades.

Publications

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Number of items: 166.

2017

Cole, S. L. et al. (2017) M1-like monocytes are a major immunological determinant of severity in previously healthy adults with life-threatening influenza. JCI Insight, 2(7), e91868. (doi:10.1172/jci.insight.91868) (PMID:28405622) (PMCID:PMC5374077)

Nascimento, D. C. et al. (2017) IL-33 contributes to sepsis-induced long-term immunosuppression by expanding the regulatory T cell population. Nature Communications, 8, 14919. (doi:10.1038/ncomms14919) (PMID:28374774) (PMCID:PMC5382289)

2016

Liew, F. Y., Girard, J.-P. and Turnquist, H. R. (2016) Interleukin-33 in health and disease. Nature Reviews Immunology, 16(11), pp. 676-689. (doi:10.1038/nri.2016.95) (PMID:27640624)

Zarpelon, A. C. et al. (2016) Spinal cord oligodendrocyte-derived alarmin IL-33 mediates neuropathic pain. FASEB Journal, 30(1), pp. 54-65. (doi:10.1096/fj.14-267146) (PMID:26310268)

Fu, A. K. Y. et al. (2016) IL-33 ameliorates Alzheimer’s disease-like pathology and cognitive decline. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113(19), E2705-E2713. (doi:10.1073/pnas.1604032113) (PMID:27091974) (PMCID:PMC4868478)

2015

Malcolm, J. et al. (2015) IL-33 exacerbates periodontal disease through induction of RANKL. Journal of Dental Research, 94(7), pp. 968-975. (doi:10.1177/0022034515577815) (PMID:25808546)

Liew, F. Y. (2015) Cigarette smoke resets the alarmin IL-33 in COPD. Immunity, 42(3), pp. 401-403. (doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2015.02.014) (PMID:25786171)

Besnard, A.-G., Guabiraba Brito, R., Niedbala, W., Palomo, J., Reverchon, F., Shaw, T. N., Couper, K. N., Ryffel, B. and Liew, F. (2015) IL-33-mediated protection against experimental cerebral malaria is linked to induction of Type 2 innate lymphoid cells, M2 macrophages and regulatory T cells. PLoS Pathogens, 11(2), e1004607. (doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004607) (PMID:25659095) (PMCID:PMC4450060)

Peres, R. S. et al. (2015) Low expression of CD39 on regulatory T cells as a biomarker for resistance to methotrexate therapy in rheumatoid arthritis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112(8), pp. 2509-2514. (doi:10.1073/pnas.1424792112) (PMID:25675517)

Millar, N. L., Gilchrist, D., Akbar, M., Reilly, J. H., Kerr, S. C., Campbell, A. L., Murrell, G. A.C., Liew, F. Y., Kurowska-Stolarska, M. and McInnes, I. B. (2015) MicroRNA29a regulates IL-33-mediated tissue remodelling in tendon disease. Nature Communications, 6, 6774. (doi:10.1038/ncomms7774) (PMID:25857925) (PMCID:PMC4403384)

2014

Li, D. et al. (2014) IL-33 promotes ST2-dependent lung fibrosis by the induction of alternatively activated macrophages and innate lymphoid cells in mice. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 134(6), 1422-1432.e11. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.05.011)

Barbour, M. et al. (2014) IL-33 attenuates the development of experimental autoimmune uveitis. European Journal of Immunology, 44(11), pp. 3320-3329. (doi:10.1002/eji.201444671) (PMID:25116404) (PMCID:PMC4449115)

Mirchandani, A. S., Besnard, A.-G., Yip, E., Scott, C., Bain, C. C., Cerovic, V., Salmond, R. J. and Liew, F. J. (2014) Type 2 innate lymphoid cells drive CD4+ Th2 cell responses. Journal of Immunology, 192(5), pp. 2442-2448. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1300974)

Guabiraba Brito, R. et al. (2014) IL-33 targeting attenuates intestinal mucositis and enhances effective tumor chemotherapy in mice. Mucosal Immunology, 7(5), pp. 1079-1093. (doi:10.1038/mi.2013.124)

Niedbala, W. et al. (2014) Nitric oxide enhances Th9 cell differentiation and airway inflammation. Nature Communications, 5(4575), (doi:10.1038/ncomms5575)

2013

Gabriele, L. et al. (2013) Novel allergic asthma model demonstrates ST2-dependent dendritic cell targeting by cypress pollen. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 132(3), 686-695.e7. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2013.02.037)

Magro, D.A.C., Hohmann, M.S.N., Mizokami, S.S., Cunha, T.M., Alves-Filho, J.C., Casagrande, R., Ferreira, S.H., Liew, F.Y., Cunha, F.Q. and Verri Jr, W.A. (2013) An interleukin-33/ST2 signaling deficiency reduces overt pain-like behaviors in mice. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 46(7), pp. 601-606. (doi:10.1590/1414-431x20132894) (PMID:23903682) (PMCID:PMC3859337)

Niedbala, W., Besnard, A.-G., Jiang, H.-R., Alves-Filho, J.C., Fukada, S.Y., Nascimento, D., Mitani, A., Pushparaj, P., Alqahtani, M.H. and Liew, F.Y. (2013) Nitric oxide-induced regulatory T cells inhibit Th17 but not Th1 cell differentiation and function. Journal of Immunology, 191(1), pp. 164-170. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1202580)

Zarpelon, A.C., Cunha, T.M., Alves-Filho, J.C., Pinto, L.G., Ferreira, S.H., McInnes, I.B. , Xu, D., Liew, F.Y., Cunha, F.Q. and Verri, W.A. (2013) IL-33/ST2 signalling contributes to carrageenin-induced innate inflammation and inflammatory pain: role of cytokines, endothelin-1 and prostaglandin E2. British Journal of Pharmacology, 169(1), pp. 90-101. (doi:10.1111/bph.12110) (PMID:23347081) (PMCID:PMC3632241)

2012

Salmond, R.J., Mirchandani, A.S., Besnard, A.-G., Bain, C.C., Thomson, N.C. and Liew, F.Y. (2012) IL-33 induces innate lymphoid cell–mediated airway inflammation by activating mammalian target of rapamycin. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 130(5), pp. 1159-1166. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2012.05.018)

Komai-Koma, M. et al. (2012) Interleukin-33 amplifies IgE synthesis and triggers mast cell degranulation via interleukin-4 in naïve mice. Allergy, 67(9), pp. 1118-1126. (doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2012.02859.x) (PMID:22702477) (PMCID:PMC3660789)

Jiang, H.-R. et al. (2012) IL-33 attenuates EAE by suppressing IL-17 and IFN-γ production and inducing alternatively activated macrophages. European Journal of Immunology, 42(7), pp. 1804-1814. (doi:10.1002/eji.201141947)

Liew, F.Y. (2012) IL-33: a Janus cytokine. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 71(Sup. 2), i101-i104. (doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2011-200589)

Mirchandani, A. S., Salmond, R. J. and Liew, F. Y. (2012) Interleukin-33 and the function of innate lymphoid cells. Trends in Immunology, 33(8), pp. 389-396. (doi:10.1016/j.it.2012.04.005)

2011

Turnquist, H. R. et al. (2011) IL-33 expands suppressive CD11b+ Gr-1int and regulatory T cells, including ST2L+ Foxp3+ cells, and mediates regulatory T cell-dependent promotion of cardiac allograft survival. Journal of Immunology, 187(9), pp. 4598-4610. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1100519)

Hueber, A. J., Alves-Filho, J. C., Asquith, D. L., Michels, C., Millar, N. L., Reilly, J. H., Graham, G. J., Liew, F. Y., Miller, A. M. and McInnes, I. B. (2011) IL-33 induces skin inflammation with mast cell and neutrophil activation. European Journal of Immunology, 41(8), pp. 2229-2237. (doi:10.1002/eji.201041360) (PMID:21674479)

Miller, A. M. and Liew, F. Y. (2011) The IL-33/ST2 pathway — A new therapeutic target in cardiovascular disease. Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 131(2), pp. 179-186. (doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2011.02.005)

Kurowska-Stolarska, M. et al. (2011) MicroRNA-155 as a proinflammatory regulator in clinical and experimental arthritis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(27), pp. 11193-11198. (doi:10.1073/pnas.1019536108) (PMID:21690378)

Zaiss, M. M. et al. (2011) IL-33 shifts the balance from osteoclast to alternatively activated macrophage differentiation and protects from TNF-α–mediated bone loss. Journal of Immunology, 186(11), pp. 6097-6105. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1003487) (PMID:21515798)

Niedbala, W., Alves-Filho, J. C., Fukada, S. Y., Vieira, S. M., Mitani, A., Sonego, F., Mirchandani, A., Nascimento, D. C., Cunha, F. Q. and Liew, F. Y. (2011) Regulation of type 17 helper T-cell function by nitric oxide during inflammation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(22), pp. 9220-9225. (doi:10.1073/pnas.1100667108)

Culshaw, S., McInnes, I. B. and Liew, F. Y. (2011) What can the periodontal community learn from the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis? Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 38(S11), pp. 106-113. (doi:10.1111/j.1600-051X.2010.01669.x) (PMID:21323707)

Kinane, D. F. et al. (2011) Host-response: understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of host-microbial interactions - consensus of the Seventh European Workshop on Periodontology. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 38(S11), pp. 44-48. (doi:10.1111/j.1600-051X.2010.01682.x)

Komai-Koma, M., Gilchrist, D. S., McKenzie, A. N. J., Goodyear, C. S., Xu, D. and Liew, F. Y. (2011) IL-33 activates B1 cells and exacerbates contact sensitivity. Journal of Immunology, 186(4), pp. 2584-2591. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1002103)

Pitman, N., Asquith, D.L., Murphy, G., Liew, F.Y. and McInnes, I.B. (2011) Collagen-induced arthritis is not impaired in mast cell-deficient mice. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 70(6), pp. 1170-1171. (doi:10.1136/ard.2010.134528) (PMID:21131642)

2010

Stolarski, B., Kurowska-Stolarska, M., Kewin, P., Xu, D. and Liew, F. Y. (2010) IL-33 Exacerbates Eosinophil-Mediated Airway Inflammation. Journal of Immunology, 185(6), pp. 3472-3480. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1000730)

Miller, A. M., Asquith, D. L., Hueber, A. J., Anderson, L. A., Holmes, W. M., McKenzie, A. N., Xu, D., Sattar, N., McInnes, I. B. and Liew, F. Y. (2010) Interleukin-33 induces protective effects in adipose tissue inflammation during obesity in mice. Circulation Research, 107(5), pp. 650-658. (doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.110.218867) (PMID:20634488) (PMCID:PMC4254700)

Verri, W. A. et al. (2010) IL-33 induces neutrophil migration in rheumatoid arthritis and is a target of anti-TNF therapy. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 69(9), pp. 1697-1703. (doi:10.1136/ard.2009.122655) (PMID:20472598)

McLaren, J. E., Michael, D. R., Salter, R. C., Ashlin, T. G., Calder, C. J., Miller, A. M., Liew, F. Y. and Ramji, D. P. (2010) IL-33 Reduces Macrophage Foam Cell Formation. Journal of Immunology, 185(2), pp. 1222-1229. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1000520)

Xu, D. et al. (2010) IL-33 exacerbates autoantibody-induced arthritis. Journal of Immunology, 184(5), pp. 2620-2626. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.0902685) (PMID:20139274)

Asquith, D. L., Miller, A. M., Hueber, A. J., Liew, F. Y., Sattar, N. and McInnes, I. B. (2010) Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice are resistant to the development of collagen-induced arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 62(2), pp. 472-477. (doi:10.1002/art.27205) (PMID:20112375)

Liew, F. Y., Pitman, N. I. and McInnes, I. B. (2010) Disease-associated functions of IL-33: the new kid in the IL-1 family. Nature Reviews Immunology, 10(2), pp. 103-110. (doi:10.1038/nri2692) (PMID:20081870)

Alves Filho, J. C. et al. (2010) Interleukin-33 attenuates sepsis by enhancing neutrophil influx to the site of infection. Nature Medicine, 16(6), pp. 708-712. (doi:10.1038/nm.2156)

Murphy, G.E.J., Xu, D., Liew, F.Y. and McInnes, I.B. (2010) Role of interleukin 33 in human immunopathology. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 69(Suppl), pp. 43-47. (doi:10.1136/ard.2009.120113) (PMID:19995743)

Kurowska-Stolarska, M., Ballantine, L., Stolarski, B., Hunter, J., Hueber, A., Gracie, J.A., Liew, F. Y. and McInnes, I. B. (2010) miR-155 and miR-34a regulate proinflammatory cytokine production by human monocytes. In: European Workshop for Rheumatology Research, Bamberg, Germany, 4-7 Mar 2010, A30-A30. (doi:10.1136/ard.2010.129619g)

2009

Kurowska-Stolarska, M. et al. (2009) IL-33 Amplifies the Polarization of Alternatively Activated Macrophages That Contribute to Airway Inflammation. Journal of Immunology, 183(10), pp. 6469-6477. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.0901575) (PMID:19841166)

Asquith, D. L., Miller, A. M., McInnes, I. B. and Liew, F. Y. (2009) Animal models of rheumatoid arthritis. European Journal of Immunology, 39(8), pp. 2040-2044. (doi:10.1002/eji.200939578) (PMID:19672892)

Pushparaj, P. N., Tay, H. K., H'Ng, S. C., Pitman, N., Xu, D., McKenzie, A., Liew, F. Y. and Melendez, A. J. (2009) The cytokine interleukin-33 mediates anaphylactic shock. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(24), pp. 9773-9778. (doi:10.1073/pnas.0901206106)

McKimmie, C. S. et al. (2009) A TLR2 ligand suppresses inflammation by modulation of chemokine receptors and redirection of leukocyte migration. Blood, 113(18), pp. 4224-4231. (doi:10.1182/blood-2008-08-174698) (PMID:19202130)

Lemos, H. P. et al. (2009) Prostaglandin mediates IL-23/IL-17-induced neutrophil migration in inflammation by inhibiting IL-12 and IFNγ  production. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(14), pp. 5954-5959. (doi:10.1073/pnas.0812782106) (PMID:19289819)

Trieu, A., Bokil, N., Dunn, J. A., Roberts, T. L., Xu, D., Liew, F. Y., Hume, D. A., Stacey, K. J. and Sweet, M. J. (2009) TLR9-independent effects of inhibitory oligonucleotides on macrophage responses to S. typhimurium. Immunology and Cell Biology, 87(3), pp. 218-225. (doi:10.1038/icb.2008.95)

Jiang, H., Al Rasebi, Z., Mensah-Brown, E., Shahin, A., Xu, D., Goodyear, C., Fukada, S., Liu, F., Liew, F. and Lukic, M. (2009) Galectin-3 Deficiency Reduces the Severity of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. Journal of Immunology, 182(2), pp. 1167-1173.

Asquith, D.L., Miller, A.L., McInnes, I.B. and Liew, F.Y. (2009) Autoimmune disease: rheumatoid arthritis. Animal models of rheumatoid arthritis. European Journal of Immunology, 39, pp. 1991-2058.

2008

Kurowska-Stolarska, M. et al. (2008) IL-33 induces antigen-specific IL-5+ T cells and promotes allergic-induced airway inflammation independent of IL-4. Journal of Immunology, 181(7), pp. 4780-4790.

Niedbala, W., Cai, B., Wei, X., Patakas, A., Leung, B. P., McInnes, I. and Liew, F. Y. (2008) Interleukin 27 attenuates collagen-induced arthritis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 67(10), pp. 1474-1479. (doi:10.1136/ard.2007.083360) (PMID:18199596)

McKimmie, C. S. et al. (2008) Hemopoietic cell expression of the chemokine decoy receptor D6 is dynamic and regulated by GATA1. Journal of Immunology, 181(5), pp. 3353-3363. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.181.11.8170-a) (PMID:19039854)

Kurowska-Stolarska, M. S., Kewin, P., Stolarski, B., Fraser, A., Xu, D., McInnes, I. and Liew, F. Y. (2008) A role of IL-33 in bone turnover. In: 72nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the American College of Rheumatology and the 43rd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Association of Rheumatology Health Professionals, San Francisco CA, USA, 24-29 Oct 2008, S895.

Xu, D. et al. (2008) IL-33 exacerbates antigen-induced arthritis by activating mast cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105(31), pp. 10913-10918. (doi:10.1073/pnas.0801898105) (PMID:18667700) (PMCID:PMC2491487)

Grespan, R., Fukada, S. Y., Lemos, H. P., Vieira, S. M., Napimoga, M. H., Teixeira, M. M., Fraser, A. R., Liew, F. Y., McInnes, I. B. and Cunha, F. Q. (2008) CXCR2‐specific chemokines mediate leukotriene B4–dependent recruitment of neutrophils to inflamed joints in mice with antigen‐induced arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 58(7), pp. 2030-2040. (doi:10.1002/art.23597) (PMID:18576322)

Turnquist, H. R., Sumpter, T. L., Tsung, A., Zahorchak, A. F., Nakao, A., Nau, G. J., Liew, F. Y., Geller, D. A. and Thomson, A. W. (2008) IL-1 β-driven ST2L express ion promotes maturation resistance in rapamycin-conditioned dendritic cells. Journal of Immunology, 181(1), pp. 62-72.

Turnquist, H. R., Sumpter, T. L., Tsung, A., Zahorchak, A. F., Nakao, A., Nau, G. J., Liew, F. Y., Geller, D. A. and Thomson, A. W. (2008) IL-1β-driven ST2L expression promotes maturation resistance in rapamycin-conditioned dendritic cells. Journal of Immunology, 181(1), pp. 62-72. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.181.1.62)

Yang, C.-H., Tian, L., Ling, G.-S., Trendell‐Smith, N. J., Ma, L., Lo, C.-K., Stott, D. I., Liew, F. Y. and Huang, F.-P. (2008) Correction: Immunological mechanisms and clinical implications of regulatory T cell deficiency in a systemic autoimmune disorder: Roles of IL‐2versusIL‐15. European Journal of Immunology, 38(7), p. 2046. (doi:10.1002/eji.200890028)

Yang, C.-H., Tian, L., Ling, G.-S., Trendell-Smith, N. J., Ma, L., Lo, C.-K., Stott, D. I., Liew, F. Y. and Huang, F.-P. (2008) Immunological mechanisms and clinical implications of regulatory T cell deficiency in a systemic autoimmune disorder: Roles of IL-2 versus IL-15. European Journal of Immunology, 38(6), pp. 1664-1676. (doi:10.1002/eji.200838190)

Kewin, P., Kurowska-Stolarska, M., Murphy, G., Pitman, N., ChooKang, B., Patel, M., Xu, D., Liew, F.Y. and Thomson, N. (2008) IL-33 is sufficient to induce eosinophilic airway inflammation, and exacerbates established inflammation, through increased local Th2 cytokine and chemokine production. In: Scottish Thoracic Society Meeting, Stirling, UK, 26 Oct 2007, p. 50. (doi:10.1258/rsmsmj.53.2.48)

Raggatt, L. J., Qin, L., Tamasi, J., Jefcoat, Jr, S. C., Shimizu, E., Selvamurugan, N., Liew, F. Y., Bevelock, L., Feyen, J. H. M. and Partridge, N. C. (2008) Interleukin-18 is regulated by parathyroid hormone and is required for its bone anabolic actions. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 283(11), pp. 6790-6798. (doi:10.1074/jbc.M709909200)

Humphreys, N. E., Xu, D., Hepworth, M. R., Liew, F. Y. and Grencis, R. K. (2008) IL-33, a potent inducer of adaptive immunity to intestinal nematodes. Journal of Immunology, 180(4), pp. 2443-2449.

Antonopoulos, C., Cumberbatch, M., Mee, J. B., Dearman, R. J., Wei, X.-Q., Liew, F. Y., Kimber, I. and Groves, R. W. (2008) IL-18 is a key proximal mediator of contact hypersensitivity and allergen-induced Langerhans cell migration in murine epidermis. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 83(2), pp. 361-367. (doi:10.1189/jlb.0604352)

Miller, A. M., Xu, D., Asquith, D. L., Denby, L., Li, Y., Sattar, N., Baker, A. H., McInnes, I. B. and Liew, F. Y. (2008) IL-33 reduces the development of atherosclerosis. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 205(2), pp. 339-346. (doi:10.1084/jem.20071868) (PMID:18268038) (PMCID:PMC2271006)

Verri, W., Cunha, T., Magro, D., Domingues, A., Vieira, S., Souza, G., Liew, F., Ferreira, S. and Cunha, F. (2008) Role of IL-18 in overt pain-like behaviour in mice. European Journal of Pharmacology, 588(2-3), pp. 207-212. (doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.04.010)

Verri, Jr., W. A., Guerrero, A. T. G., Fukada, S. Y., Valerio, D. A., Cunha, T. M., Xu, D., Ferreira, S. H., Liew, F. Y. and Cunha, F. Q. (2008) IL-33 mediates antigen-induced cutaneous and articular hypernociception in mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105(7), pp. 2723-2728. (doi:10.1073/pnas.0712116105)

2007

Verri, W. A., Cunha, T. M., Ferreira, S. H., Wei, X., Leung, B. P., Fraser, A., McInnes, I. B., Liew, F. Y. and Cunha, F. Q. (2007) IL-15 mediates antigen-induced neutrophil migration by triggering IL-18 production. European Journal of Immunology, 37(12), pp. 3373-3380. (doi:10.1002/eji.200737488) (PMID:17979156)

Cai, B., Hueber, A. J., Leung, B. P., Liew, F. Y., McInnes, I. B., Niedbala, W. and Wei, X.-q. (2007) IL-35 is a novel cytokine with therapeutic effects against collagen-induced arthritis through the expansion of regulatory T cells and suppression of Th17 cells. European Journal of Immunology, 37(11), pp. 3021-3029. (doi:10.1002/eji.200737810)

Komai-Koma, M., Li, Y., Liew, F. Y., McInnes, I. B., McKenzie, A. N. J. and Xu, D. (2007) IL-33 is a chemoattractant for human Th2 cells. European Journal of Immunology, 37(10), pp. 2779-2786. (doi:10.1002/eji.200737547) (PMID:17853410)

Niedbala, W., Cai, B., Liu, H., Pitman, N., Chang, L. and Liew, F. Y. (2007) Nitric oxide induces CD4+CD25+ Foxp3 regulatory T cells from CD4+CD25− T cells via p53, IL-2, and OX40. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(39), pp. 15478-15483. (doi:10.1073/pnas.0703725104)

Bacal, F. et al. (2007) Locally produced survival cytokines IL-15 and IL-7 may be associated to the predominance of CD8(+) T cells at heart lesions of human chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, 66, pp. 362-371. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-3083.2007.01987.x)

Verri Jr, W. A., Cunha, T. M., Parada, C. A., Poole, S., Liew, F. Y., Ferreira, S. H. and Cunha, F. Q. (2007) Antigen-induced inflammatory mechanical hypernociception in mice is mediated by IL-18. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 21(5), pp. 535-543. (doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2006.11.005)

Amaral, F. A., Fagundes, C. T., Liew, F. Y., Souza, A. L. S., Souza, D. G., Teixeira, M. M., Vieira, A. T. and Xu, D. (2007) ST2, an IL-1R family member, attenuates inflammation and lethality after intestinal ischemia and reperfusion. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 81, pp. 492-499. (doi:10.1189/jlb.0606422)

Kewin, P., Kurowska-Stolarska, M., Murphy, G., Pitman, N., ChooKang, B., Patel, M., Xu, D., Liew, F.Y. and Thomson, N. (2007) IL-33 is sufficient to induce eosinophilic airway inflammation, and exacerbates established inflammation, through increased ST2 dependent local Th2 cytokine and chemokine production. In: Winter Meeting of the British-Thoracic-Society, London, UK, 05-07 Dec 2007, A1.

2006

Verri, W.A., Cunha, T.M., Parada, C.A., Wei, X.-Q., Ferreira, S.H., Liew, F.Y. and Cunha, F.Q. (2006) IL-15 mediates immune inflammatory hypernociception by triggering a sequential release of IFN-, endothelin, and prostaglandin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(25), pp. 9721-9725. (doi:10.1073/pnas.0603286103)

Alfaya, T., Alves, J., da Silva, J., Ferreira, S., Liew, F. and Moreno, S. (2006) IL-12, but not IL-18, is critical to neutrophil activation and resistance to polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture. Journal of Immunology, 177, pp. 3218-3224.

Cai, B., Liew, F. and Niedbala, W. (2006) Role of nitric oxide in the regulation of T cell functions. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 65, pp. 37-40. (doi:10.1136/ard.2006.058446)

Liu, H., Komai-Koma, M., Xu, D. and Liew, F. (2006) Toll-like receptor 2 signaling modulates the functions of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103, pp. 7048-7053. (doi:10.1073/pnas.0601554103)

2005

Al, R., Egan, C., Else, K., Goodridge, H., Harnett, M., Harnett, W., Houston, K., Liew, F. and Marshall, F. (2005) Immunomodulation via novel use of TLR4 by the filarial nematode phosphorylcholine-containing secreted product, ES-62. Journal of Immunology, 174, pp. 284-293.

Baslund, B. et al. (2005) Targeting interleukin-15 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis - A proof-of-concept study. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 52, pp. 2686-2692. (doi:10.1002/art.21249) (PMID:16142748)

Brint, E., Liew, F., O'Neill, L. and Xu, D. (2005) Negative regulation of Toll-like receptor-mediated immune responses. Nature Reviews Immunology, 5, pp. 446-458. (doi:10.1038/nri1630)

Choo-Kang, B., Kewin, P., Liew, F., McSharry, C., Patel, M., Thomson, N. and Xu, D. (2005) Glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family-related protein (GITR) activation exacerbates murine asthma and collagen-induced arthritis. European Journal of Immunology, 35, pp. 3581-3590. (doi:10.1002/eji.200535421)

Choo-Kang, B., Kewin, P., Liew, F., McSharry, C., Patel, M., Thomson, N. and Xu, D. (2005) TLR2 agonist ameliorates established allergic airway inflammation by promoting Th1 response and not via regulatory T cells. Journal of Immunology, 174, pp. 7558-7563.

Culshaw, S., Leung, B., Gracie, J., Campbell, C., Thomson, D., Gemmell, C., Liew, F. and McInnes, I. (2005) Prior elevation of IL-18 promotes rapid early IFN-gamma production during staphylococcal infection. European Journal of Immunology, 35, pp. 1438-1444. (doi:10.1002/ejui.200425661) (PMID:15789357)

Komai-Koma, M., Liew, F. and Xu, D. (2005) Expression and function of Toll-like receptor on T cells. Cellular Immunology, 233, pp. 85-89. (doi:10.1016/j.cellimm.2005.04.019)

Liew, F., Liu, H. and Xu, D. (2005) A novel negative regulator for IL-1 receptor and Toll-like receptor 4. Immunology Letters, 96, pp. 27-31. (doi:10.1016/j.imlet.2004.07.008)

Liew, F. and McInnes, I. (2005) A fork in the pathway to inflammation and arthritis. Nature Medicine, 11(6), pp. 601-602. (doi:10.1038/nm0605-601) (PMID:15937470)

Liew, F. and McInnes, I. (2005) Cytokine networks - towards new therapies for rheumatoid arthritis. Nature Clinical Practice Rheumatology, 1, pp. 31-39. (doi:10.1038/ncprheum0020) (PMID:16932625)

Liew, F., Patel, M. and Xu, D. (2005) Toll-like receptor 2 signalling and inflammation. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 64, pp. 104-105. (doi:10.1136/ard.2005.042515)

McInnes, I.B. , Liew, F.Y. and Gracie, J.A. (2005) Interleukin-18: a therapeutic target in rheumatoid arthritis? Arthritis Research and Therapy(7), pp. 38-41. (doi:10.1186/ar1497) (PMID:15642152) (PMCID:PMC1064903)

2004

Leung, B.P., Xu, D., Culshaw, S., McInnes, I. B. and Liew, .Y. (2004) A novel therapy of murine collagen-induced arthritis with soluble T1/ST2. Journal of Immunology, 173(1), pp. 145-150. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.173.1.145) (PMID:15210768)

McKay, A., Leung, B.P., McInnes, I.B., Thomson, N.C. and Liew, F.Y. (2004) A novel anti-inflammatory role of simvastatin in a murine model of allergic asthma. Journal of Immunology, 172(5), pp. 2903-2908. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.172.5.2903) (PMID:14978092)

Brint, E., Dunne, A., Liew, F., Liu, H., McKenzie, A., O'Neill, L. and Xu, D. (2004) ST2 is an inhibitor of interleukin 1 receptor and Toll-like receptor 4 signaling and maintains endotoxin tolerance. Nature Immunology, 5, pp. 373-379. (doi:10.1038/ni1050)

Cunha, F., Cunha, T., Ferreira, S., Liew, F., Schivo, I. and Verri, W. (2004) Interleukin-18 induces mechanical hypernociception in rats via endothelin acting on ETB receptors in a morphine-sensitive manner. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 310, pp. 710-717. (doi:10.1124/jpet.103.063990)

Goodridge, H., Harnett, M., Harnett, W., Houston, K., Liew, F., Marshall, F. and Wilson, E. (2004) In vivo exposure of murine dendritic cell and macrophage bone marrow progenitors to the phosphorylcholine-containing filarial nematode glycoprotein ES-62 polarizes their differentiation to an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Immunology, 113, pp. 491-498. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2567.2004.01993.x)

Komai-Koma, M., Jones, L., Ogg, G., Xu, D. and Liew, F. (2004) TLR2 is expressed on activated T cells as a costimulatory receptor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, pp. 3029-3034. (doi:10.1073/pnas.0400171101)

Komai-Koma, M., Liew, F. and Xu, D. (2004) A toll for T cell costimulation. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 63, pp. 76-78. (doi:10.1136/ard.2004.028308)

Mckay, A., Komai-Koma, M., Mcleod, K., Thomson, L., Chaudhari, R., McSharry, C., Liew, F. and Thomson, N. (2004) Interleukin-18 levels in induced sputum are reduced in asthmatic and normal smokers. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 34, pp. 904-910. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2004.01973.x)

2003

Liew, F.Y., Wei, X.Q. and McInnes, I. B. (2003) Role of interleukin 18 in rheumatoid arthritis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 62(Suppl), ii48-ii50. (doi:10.1136/ard.62.suppl_2.ii48) (PMID:14532149) (PMCID:PMC1766738)

McInnes, I. B. , Gracie, J.A., Harnett, M., Harnett, W. and Liew, F.Y. (2003) New strategies to control inflammatory synovitis: interleukin 15 and beyond. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 62(2), pp. 51-54. (doi:10.1136/ard.62.suppl_2.ii51) (PMID:14532150) (PMCID:PMC1766739)

McInnes, I. B. , Leung, B.P., Harnett, M., Gracie, J.A., Liew, F. and Harnett, W. (2003) A novel therapeutic approach targeting articular inflammation using the filarial nematode-derived phosphorylcholine-containing glycoprotein ES-62. Journal of Immunology, 171(4), pp. 2127-2133. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.171.4.2127) (PMID:12902519)

Alexander, J., Campbell, C., Komai-Koma, M., Liew, F., Liu, H., McSharry, C. and Xu, D. (2003) CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells suppress differentiation and functions of Th1 and Th2 cells, Leishmania major infection, and colitis in mice. Journal of Immunology, 170, pp. 394-399.

Campbell, C. et al. (2003) A novel anti-inflammatory role for simvastatin in inflammatory arthritis. Journal of Immunology, 170, pp. 1524-1530. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.170.3.1524) (PMID:12538717)

Cannetti, C. O., Leung, B. P., Culshaw, S., McInnes, I. B. , Cunha, F. Q. and Liew, F. Y. (2003) IL-18 enhances collagen-induced arthritis by recruiting neutrophils via TNF-alpha and leukotriene B-4. Journal of Immunology, 171, pp. 1009-1015. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.171.2.1009) (PMID:12847274)

Goodridge, H., Harnett, M., Harnett, W. and Liew, F. (2003) Differential regulation of interleukin-12 p40 and p35 induction via Erk mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent and -independent mechanisms and the implications for bioactive IL-12 and IL-23 responses. Immunology, 109, pp. 415-425.

Gracie, J., Komai-Koma, M., Liew, F., McInnes, I. , Thomson, N., Wei, X. and Xu, D. (2003) Chemoattraction of human T cells by IL-18. Journal of Immunology, 170, pp. 1084-1090. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.170.2.1084) (PMID:12517977)

Hu, B., Liew, F., Liu, H. and Xu, D. (2003) CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells cure murine colitis: The role of IL-10, TGF-beta, and CTLA4. Journal of Immunology, 171, pp. 5012-5017.

Liew, F. (2003) The role of innate cytokines in inflammatory response. Immunology Letters, 85, pp. 131-134.

Liew, F., Lukic, M., Mensah-Brown, E., Shahin, A. and Wei, X. (2003) Lack of the mediators of innate immunity attenuate the development of autoimmune diabetes in mice. Journal of Autoimmunity, 21, pp. 239-246. (doi:10.1016/S0896-8411(03)00115-X)

2002

Biron, C., Caligiuri, M., Dalod, M., Durbin, J., Liew, F., Nguyen, K., Salazar-Mather, T., Van Deusen, J. and Wei, X. (2002) Coordinated and distinct roles for IFN-alpha beta, IL-12, and IL-15 regulation of NK cell responses to viral infection. Journal of Immunology, 169, pp. 4279-4287.

Campbell, C., Hume, D., Liew, F., McDonald, R., Sester, D., Stacey, K., Sweet, M. and Xu, D. (2002) Colony-stimulating factor-1 suppresses responses to CpG DNA and expression of toll-like receptor 9 but enhances responses to lipopolysaccharide in murine macrophages. Journal of Immunology, 168, pp. 392-399.

Chiodoni, C., Colombo, M., Gallo, E., Gri, G., Liew, F. and Stoppacciaro, A. (2002) Antitumor effect of interleukin (IL)-12 in the absence of endogenous IFN-gamma: A role for intrinsic tumor immunogenicity and IL-15. Cancer Research, 62, pp. 4390-4397.

Hirahashi, J., Kelley, V., Lebedeva, T., Liew, F., Maron, R., Salant, D. and Shinozaki, M. (2002) IL-15, a survival factor for kidney epithelial cells, counteracts apoptosis and inflammation during nephritis. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 109, pp. 951-960.

Inoue, K., Ito, S., Kitano, T., Liew, F., Nishizawa, M., Okumura, T. and Seki, T. (2002) Altered response to inflammatory cytokines in hepatic energy metabolism in inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout mice. Journal of Hepatology, 36, pp. 759-765.

Khan, I., Liew, F., Moretto, M., Schwartzman, J., Wei, X. and Williams, M. (2002) Treatment with soluble interleukin-15R alpha exacerbates intracellular parasitic infection by blocking the development of memory CD8(+) T cell response. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 195, pp. 1463-1470. (doi:10.1084/jem.20011915)

Leung, B., Conacher, M., Hunter, D., McInnes, I. , Liew, F. and Brewer, J. (2002) A novel dendritic cell-induced model of erosive inflammatory arthritis: Distinct roles for dendritic cells in T cell activation and induction of local inflammation. Journal of Immunology, 169, pp. 7071-7077. (doi:0.4049/jimmunol.169.12.7071) (PMID:12471143)

Liew, F. (2002) T(H)1 and T(H)2 cells: a historical perspective. Nature Reviews Immunology, 2(1), pp. 55-60.

Liew, F. and McInnes, I. (2002) Role of interleukin 15 and interleukin 18 in inflammatory response. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 61, pp. 100-102. (doi:10.1136/ard.61.suppl_2.ii100) (PMID:12379638) (PMCID:PMC1766710)

Liew, F. and McInnes, I. (2002) The role of innate mediators in inflammatory response. Molecular Immunology, 38, pp. 887-890. (doi:10.1016/S0161-5890(02)00014-7) (PMID:12009565)

Liew, F., Niedbala, W. and Wei, X. (2002) IL-15 induces type 1 and type 2 CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells proliferation but is unable to drive cytokine production in the absence of TCR activation or IL-12/IL-4 simulation in vitro. European Journal of Immunology, 32, pp. 341-347.

Mulero, V., Wei, X.Q., Liew, F.Y. and Brock, J.H. (2002) Regulation of phagosomal iron release from murine macrophages by nitric oxide. Biochemical Journal, 365, pp. 127-132.

Niedbala, W., Wei, X., Campbell, C., Thomson, D., Komai-Koma, M. and Liew, F. (2002) Nitric oxide preferentially induces type 1 T cell differentiation by selectively up-regulating IL-12 receptor β2 expression via cGMP. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99(25), pp. 16186-16191. (doi:10.1073/pnas.252464599)

2001

Abouhaidar, M., Al Dhaheri, M., al Ramadi, B., Fernandez-Cabezudo, M., Liew, F., Lukic, M., Mustafa, N. and Xu, D. (2001) Influence of vector-encoded cytokines on anti-Salmonella immunity: Divergent effects of interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Infection and Immunity, 69, pp. 3980-3988.

Armour, K., Armour, K., Liew, F., Ralston, S., Reid, D., van't Hof, R. and Wei, X. (2001) Activation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway contributes to inflammation-induced osteoporosis by suppressing bone formation and causing osteoblast apoptosis. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 44, pp. 2790-2796.

Bach, F., Csizmadia, E., Lee, J., Liew, F., Lin, Y., Smith, N., Soares, M., Wang, N. and Xu, D. (2001) TH2 cytokines regulate gene expression and proinflammatory responses in xenografts. Transplantation Proceedings, 33, pp. 776-777.

Campbell, C., Goodridge, H., Harnett, M., Harnett, W., Liew, F. and Wilson, E. (2001) Modulation of macrophage cytokine production by ES-62, a secreted product of the filarial nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae. Journal of Immunology, 167, pp. 940-945.

Campbell, C., Kang, D., Leung, B., Liew, F., Schulz, K., Sogaard, M., Sweet, M., Trajkovic, V. and Xu, D. (2001) A novel pathway regulating lipopolysaccharide-induced shock by ST2/T1 via inhibition of toll-like receptor 4 expression. Journal of Immunology, 166, pp. 6633-6639.

Carter, R., Chan, W., Klemenz, R., Liew, F., Sweet, M. and Xu, D. (2001) Regulation of ST2L expression on T helper (Th) type 2 cells. European Journal of Immunology, 31, pp. 2979-2985.

Chalmers, G., Komai-Koma, M., Liew, F., Mckay, A., McSharry, C., Thomson, L. and Thomson, N. (2001) Immuno-regulatory cytokines in asthma: IL-15 and IL-13 in induced sputum. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 31, pp. 1441-1448.

Esfandiari, E., McInnes, I. , Lindop, G., Huang, F., Field, M., Komai-Koma, M., Wei, X. and Liew, F. (2001) A proinflammatory role of IL-18 in the development of spontaneous autoimmune disease. Journal of Immunology, 167, pp. 5338-5347. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.167.9.5338) (PMID:11673550)

Gao, B., Gracie, J., Guan, H., Leung, B., Liew, F., McInnes, I., Niedbala, W., Orchardson, M., Paterson, G. and Wei, X. (2001) The sushi domain of soluble IL-15 receptor alpha is essential for binding IL-15 and inhibiting inflammatory and allogenic responses in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Immunology, 167, pp. 277-282.

Jiang, H., Wei, X., Niedbala, W., Lumsden, L., Liew, F. and Forrester, J. (2001) IL-18 not required for IRBP peptide-induced EAU: Studies in gene-deficient mice. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 42, pp. 177-182.

Leung, B. P., Culshaw, S., Gracie, J. A., Hunter, D., Canetti, C. A., Campbell, C., Cunha, F., Liew, F. Y. and McInnes, I. B. (2001) A role for IL-18 in neutrophil activation. Journal of Immunology, 167, pp. 2879-2886. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.167.5.2879) (PMID:11509635)

McInnes, I. B. , Gracie, J. A. and Liew, F. Y. (2001) Interleukin-18: A novel cytokine in inflammatory rheumatic disease. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 44(7), pp. 1481-1483. (doi:10.1002/1529-0131(200107)44:7<1481::AID-ART268>3.0.CO;2-1) (PMID:11465697)

Wei, X.-q., Leung, B. P., Arthur, H. M. L., Liew, F. Y. and McInnes, I. B. (2001) Reduced incidence and severity of collagen-induced arthritis in mice lacking IL-18. Journal of Immunology, 166, pp. 517-521. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.166.1.517) (PMID:11123331)

2000

Bolton, E., Bradley, J., Liew, F., Ruchatz, H., Smith, X. and Wei, X. (2000) Selective blockade of IL-15 by soluble IL-15 receptor alpha-chain enhances cardiac allograft survival. Journal of Immunology, 165(6), pp. 3444-3450.

Leung, B., Liew, F. and McInnes, I. (2000) Cell-cell interactions in synovitis - Interactions between T lymphocytes and synovial cells. Arthritis Research, 2(5), pp. 374-378.

Smith, K., Pottage, L., Thomas, E., Leishman, A., Doig, T., Xu, D., Liew, F. and Garside, P. (2000) Th1 and Th2CD4(+) T cells provide help for B cell clonal expansion and antibody synthesis in a similar manner in vivo. Journal of Immunology, 165(6), pp. 3136-3144.

Xu, D., Trajkovic, V., Hunter, D., Leung, B. P., Schulz, K., Gracie, J. A., McInnes, I. B. and Liew, F. Y. (2000) IL-18 induces the differentiation of Th1 or Th2 cells depending upon cytokine milieu and genetic background. European Journal of Immunology, 30(11), pp. 3147-3156. (doi:10.1002/1521-4141(200011)30:11<3147::AID-IMMU3147>3.0.CO;2-J) (PMID:11093129)

1999

Gracie, J. A. et al. (1999) A proinflammatory role for IL-18 in rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 104(10), pp. 1393-1401. (doi:10.1172/JCI7317) (PMID:10562301) (PMCID:PMC409841)

Kropf, P., Schopf, L. R., Chung, C. L., Xu, D., Liew, F. Y., Sypek, J. P. and Müller, I. (1999) Expression of Th2 cytokines and the stable Th2 marker ST2L in the absence of IL-4 during Leishmania major infection. European Journal of Immunology, 29(11), pp. 3621-3628. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-4141(199911)29:11<3621::AID-IMMU3621>3.0.CO;2-Z) (PMID:10556817)

Niedbala, W., Wei, X.-Q., Piedrafita, D., Xu, D. and Liew, F. Y. (1999) Effects of nitric oxide on the induction and differentiation of Th1 cells. European Journal of Immunology, 29(8), pp. 2498-2505. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-4141(199908)29:08<2498::AID-IMMU2498>3.0.CO;2-M) (PMID:10458764)

Liew, F.Y., Xu, D. and Ling Chan, W. (1999) Immune effector mechanism in parasitic infections. Immunology Letters, 65(1-2), pp. 101-104. (doi:10.1016/S0165-2478(98)00131-X) (PMID:10065634)

Piedrafita, D. et al. (1999) Regulation of macrophage IL-12 synthesis by Leishmania phosphoglycans. European Journal of Immunology, 29(1), pp. 235-244. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-4141(199901)29:01<235::AID-IMMU235>3.0.CO;2-S) (PMID:9933105)

Piedrafita, D., Xu, D., Hunter, D., Harrison, R. A. and Liew, F. Y. (1999) Protective immune responses induced by vaccination with an expression genomic library of leishmania major. Journal of Immunology, 163(3), pp. 1467-1472. (PMID:10415048)

1998

Huang, F.-P., Niedbala, W., Wei, X.-Q., Xu, D., Feng, G.-j., Robinson, J. H., Lam, C. and Liew, F. Y. (1998) Nitric oxide regulates Th1 cell development through the inhibition of IL-12 synthesis by macrophages. European Journal of Immunology, 28(12), pp. 4062-4070. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-4141(199812)28:12<4062::AID-IMMU4062>3.0.CO;2-K) (PMID:9862342)

Xu, D., Chan, W. L., Leung, B. P., Hunter, D., Schulz, K., Carter, R. W., McInnes, I. B. , Robinson, J. H. and Liew, F. Y. (1998) Selective expression and functions of Interleukin 18 receptor on T Helper (Th) type 1 but not Th2 cells. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 188(8), pp. 1485-1492. (doi:10.1084/jem.188.8.1485) (PMID:9782125) (PMCID:PMC2213413)

Huang, F.-P., Xu, D., Esfandiari, E.-O., Sands, W., Wei, X.-q. and Liew, F. Y. (1998) Cutting edge: Mice defective in Fas are highly susceptible to Leishmania major infection despite elevated interleukin-12 synthesis, strong Th1 responses and enhanced nitric oxide production. Journal of Immunology, 160(9), pp. 4143-4147. (PMID:9574511)

Xu, D., McSorley, S. J., Tetley, L., Chatfield, S., Dougan, G., Chan, W. L., Satoskar, A., David, J. R. and Liew, F. Y. (1998) Protective effect on Leishmania major infection of migration inhibitory factor, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma administered orally via attenuated Salmonella typhimurium. Journal of Immunology, 160(3), pp. 1285-1289. (PMID:9570545)

1997

McInnes, I. B. , Leung, B. P., Sturrock, R. D., Field, M. and Liew, F. Y. (1997) Interleukin-15 mediates T cell-dependent regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α production in rheumatoid arthritis. Nature Medicine, 3(2), pp. 189-195. (doi:10.1038/nm0297-189) (PMID:9018238)

Mcsorley, S. J., Xu, D. and Liew, F.Y. (1997) Vaccine efficacy of Salmonella strains expressing glycoprotein 63 with different promoters. Infection and Immunity, 65(1), pp. 171-178. (PMID:8975908)

1996

McInnes, I. B. , Leung, B. P., Field, M., Wei, X. Q., Huang, F.-P., Sturrock, R. D., Kinninmonth, A., Weidner, J., Mumford, R. and Liew, F. Y. (1996) Production of nitric oxide in the synovial membrane of rheumatoid and osteoarthritis patients. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 184(4), pp. 1519-1524. (doi:10.1084/jem.184.4.1519) (PMID:8879223) (PMCID:PMC2192822)

Huang, F.P., Feng, G.J., Lindop, G., Stott, D.I. and Liew, F.Y. (1996) The role of interleukin 12 and nitric oxide in the development of spontaneous autoimmune disease in MRL/MP-lpr/lpr mice. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 183(4), pp. 1447-1459.

McInnes, I. B. , Al-Mughales, J., Field, M., Leung, B. P., Huang, F.-p., Dixon, R., Sturrock, R. D., Wilkinson, P. C. and Liew, F. Y. (1996) The role of interleukin–15 in T–cell migration and activation in rheumatoid arthritis. Nature Medicine, 2(2), pp. 175-182. (doi:10.1038/nm0296-175) (PMID:8574962)

1995

Wei, X.-q., Charles, I. G., Smith, A., Ure, J., Feng, G.-j., Huang, F.-p., Xu, D., Mullers, W., Moncada, S. and Liew, F. Y. (1995) Altered immune responses in mice lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase. Nature, 375(6530), pp. 408-411. (doi:10.1038/375408a0) (PMID:7539113)

Xu, D. and Liew, F.Y. (1995) Protection against leishmaniasis by injection of DNA encoding a major surface glycoprotein, gp63, of L. major. Immunology, 84(2), pp. 173-176. (PMID:7750991)

Ianaro, A., Xu, D., O'Donnell, C.A. , Di Rosa, M. and Liew, F.Y. (1995) Expression of TGF-beta in attenuated Salmonella typhimurium: oral administration leads to the reduction of inflammation, IL-2 and IFN-gamma, but enhancement of IL-10, in carrageenin-induced oedema in mice. Immunology, 84(1), pp. 8-15. (PMID:7890306)

Xu, D., McSorley, S.J., Chatfield, S.N., Dougan, G. and Liew, F.Y. (1995) Protection against Leishmania major infection in genetically susceptible BALB/c mice by gp63 delivered orally in attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (AroA- AroD-). Immunology, 85(1), pp. 1-7. (PMID:7635511)

1994

Xu, D. and Liew, F.Y. (1994) Genetic vaccination against leishmaniasis. Vaccine, 12(16), pp. 1534-1536. (doi:10.1016/0264-410X(94)90079-5) (PMID:7879420)

Taylor-Robinson, A. W., Liew, F. Y., Severn, A., Xu, D., McSorley, S. J., Garside, P., Padron, J. and Phillips, R. S. (1994) Regulation of the immune response by nitric oxide differentially produced by T helper type 1 and T helper type 2 cells. European Journal of Immunology, 24(4), pp. 980-984. (doi:10.1002/eji.1830240430) (PMID:8149966)

Sands, W. A., Bulut, V., Severn, A., Xu, D. and Liew, F. Y. (1994) Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis by interleukin-4 may involve inhibiting the activation of protein kinase C epsilon. European Journal of Immunology, 24(10), pp. 2345-2350. (doi:10.1002/eji.1830241013) (PMID:7523136)

1993

Severn, A., Xu, D., Doyle, J., Leal, L. M. C., O'Donnell, C. A. , Brett, S. J., Moss, D. W. and Liew, F. Y. (1993) Pre-exposure of murine macrophages to lipopolysaccharide inhibits the induction of nitric oxide synthase and reduces leishmanicidal activity. European Journal of Immunology, 23(7), pp. 1711-1714. (doi:10.1002/eji.1830230747) (PMID:7686861)

Cunha, F. Q., Assreuy, J., Xu, D., Charles, I., Liew, F. Y. and Moncada, S. (1993) Repeated induction of nitric oxide synthase and leishmanicidal activity in murine macrophages. European Journal of Immunology, 23(6), pp. 1385-1388. (doi:10.1002/eji.1830230631) (PMID:7684689)

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Number of items: 166.

Articles

Cole, S. L. et al. (2017) M1-like monocytes are a major immunological determinant of severity in previously healthy adults with life-threatening influenza. JCI Insight, 2(7), e91868. (doi:10.1172/jci.insight.91868) (PMID:28405622) (PMCID:PMC5374077)

Nascimento, D. C. et al. (2017) IL-33 contributes to sepsis-induced long-term immunosuppression by expanding the regulatory T cell population. Nature Communications, 8, 14919. (doi:10.1038/ncomms14919) (PMID:28374774) (PMCID:PMC5382289)

Liew, F. Y., Girard, J.-P. and Turnquist, H. R. (2016) Interleukin-33 in health and disease. Nature Reviews Immunology, 16(11), pp. 676-689. (doi:10.1038/nri.2016.95) (PMID:27640624)

Zarpelon, A. C. et al. (2016) Spinal cord oligodendrocyte-derived alarmin IL-33 mediates neuropathic pain. FASEB Journal, 30(1), pp. 54-65. (doi:10.1096/fj.14-267146) (PMID:26310268)

Fu, A. K. Y. et al. (2016) IL-33 ameliorates Alzheimer’s disease-like pathology and cognitive decline. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113(19), E2705-E2713. (doi:10.1073/pnas.1604032113) (PMID:27091974) (PMCID:PMC4868478)

Malcolm, J. et al. (2015) IL-33 exacerbates periodontal disease through induction of RANKL. Journal of Dental Research, 94(7), pp. 968-975. (doi:10.1177/0022034515577815) (PMID:25808546)

Liew, F. Y. (2015) Cigarette smoke resets the alarmin IL-33 in COPD. Immunity, 42(3), pp. 401-403. (doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2015.02.014) (PMID:25786171)

Besnard, A.-G., Guabiraba Brito, R., Niedbala, W., Palomo, J., Reverchon, F., Shaw, T. N., Couper, K. N., Ryffel, B. and Liew, F. (2015) IL-33-mediated protection against experimental cerebral malaria is linked to induction of Type 2 innate lymphoid cells, M2 macrophages and regulatory T cells. PLoS Pathogens, 11(2), e1004607. (doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004607) (PMID:25659095) (PMCID:PMC4450060)

Peres, R. S. et al. (2015) Low expression of CD39 on regulatory T cells as a biomarker for resistance to methotrexate therapy in rheumatoid arthritis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112(8), pp. 2509-2514. (doi:10.1073/pnas.1424792112) (PMID:25675517)

Millar, N. L., Gilchrist, D., Akbar, M., Reilly, J. H., Kerr, S. C., Campbell, A. L., Murrell, G. A.C., Liew, F. Y., Kurowska-Stolarska, M. and McInnes, I. B. (2015) MicroRNA29a regulates IL-33-mediated tissue remodelling in tendon disease. Nature Communications, 6, 6774. (doi:10.1038/ncomms7774) (PMID:25857925) (PMCID:PMC4403384)

Li, D. et al. (2014) IL-33 promotes ST2-dependent lung fibrosis by the induction of alternatively activated macrophages and innate lymphoid cells in mice. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 134(6), 1422-1432.e11. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.05.011)

Barbour, M. et al. (2014) IL-33 attenuates the development of experimental autoimmune uveitis. European Journal of Immunology, 44(11), pp. 3320-3329. (doi:10.1002/eji.201444671) (PMID:25116404) (PMCID:PMC4449115)

Mirchandani, A. S., Besnard, A.-G., Yip, E., Scott, C., Bain, C. C., Cerovic, V., Salmond, R. J. and Liew, F. J. (2014) Type 2 innate lymphoid cells drive CD4+ Th2 cell responses. Journal of Immunology, 192(5), pp. 2442-2448. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1300974)

Guabiraba Brito, R. et al. (2014) IL-33 targeting attenuates intestinal mucositis and enhances effective tumor chemotherapy in mice. Mucosal Immunology, 7(5), pp. 1079-1093. (doi:10.1038/mi.2013.124)

Niedbala, W. et al. (2014) Nitric oxide enhances Th9 cell differentiation and airway inflammation. Nature Communications, 5(4575), (doi:10.1038/ncomms5575)

Gabriele, L. et al. (2013) Novel allergic asthma model demonstrates ST2-dependent dendritic cell targeting by cypress pollen. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 132(3), 686-695.e7. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2013.02.037)

Magro, D.A.C., Hohmann, M.S.N., Mizokami, S.S., Cunha, T.M., Alves-Filho, J.C., Casagrande, R., Ferreira, S.H., Liew, F.Y., Cunha, F.Q. and Verri Jr, W.A. (2013) An interleukin-33/ST2 signaling deficiency reduces overt pain-like behaviors in mice. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 46(7), pp. 601-606. (doi:10.1590/1414-431x20132894) (PMID:23903682) (PMCID:PMC3859337)

Niedbala, W., Besnard, A.-G., Jiang, H.-R., Alves-Filho, J.C., Fukada, S.Y., Nascimento, D., Mitani, A., Pushparaj, P., Alqahtani, M.H. and Liew, F.Y. (2013) Nitric oxide-induced regulatory T cells inhibit Th17 but not Th1 cell differentiation and function. Journal of Immunology, 191(1), pp. 164-170. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1202580)

Zarpelon, A.C., Cunha, T.M., Alves-Filho, J.C., Pinto, L.G., Ferreira, S.H., McInnes, I.B. , Xu, D., Liew, F.Y., Cunha, F.Q. and Verri, W.A. (2013) IL-33/ST2 signalling contributes to carrageenin-induced innate inflammation and inflammatory pain: role of cytokines, endothelin-1 and prostaglandin E2. British Journal of Pharmacology, 169(1), pp. 90-101. (doi:10.1111/bph.12110) (PMID:23347081) (PMCID:PMC3632241)

Salmond, R.J., Mirchandani, A.S., Besnard, A.-G., Bain, C.C., Thomson, N.C. and Liew, F.Y. (2012) IL-33 induces innate lymphoid cell–mediated airway inflammation by activating mammalian target of rapamycin. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 130(5), pp. 1159-1166. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2012.05.018)

Komai-Koma, M. et al. (2012) Interleukin-33 amplifies IgE synthesis and triggers mast cell degranulation via interleukin-4 in naïve mice. Allergy, 67(9), pp. 1118-1126. (doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2012.02859.x) (PMID:22702477) (PMCID:PMC3660789)

Jiang, H.-R. et al. (2012) IL-33 attenuates EAE by suppressing IL-17 and IFN-γ production and inducing alternatively activated macrophages. European Journal of Immunology, 42(7), pp. 1804-1814. (doi:10.1002/eji.201141947)

Liew, F.Y. (2012) IL-33: a Janus cytokine. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 71(Sup. 2), i101-i104. (doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2011-200589)

Mirchandani, A. S., Salmond, R. J. and Liew, F. Y. (2012) Interleukin-33 and the function of innate lymphoid cells. Trends in Immunology, 33(8), pp. 389-396. (doi:10.1016/j.it.2012.04.005)

Turnquist, H. R. et al. (2011) IL-33 expands suppressive CD11b+ Gr-1int and regulatory T cells, including ST2L+ Foxp3+ cells, and mediates regulatory T cell-dependent promotion of cardiac allograft survival. Journal of Immunology, 187(9), pp. 4598-4610. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1100519)

Hueber, A. J., Alves-Filho, J. C., Asquith, D. L., Michels, C., Millar, N. L., Reilly, J. H., Graham, G. J., Liew, F. Y., Miller, A. M. and McInnes, I. B. (2011) IL-33 induces skin inflammation with mast cell and neutrophil activation. European Journal of Immunology, 41(8), pp. 2229-2237. (doi:10.1002/eji.201041360) (PMID:21674479)

Miller, A. M. and Liew, F. Y. (2011) The IL-33/ST2 pathway — A new therapeutic target in cardiovascular disease. Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 131(2), pp. 179-186. (doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2011.02.005)

Kurowska-Stolarska, M. et al. (2011) MicroRNA-155 as a proinflammatory regulator in clinical and experimental arthritis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(27), pp. 11193-11198. (doi:10.1073/pnas.1019536108) (PMID:21690378)

Zaiss, M. M. et al. (2011) IL-33 shifts the balance from osteoclast to alternatively activated macrophage differentiation and protects from TNF-α–mediated bone loss. Journal of Immunology, 186(11), pp. 6097-6105. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1003487) (PMID:21515798)

Niedbala, W., Alves-Filho, J. C., Fukada, S. Y., Vieira, S. M., Mitani, A., Sonego, F., Mirchandani, A., Nascimento, D. C., Cunha, F. Q. and Liew, F. Y. (2011) Regulation of type 17 helper T-cell function by nitric oxide during inflammation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(22), pp. 9220-9225. (doi:10.1073/pnas.1100667108)

Culshaw, S., McInnes, I. B. and Liew, F. Y. (2011) What can the periodontal community learn from the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis? Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 38(S11), pp. 106-113. (doi:10.1111/j.1600-051X.2010.01669.x) (PMID:21323707)

Kinane, D. F. et al. (2011) Host-response: understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of host-microbial interactions - consensus of the Seventh European Workshop on Periodontology. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 38(S11), pp. 44-48. (doi:10.1111/j.1600-051X.2010.01682.x)

Komai-Koma, M., Gilchrist, D. S., McKenzie, A. N. J., Goodyear, C. S., Xu, D. and Liew, F. Y. (2011) IL-33 activates B1 cells and exacerbates contact sensitivity. Journal of Immunology, 186(4), pp. 2584-2591. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1002103)

Pitman, N., Asquith, D.L., Murphy, G., Liew, F.Y. and McInnes, I.B. (2011) Collagen-induced arthritis is not impaired in mast cell-deficient mice. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 70(6), pp. 1170-1171. (doi:10.1136/ard.2010.134528) (PMID:21131642)

Stolarski, B., Kurowska-Stolarska, M., Kewin, P., Xu, D. and Liew, F. Y. (2010) IL-33 Exacerbates Eosinophil-Mediated Airway Inflammation. Journal of Immunology, 185(6), pp. 3472-3480. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1000730)

Miller, A. M., Asquith, D. L., Hueber, A. J., Anderson, L. A., Holmes, W. M., McKenzie, A. N., Xu, D., Sattar, N., McInnes, I. B. and Liew, F. Y. (2010) Interleukin-33 induces protective effects in adipose tissue inflammation during obesity in mice. Circulation Research, 107(5), pp. 650-658. (doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.110.218867) (PMID:20634488) (PMCID:PMC4254700)

Verri, W. A. et al. (2010) IL-33 induces neutrophil migration in rheumatoid arthritis and is a target of anti-TNF therapy. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 69(9), pp. 1697-1703. (doi:10.1136/ard.2009.122655) (PMID:20472598)

McLaren, J. E., Michael, D. R., Salter, R. C., Ashlin, T. G., Calder, C. J., Miller, A. M., Liew, F. Y. and Ramji, D. P. (2010) IL-33 Reduces Macrophage Foam Cell Formation. Journal of Immunology, 185(2), pp. 1222-1229. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1000520)

Xu, D. et al. (2010) IL-33 exacerbates autoantibody-induced arthritis. Journal of Immunology, 184(5), pp. 2620-2626. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.0902685) (PMID:20139274)

Asquith, D. L., Miller, A. M., Hueber, A. J., Liew, F. Y., Sattar, N. and McInnes, I. B. (2010) Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice are resistant to the development of collagen-induced arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 62(2), pp. 472-477. (doi:10.1002/art.27205) (PMID:20112375)

Liew, F. Y., Pitman, N. I. and McInnes, I. B. (2010) Disease-associated functions of IL-33: the new kid in the IL-1 family. Nature Reviews Immunology, 10(2), pp. 103-110. (doi:10.1038/nri2692) (PMID:20081870)

Alves Filho, J. C. et al. (2010) Interleukin-33 attenuates sepsis by enhancing neutrophil influx to the site of infection. Nature Medicine, 16(6), pp. 708-712. (doi:10.1038/nm.2156)

Murphy, G.E.J., Xu, D., Liew, F.Y. and McInnes, I.B. (2010) Role of interleukin 33 in human immunopathology. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 69(Suppl), pp. 43-47. (doi:10.1136/ard.2009.120113) (PMID:19995743)

Kurowska-Stolarska, M. et al. (2009) IL-33 Amplifies the Polarization of Alternatively Activated Macrophages That Contribute to Airway Inflammation. Journal of Immunology, 183(10), pp. 6469-6477. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.0901575) (PMID:19841166)

Asquith, D. L., Miller, A. M., McInnes, I. B. and Liew, F. Y. (2009) Animal models of rheumatoid arthritis. European Journal of Immunology, 39(8), pp. 2040-2044. (doi:10.1002/eji.200939578) (PMID:19672892)

Pushparaj, P. N., Tay, H. K., H'Ng, S. C., Pitman, N., Xu, D., McKenzie, A., Liew, F. Y. and Melendez, A. J. (2009) The cytokine interleukin-33 mediates anaphylactic shock. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(24), pp. 9773-9778. (doi:10.1073/pnas.0901206106)

McKimmie, C. S. et al. (2009) A TLR2 ligand suppresses inflammation by modulation of chemokine receptors and redirection of leukocyte migration. Blood, 113(18), pp. 4224-4231. (doi:10.1182/blood-2008-08-174698) (PMID:19202130)

Lemos, H. P. et al. (2009) Prostaglandin mediates IL-23/IL-17-induced neutrophil migration in inflammation by inhibiting IL-12 and IFNγ  production. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(14), pp. 5954-5959. (doi:10.1073/pnas.0812782106) (PMID:19289819)

Trieu, A., Bokil, N., Dunn, J. A., Roberts, T. L., Xu, D., Liew, F. Y., Hume, D. A., Stacey, K. J. and Sweet, M. J. (2009) TLR9-independent effects of inhibitory oligonucleotides on macrophage responses to S. typhimurium. Immunology and Cell Biology, 87(3), pp. 218-225. (doi:10.1038/icb.2008.95)

Jiang, H., Al Rasebi, Z., Mensah-Brown, E., Shahin, A., Xu, D., Goodyear, C., Fukada, S., Liu, F., Liew, F. and Lukic, M. (2009) Galectin-3 Deficiency Reduces the Severity of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. Journal of Immunology, 182(2), pp. 1167-1173.

Asquith, D.L., Miller, A.L., McInnes, I.B. and Liew, F.Y. (2009) Autoimmune disease: rheumatoid arthritis. Animal models of rheumatoid arthritis. European Journal of Immunology, 39, pp. 1991-2058.

Kurowska-Stolarska, M. et al. (2008) IL-33 induces antigen-specific IL-5+ T cells and promotes allergic-induced airway inflammation independent of IL-4. Journal of Immunology, 181(7), pp. 4780-4790.

Niedbala, W., Cai, B., Wei, X., Patakas, A., Leung, B. P., McInnes, I. and Liew, F. Y. (2008) Interleukin 27 attenuates collagen-induced arthritis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 67(10), pp. 1474-1479. (doi:10.1136/ard.2007.083360) (PMID:18199596)

McKimmie, C. S. et al. (2008) Hemopoietic cell expression of the chemokine decoy receptor D6 is dynamic and regulated by GATA1. Journal of Immunology, 181(5), pp. 3353-3363. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.181.11.8170-a) (PMID:19039854)

Xu, D. et al. (2008) IL-33 exacerbates antigen-induced arthritis by activating mast cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105(31), pp. 10913-10918. (doi:10.1073/pnas.0801898105) (PMID:18667700) (PMCID:PMC2491487)

Grespan, R., Fukada, S. Y., Lemos, H. P., Vieira, S. M., Napimoga, M. H., Teixeira, M. M., Fraser, A. R., Liew, F. Y., McInnes, I. B. and Cunha, F. Q. (2008) CXCR2‐specific chemokines mediate leukotriene B4–dependent recruitment of neutrophils to inflamed joints in mice with antigen‐induced arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 58(7), pp. 2030-2040. (doi:10.1002/art.23597) (PMID:18576322)

Turnquist, H. R., Sumpter, T. L., Tsung, A., Zahorchak, A. F., Nakao, A., Nau, G. J., Liew, F. Y., Geller, D. A. and Thomson, A. W. (2008) IL-1 β-driven ST2L express ion promotes maturation resistance in rapamycin-conditioned dendritic cells. Journal of Immunology, 181(1), pp. 62-72.

Turnquist, H. R., Sumpter, T. L., Tsung, A., Zahorchak, A. F., Nakao, A., Nau, G. J., Liew, F. Y., Geller, D. A. and Thomson, A. W. (2008) IL-1β-driven ST2L expression promotes maturation resistance in rapamycin-conditioned dendritic cells. Journal of Immunology, 181(1), pp. 62-72. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.181.1.62)

Yang, C.-H., Tian, L., Ling, G.-S., Trendell‐Smith, N. J., Ma, L., Lo, C.-K., Stott, D. I., Liew, F. Y. and Huang, F.-P. (2008) Correction: Immunological mechanisms and clinical implications of regulatory T cell deficiency in a systemic autoimmune disorder: Roles of IL‐2versusIL‐15. European Journal of Immunology, 38(7), p. 2046. (doi:10.1002/eji.200890028)

Yang, C.-H., Tian, L., Ling, G.-S., Trendell-Smith, N. J., Ma, L., Lo, C.-K., Stott, D. I., Liew, F. Y. and Huang, F.-P. (2008) Immunological mechanisms and clinical implications of regulatory T cell deficiency in a systemic autoimmune disorder: Roles of IL-2 versus IL-15. European Journal of Immunology, 38(6), pp. 1664-1676. (doi:10.1002/eji.200838190)

Raggatt, L. J., Qin, L., Tamasi, J., Jefcoat, Jr, S. C., Shimizu, E., Selvamurugan, N., Liew, F. Y., Bevelock, L., Feyen, J. H. M. and Partridge, N. C. (2008) Interleukin-18 is regulated by parathyroid hormone and is required for its bone anabolic actions. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 283(11), pp. 6790-6798. (doi:10.1074/jbc.M709909200)

Humphreys, N. E., Xu, D., Hepworth, M. R., Liew, F. Y. and Grencis, R. K. (2008) IL-33, a potent inducer of adaptive immunity to intestinal nematodes. Journal of Immunology, 180(4), pp. 2443-2449.

Antonopoulos, C., Cumberbatch, M., Mee, J. B., Dearman, R. J., Wei, X.-Q., Liew, F. Y., Kimber, I. and Groves, R. W. (2008) IL-18 is a key proximal mediator of contact hypersensitivity and allergen-induced Langerhans cell migration in murine epidermis. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 83(2), pp. 361-367. (doi:10.1189/jlb.0604352)

Miller, A. M., Xu, D., Asquith, D. L., Denby, L., Li, Y., Sattar, N., Baker, A. H., McInnes, I. B. and Liew, F. Y. (2008) IL-33 reduces the development of atherosclerosis. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 205(2), pp. 339-346. (doi:10.1084/jem.20071868) (PMID:18268038) (PMCID:PMC2271006)

Verri, W., Cunha, T., Magro, D., Domingues, A., Vieira, S., Souza, G., Liew, F., Ferreira, S. and Cunha, F. (2008) Role of IL-18 in overt pain-like behaviour in mice. European Journal of Pharmacology, 588(2-3), pp. 207-212. (doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.04.010)

Verri, Jr., W. A., Guerrero, A. T. G., Fukada, S. Y., Valerio, D. A., Cunha, T. M., Xu, D., Ferreira, S. H., Liew, F. Y. and Cunha, F. Q. (2008) IL-33 mediates antigen-induced cutaneous and articular hypernociception in mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105(7), pp. 2723-2728. (doi:10.1073/pnas.0712116105)

Verri, W. A., Cunha, T. M., Ferreira, S. H., Wei, X., Leung, B. P., Fraser, A., McInnes, I. B., Liew, F. Y. and Cunha, F. Q. (2007) IL-15 mediates antigen-induced neutrophil migration by triggering IL-18 production. European Journal of Immunology, 37(12), pp. 3373-3380. (doi:10.1002/eji.200737488) (PMID:17979156)

Cai, B., Hueber, A. J., Leung, B. P., Liew, F. Y., McInnes, I. B., Niedbala, W. and Wei, X.-q. (2007) IL-35 is a novel cytokine with therapeutic effects against collagen-induced arthritis through the expansion of regulatory T cells and suppression of Th17 cells. European Journal of Immunology, 37(11), pp. 3021-3029. (doi:10.1002/eji.200737810)

Komai-Koma, M., Li, Y., Liew, F. Y., McInnes, I. B., McKenzie, A. N. J. and Xu, D. (2007) IL-33 is a chemoattractant for human Th2 cells. European Journal of Immunology, 37(10), pp. 2779-2786. (doi:10.1002/eji.200737547) (PMID:17853410)

Niedbala, W., Cai, B., Liu, H., Pitman, N., Chang, L. and Liew, F. Y. (2007) Nitric oxide induces CD4+CD25+ Foxp3 regulatory T cells from CD4+CD25− T cells via p53, IL-2, and OX40. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(39), pp. 15478-15483. (doi:10.1073/pnas.0703725104)

Bacal, F. et al. (2007) Locally produced survival cytokines IL-15 and IL-7 may be associated to the predominance of CD8(+) T cells at heart lesions of human chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, 66, pp. 362-371. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-3083.2007.01987.x)

Verri Jr, W. A., Cunha, T. M., Parada, C. A., Poole, S., Liew, F. Y., Ferreira, S. H. and Cunha, F. Q. (2007) Antigen-induced inflammatory mechanical hypernociception in mice is mediated by IL-18. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 21(5), pp. 535-543. (doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2006.11.005)

Amaral, F. A., Fagundes, C. T., Liew, F. Y., Souza, A. L. S., Souza, D. G., Teixeira, M. M., Vieira, A. T. and Xu, D. (2007) ST2, an IL-1R family member, attenuates inflammation and lethality after intestinal ischemia and reperfusion. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 81, pp. 492-499. (doi:10.1189/jlb.0606422)

Verri, W.A., Cunha, T.M., Parada, C.A., Wei, X.-Q., Ferreira, S.H., Liew, F.Y. and Cunha, F.Q. (2006) IL-15 mediates immune inflammatory hypernociception by triggering a sequential release of IFN-, endothelin, and prostaglandin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(25), pp. 9721-9725. (doi:10.1073/pnas.0603286103)

Alfaya, T., Alves, J., da Silva, J., Ferreira, S., Liew, F. and Moreno, S. (2006) IL-12, but not IL-18, is critical to neutrophil activation and resistance to polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture. Journal of Immunology, 177, pp. 3218-3224.

Cai, B., Liew, F. and Niedbala, W. (2006) Role of nitric oxide in the regulation of T cell functions. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 65, pp. 37-40. (doi:10.1136/ard.2006.058446)

Liu, H., Komai-Koma, M., Xu, D. and Liew, F. (2006) Toll-like receptor 2 signaling modulates the functions of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103, pp. 7048-7053. (doi:10.1073/pnas.0601554103)

Al, R., Egan, C., Else, K., Goodridge, H., Harnett, M., Harnett, W., Houston, K., Liew, F. and Marshall, F. (2005) Immunomodulation via novel use of TLR4 by the filarial nematode phosphorylcholine-containing secreted product, ES-62. Journal of Immunology, 174, pp. 284-293.

Baslund, B. et al. (2005) Targeting interleukin-15 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis - A proof-of-concept study. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 52, pp. 2686-2692. (doi:10.1002/art.21249) (PMID:16142748)

Brint, E., Liew, F., O'Neill, L. and Xu, D. (2005) Negative regulation of Toll-like receptor-mediated immune responses. Nature Reviews Immunology, 5, pp. 446-458. (doi:10.1038/nri1630)

Choo-Kang, B., Kewin, P., Liew, F., McSharry, C., Patel, M., Thomson, N. and Xu, D. (2005) Glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family-related protein (GITR) activation exacerbates murine asthma and collagen-induced arthritis. European Journal of Immunology, 35, pp. 3581-3590. (doi:10.1002/eji.200535421)

Choo-Kang, B., Kewin, P., Liew, F., McSharry, C., Patel, M., Thomson, N. and Xu, D. (2005) TLR2 agonist ameliorates established allergic airway inflammation by promoting Th1 response and not via regulatory T cells. Journal of Immunology, 174, pp. 7558-7563.

Culshaw, S., Leung, B., Gracie, J., Campbell, C., Thomson, D., Gemmell, C., Liew, F. and McInnes, I. (2005) Prior elevation of IL-18 promotes rapid early IFN-gamma production during staphylococcal infection. European Journal of Immunology, 35, pp. 1438-1444. (doi:10.1002/ejui.200425661) (PMID:15789357)

Komai-Koma, M., Liew, F. and Xu, D. (2005) Expression and function of Toll-like receptor on T cells. Cellular Immunology, 233, pp. 85-89. (doi:10.1016/j.cellimm.2005.04.019)

Liew, F., Liu, H. and Xu, D. (2005) A novel negative regulator for IL-1 receptor and Toll-like receptor 4. Immunology Letters, 96, pp. 27-31. (doi:10.1016/j.imlet.2004.07.008)

Liew, F. and McInnes, I. (2005) A fork in the pathway to inflammation and arthritis. Nature Medicine, 11(6), pp. 601-602. (doi:10.1038/nm0605-601) (PMID:15937470)

Liew, F. and McInnes, I. (2005) Cytokine networks - towards new therapies for rheumatoid arthritis. Nature Clinical Practice Rheumatology, 1, pp. 31-39. (doi:10.1038/ncprheum0020) (PMID:16932625)

Liew, F., Patel, M. and Xu, D. (2005) Toll-like receptor 2 signalling and inflammation. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 64, pp. 104-105. (doi:10.1136/ard.2005.042515)

McInnes, I.B. , Liew, F.Y. and Gracie, J.A. (2005) Interleukin-18: a therapeutic target in rheumatoid arthritis? Arthritis Research and Therapy(7), pp. 38-41. (doi:10.1186/ar1497) (PMID:15642152) (PMCID:PMC1064903)

Leung, B.P., Xu, D., Culshaw, S., McInnes, I. B. and Liew, .Y. (2004) A novel therapy of murine collagen-induced arthritis with soluble T1/ST2. Journal of Immunology, 173(1), pp. 145-150. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.173.1.145) (PMID:15210768)

McKay, A., Leung, B.P., McInnes, I.B., Thomson, N.C. and Liew, F.Y. (2004) A novel anti-inflammatory role of simvastatin in a murine model of allergic asthma. Journal of Immunology, 172(5), pp. 2903-2908. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.172.5.2903) (PMID:14978092)

Brint, E., Dunne, A., Liew, F., Liu, H., McKenzie, A., O'Neill, L. and Xu, D. (2004) ST2 is an inhibitor of interleukin 1 receptor and Toll-like receptor 4 signaling and maintains endotoxin tolerance. Nature Immunology, 5, pp. 373-379. (doi:10.1038/ni1050)

Cunha, F., Cunha, T., Ferreira, S., Liew, F., Schivo, I. and Verri, W. (2004) Interleukin-18 induces mechanical hypernociception in rats via endothelin acting on ETB receptors in a morphine-sensitive manner. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 310, pp. 710-717. (doi:10.1124/jpet.103.063990)

Goodridge, H., Harnett, M., Harnett, W., Houston, K., Liew, F., Marshall, F. and Wilson, E. (2004) In vivo exposure of murine dendritic cell and macrophage bone marrow progenitors to the phosphorylcholine-containing filarial nematode glycoprotein ES-62 polarizes their differentiation to an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Immunology, 113, pp. 491-498. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2567.2004.01993.x)

Komai-Koma, M., Jones, L., Ogg, G., Xu, D. and Liew, F. (2004) TLR2 is expressed on activated T cells as a costimulatory receptor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, pp. 3029-3034. (doi:10.1073/pnas.0400171101)

Komai-Koma, M., Liew, F. and Xu, D. (2004) A toll for T cell costimulation. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 63, pp. 76-78. (doi:10.1136/ard.2004.028308)

Mckay, A., Komai-Koma, M., Mcleod, K., Thomson, L., Chaudhari, R., McSharry, C., Liew, F. and Thomson, N. (2004) Interleukin-18 levels in induced sputum are reduced in asthmatic and normal smokers. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 34, pp. 904-910. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2004.01973.x)

Liew, F.Y., Wei, X.Q. and McInnes, I. B. (2003) Role of interleukin 18 in rheumatoid arthritis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 62(Suppl), ii48-ii50. (doi:10.1136/ard.62.suppl_2.ii48) (PMID:14532149) (PMCID:PMC1766738)

McInnes, I. B. , Gracie, J.A., Harnett, M., Harnett, W. and Liew, F.Y. (2003) New strategies to control inflammatory synovitis: interleukin 15 and beyond. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 62(2), pp. 51-54. (doi:10.1136/ard.62.suppl_2.ii51) (PMID:14532150) (PMCID:PMC1766739)

McInnes, I. B. , Leung, B.P., Harnett, M., Gracie, J.A., Liew, F. and Harnett, W. (2003) A novel therapeutic approach targeting articular inflammation using the filarial nematode-derived phosphorylcholine-containing glycoprotein ES-62. Journal of Immunology, 171(4), pp. 2127-2133. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.171.4.2127) (PMID:12902519)

Alexander, J., Campbell, C., Komai-Koma, M., Liew, F., Liu, H., McSharry, C. and Xu, D. (2003) CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells suppress differentiation and functions of Th1 and Th2 cells, Leishmania major infection, and colitis in mice. Journal of Immunology, 170, pp. 394-399.

Campbell, C. et al. (2003) A novel anti-inflammatory role for simvastatin in inflammatory arthritis. Journal of Immunology, 170, pp. 1524-1530. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.170.3.1524) (PMID:12538717)

Cannetti, C. O., Leung, B. P., Culshaw, S., McInnes, I. B. , Cunha, F. Q. and Liew, F. Y. (2003) IL-18 enhances collagen-induced arthritis by recruiting neutrophils via TNF-alpha and leukotriene B-4. Journal of Immunology, 171, pp. 1009-1015. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.171.2.1009) (PMID:12847274)

Goodridge, H., Harnett, M., Harnett, W. and Liew, F. (2003) Differential regulation of interleukin-12 p40 and p35 induction via Erk mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent and -independent mechanisms and the implications for bioactive IL-12 and IL-23 responses. Immunology, 109, pp. 415-425.

Gracie, J., Komai-Koma, M., Liew, F., McInnes, I. , Thomson, N., Wei, X. and Xu, D. (2003) Chemoattraction of human T cells by IL-18. Journal of Immunology, 170, pp. 1084-1090. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.170.2.1084) (PMID:12517977)

Hu, B., Liew, F., Liu, H. and Xu, D. (2003) CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells cure murine colitis: The role of IL-10, TGF-beta, and CTLA4. Journal of Immunology, 171, pp. 5012-5017.

Liew, F. (2003) The role of innate cytokines in inflammatory response. Immunology Letters, 85, pp. 131-134.

Liew, F., Lukic, M., Mensah-Brown, E., Shahin, A. and Wei, X. (2003) Lack of the mediators of innate immunity attenuate the development of autoimmune diabetes in mice. Journal of Autoimmunity, 21, pp. 239-246. (doi:10.1016/S0896-8411(03)00115-X)

Biron, C., Caligiuri, M., Dalod, M., Durbin, J., Liew, F., Nguyen, K., Salazar-Mather, T., Van Deusen, J. and Wei, X. (2002) Coordinated and distinct roles for IFN-alpha beta, IL-12, and IL-15 regulation of NK cell responses to viral infection. Journal of Immunology, 169, pp. 4279-4287.

Campbell, C., Hume, D., Liew, F., McDonald, R., Sester, D., Stacey, K., Sweet, M. and Xu, D. (2002) Colony-stimulating factor-1 suppresses responses to CpG DNA and expression of toll-like receptor 9 but enhances responses to lipopolysaccharide in murine macrophages. Journal of Immunology, 168, pp. 392-399.

Chiodoni, C., Colombo, M., Gallo, E., Gri, G., Liew, F. and Stoppacciaro, A. (2002) Antitumor effect of interleukin (IL)-12 in the absence of endogenous IFN-gamma: A role for intrinsic tumor immunogenicity and IL-15. Cancer Research, 62, pp. 4390-4397.

Hirahashi, J., Kelley, V., Lebedeva, T., Liew, F., Maron, R., Salant, D. and Shinozaki, M. (2002) IL-15, a survival factor for kidney epithelial cells, counteracts apoptosis and inflammation during nephritis. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 109, pp. 951-960.

Inoue, K., Ito, S., Kitano, T., Liew, F., Nishizawa, M., Okumura, T. and Seki, T. (2002) Altered response to inflammatory cytokines in hepatic energy metabolism in inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout mice. Journal of Hepatology, 36, pp. 759-765.

Khan, I., Liew, F., Moretto, M., Schwartzman, J., Wei, X. and Williams, M. (2002) Treatment with soluble interleukin-15R alpha exacerbates intracellular parasitic infection by blocking the development of memory CD8(+) T cell response. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 195, pp. 1463-1470. (doi:10.1084/jem.20011915)

Leung, B., Conacher, M., Hunter, D., McInnes, I. , Liew, F. and Brewer, J. (2002) A novel dendritic cell-induced model of erosive inflammatory arthritis: Distinct roles for dendritic cells in T cell activation and induction of local inflammation. Journal of Immunology, 169, pp. 7071-7077. (doi:0.4049/jimmunol.169.12.7071) (PMID:12471143)

Liew, F. (2002) T(H)1 and T(H)2 cells: a historical perspective. Nature Reviews Immunology, 2(1), pp. 55-60.

Liew, F. and McInnes, I. (2002) Role of interleukin 15 and interleukin 18 in inflammatory response. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 61, pp. 100-102. (doi:10.1136/ard.61.suppl_2.ii100) (PMID:12379638) (PMCID:PMC1766710)

Liew, F. and McInnes, I. (2002) The role of innate mediators in inflammatory response. Molecular Immunology, 38, pp. 887-890. (doi:10.1016/S0161-5890(02)00014-7) (PMID:12009565)

Liew, F., Niedbala, W. and Wei, X. (2002) IL-15 induces type 1 and type 2 CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells proliferation but is unable to drive cytokine production in the absence of TCR activation or IL-12/IL-4 simulation in vitro. European Journal of Immunology, 32, pp. 341-347.

Mulero, V., Wei, X.Q., Liew, F.Y. and Brock, J.H. (2002) Regulation of phagosomal iron release from murine macrophages by nitric oxide. Biochemical Journal, 365, pp. 127-132.

Niedbala, W., Wei, X., Campbell, C., Thomson, D., Komai-Koma, M. and Liew, F. (2002) Nitric oxide preferentially induces type 1 T cell differentiation by selectively up-regulating IL-12 receptor β2 expression via cGMP. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99(25), pp. 16186-16191. (doi:10.1073/pnas.252464599)

Abouhaidar, M., Al Dhaheri, M., al Ramadi, B., Fernandez-Cabezudo, M., Liew, F., Lukic, M., Mustafa, N. and Xu, D. (2001) Influence of vector-encoded cytokines on anti-Salmonella immunity: Divergent effects of interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Infection and Immunity, 69, pp. 3980-3988.

Armour, K., Armour, K., Liew, F., Ralston, S., Reid, D., van't Hof, R. and Wei, X. (2001) Activation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway contributes to inflammation-induced osteoporosis by suppressing bone formation and causing osteoblast apoptosis. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 44, pp. 2790-2796.

Bach, F., Csizmadia, E., Lee, J., Liew, F., Lin, Y., Smith, N., Soares, M., Wang, N. and Xu, D. (2001) TH2 cytokines regulate gene expression and proinflammatory responses in xenografts. Transplantation Proceedings, 33, pp. 776-777.

Campbell, C., Goodridge, H., Harnett, M., Harnett, W., Liew, F. and Wilson, E. (2001) Modulation of macrophage cytokine production by ES-62, a secreted product of the filarial nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae. Journal of Immunology, 167, pp. 940-945.

Campbell, C., Kang, D., Leung, B., Liew, F., Schulz, K., Sogaard, M., Sweet, M., Trajkovic, V. and Xu, D. (2001) A novel pathway regulating lipopolysaccharide-induced shock by ST2/T1 via inhibition of toll-like receptor 4 expression. Journal of Immunology, 166, pp. 6633-6639.

Carter, R., Chan, W., Klemenz, R., Liew, F., Sweet, M. and Xu, D. (2001) Regulation of ST2L expression on T helper (Th) type 2 cells. European Journal of Immunology, 31, pp. 2979-2985.

Chalmers, G., Komai-Koma, M., Liew, F., Mckay, A., McSharry, C., Thomson, L. and Thomson, N. (2001) Immuno-regulatory cytokines in asthma: IL-15 and IL-13 in induced sputum. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 31, pp. 1441-1448.

Esfandiari, E., McInnes, I. , Lindop, G., Huang, F., Field, M., Komai-Koma, M., Wei, X. and Liew, F. (2001) A proinflammatory role of IL-18 in the development of spontaneous autoimmune disease. Journal of Immunology, 167, pp. 5338-5347. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.167.9.5338) (PMID:11673550)

Gao, B., Gracie, J., Guan, H., Leung, B., Liew, F., McInnes, I., Niedbala, W., Orchardson, M., Paterson, G. and Wei, X. (2001) The sushi domain of soluble IL-15 receptor alpha is essential for binding IL-15 and inhibiting inflammatory and allogenic responses in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Immunology, 167, pp. 277-282.

Jiang, H., Wei, X., Niedbala, W., Lumsden, L., Liew, F. and Forrester, J. (2001) IL-18 not required for IRBP peptide-induced EAU: Studies in gene-deficient mice. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 42, pp. 177-182.

Leung, B. P., Culshaw, S., Gracie, J. A., Hunter, D., Canetti, C. A., Campbell, C., Cunha, F., Liew, F. Y. and McInnes, I. B. (2001) A role for IL-18 in neutrophil activation. Journal of Immunology, 167, pp. 2879-2886. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.167.5.2879) (PMID:11509635)

McInnes, I. B. , Gracie, J. A. and Liew, F. Y. (2001) Interleukin-18: A novel cytokine in inflammatory rheumatic disease. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 44(7), pp. 1481-1483. (doi:10.1002/1529-0131(200107)44:7<1481::AID-ART268>3.0.CO;2-1) (PMID:11465697)

Wei, X.-q., Leung, B. P., Arthur, H. M. L., Liew, F. Y. and McInnes, I. B. (2001) Reduced incidence and severity of collagen-induced arthritis in mice lacking IL-18. Journal of Immunology, 166, pp. 517-521. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.166.1.517) (PMID:11123331)

Bolton, E., Bradley, J., Liew, F., Ruchatz, H., Smith, X. and Wei, X. (2000) Selective blockade of IL-15 by soluble IL-15 receptor alpha-chain enhances cardiac allograft survival. Journal of Immunology, 165(6), pp. 3444-3450.

Leung, B., Liew, F. and McInnes, I. (2000) Cell-cell interactions in synovitis - Interactions between T lymphocytes and synovial cells. Arthritis Research, 2(5), pp. 374-378.

Smith, K., Pottage, L., Thomas, E., Leishman, A., Doig, T., Xu, D., Liew, F. and Garside, P. (2000) Th1 and Th2CD4(+) T cells provide help for B cell clonal expansion and antibody synthesis in a similar manner in vivo. Journal of Immunology, 165(6), pp. 3136-3144.

Xu, D., Trajkovic, V., Hunter, D., Leung, B. P., Schulz, K., Gracie, J. A., McInnes, I. B. and Liew, F. Y. (2000) IL-18 induces the differentiation of Th1 or Th2 cells depending upon cytokine milieu and genetic background. European Journal of Immunology, 30(11), pp. 3147-3156. (doi:10.1002/1521-4141(200011)30:11<3147::AID-IMMU3147>3.0.CO;2-J) (PMID:11093129)

Gracie, J. A. et al. (1999) A proinflammatory role for IL-18 in rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 104(10), pp. 1393-1401. (doi:10.1172/JCI7317) (PMID:10562301) (PMCID:PMC409841)

Kropf, P., Schopf, L. R., Chung, C. L., Xu, D., Liew, F. Y., Sypek, J. P. and Müller, I. (1999) Expression of Th2 cytokines and the stable Th2 marker ST2L in the absence of IL-4 during Leishmania major infection. European Journal of Immunology, 29(11), pp. 3621-3628. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-4141(199911)29:11<3621::AID-IMMU3621>3.0.CO;2-Z) (PMID:10556817)

Niedbala, W., Wei, X.-Q., Piedrafita, D., Xu, D. and Liew, F. Y. (1999) Effects of nitric oxide on the induction and differentiation of Th1 cells. European Journal of Immunology, 29(8), pp. 2498-2505. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-4141(199908)29:08<2498::AID-IMMU2498>3.0.CO;2-M) (PMID:10458764)

Liew, F.Y., Xu, D. and Ling Chan, W. (1999) Immune effector mechanism in parasitic infections. Immunology Letters, 65(1-2), pp. 101-104. (doi:10.1016/S0165-2478(98)00131-X) (PMID:10065634)

Piedrafita, D. et al. (1999) Regulation of macrophage IL-12 synthesis by Leishmania phosphoglycans. European Journal of Immunology, 29(1), pp. 235-244. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-4141(199901)29:01<235::AID-IMMU235>3.0.CO;2-S) (PMID:9933105)

Piedrafita, D., Xu, D., Hunter, D., Harrison, R. A. and Liew, F. Y. (1999) Protective immune responses induced by vaccination with an expression genomic library of leishmania major. Journal of Immunology, 163(3), pp. 1467-1472. (PMID:10415048)

Huang, F.-P., Niedbala, W., Wei, X.-Q., Xu, D., Feng, G.-j., Robinson, J. H., Lam, C. and Liew, F. Y. (1998) Nitric oxide regulates Th1 cell development through the inhibition of IL-12 synthesis by macrophages. European Journal of Immunology, 28(12), pp. 4062-4070. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-4141(199812)28:12<4062::AID-IMMU4062>3.0.CO;2-K) (PMID:9862342)

Xu, D., Chan, W. L., Leung, B. P., Hunter, D., Schulz, K., Carter, R. W., McInnes, I. B. , Robinson, J. H. and Liew, F. Y. (1998) Selective expression and functions of Interleukin 18 receptor on T Helper (Th) type 1 but not Th2 cells. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 188(8), pp. 1485-1492. (doi:10.1084/jem.188.8.1485) (PMID:9782125) (PMCID:PMC2213413)

Huang, F.-P., Xu, D., Esfandiari, E.-O., Sands, W., Wei, X.-q. and Liew, F. Y. (1998) Cutting edge: Mice defective in Fas are highly susceptible to Leishmania major infection despite elevated interleukin-12 synthesis, strong Th1 responses and enhanced nitric oxide production. Journal of Immunology, 160(9), pp. 4143-4147. (PMID:9574511)

Xu, D., McSorley, S. J., Tetley, L., Chatfield, S., Dougan, G., Chan, W. L., Satoskar, A., David, J. R. and Liew, F. Y. (1998) Protective effect on Leishmania major infection of migration inhibitory factor, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma administered orally via attenuated Salmonella typhimurium. Journal of Immunology, 160(3), pp. 1285-1289. (PMID:9570545)

McInnes, I. B. , Leung, B. P., Sturrock, R. D., Field, M. and Liew, F. Y. (1997) Interleukin-15 mediates T cell-dependent regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α production in rheumatoid arthritis. Nature Medicine, 3(2), pp. 189-195. (doi:10.1038/nm0297-189) (PMID:9018238)

Mcsorley, S. J., Xu, D. and Liew, F.Y. (1997) Vaccine efficacy of Salmonella strains expressing glycoprotein 63 with different promoters. Infection and Immunity, 65(1), pp. 171-178. (PMID:8975908)

McInnes, I. B. , Leung, B. P., Field, M., Wei, X. Q., Huang, F.-P., Sturrock, R. D., Kinninmonth, A., Weidner, J., Mumford, R. and Liew, F. Y. (1996) Production of nitric oxide in the synovial membrane of rheumatoid and osteoarthritis patients. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 184(4), pp. 1519-1524. (doi:10.1084/jem.184.4.1519) (PMID:8879223) (PMCID:PMC2192822)

Huang, F.P., Feng, G.J., Lindop, G., Stott, D.I. and Liew, F.Y. (1996) The role of interleukin 12 and nitric oxide in the development of spontaneous autoimmune disease in MRL/MP-lpr/lpr mice. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 183(4), pp. 1447-1459.

McInnes, I. B. , Al-Mughales, J., Field, M., Leung, B. P., Huang, F.-p., Dixon, R., Sturrock, R. D., Wilkinson, P. C. and Liew, F. Y. (1996) The role of interleukin–15 in T–cell migration and activation in rheumatoid arthritis. Nature Medicine, 2(2), pp. 175-182. (doi:10.1038/nm0296-175) (PMID:8574962)

Wei, X.-q., Charles, I. G., Smith, A., Ure, J., Feng, G.-j., Huang, F.-p., Xu, D., Mullers, W., Moncada, S. and Liew, F. Y. (1995) Altered immune responses in mice lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase. Nature, 375(6530), pp. 408-411. (doi:10.1038/375408a0) (PMID:7539113)

Xu, D. and Liew, F.Y. (1995) Protection against leishmaniasis by injection of DNA encoding a major surface glycoprotein, gp63, of L. major. Immunology, 84(2), pp. 173-176. (PMID:7750991)

Ianaro, A., Xu, D., O'Donnell, C.A. , Di Rosa, M. and Liew, F.Y. (1995) Expression of TGF-beta in attenuated Salmonella typhimurium: oral administration leads to the reduction of inflammation, IL-2 and IFN-gamma, but enhancement of IL-10, in carrageenin-induced oedema in mice. Immunology, 84(1), pp. 8-15. (PMID:7890306)

Xu, D., McSorley, S.J., Chatfield, S.N., Dougan, G. and Liew, F.Y. (1995) Protection against Leishmania major infection in genetically susceptible BALB/c mice by gp63 delivered orally in attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (AroA- AroD-). Immunology, 85(1), pp. 1-7. (PMID:7635511)

Xu, D. and Liew, F.Y. (1994) Genetic vaccination against leishmaniasis. Vaccine, 12(16), pp. 1534-1536. (doi:10.1016/0264-410X(94)90079-5) (PMID:7879420)

Taylor-Robinson, A. W., Liew, F. Y., Severn, A., Xu, D., McSorley, S. J., Garside, P., Padron, J. and Phillips, R. S. (1994) Regulation of the immune response by nitric oxide differentially produced by T helper type 1 and T helper type 2 cells. European Journal of Immunology, 24(4), pp. 980-984. (doi:10.1002/eji.1830240430) (PMID:8149966)

Sands, W. A., Bulut, V., Severn, A., Xu, D. and Liew, F. Y. (1994) Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis by interleukin-4 may involve inhibiting the activation of protein kinase C epsilon. European Journal of Immunology, 24(10), pp. 2345-2350. (doi:10.1002/eji.1830241013) (PMID:7523136)

Severn, A., Xu, D., Doyle, J., Leal, L. M. C., O'Donnell, C. A. , Brett, S. J., Moss, D. W. and Liew, F. Y. (1993) Pre-exposure of murine macrophages to lipopolysaccharide inhibits the induction of nitric oxide synthase and reduces leishmanicidal activity. European Journal of Immunology, 23(7), pp. 1711-1714. (doi:10.1002/eji.1830230747) (PMID:7686861)

Cunha, F. Q., Assreuy, J., Xu, D., Charles, I., Liew, F. Y. and Moncada, S. (1993) Repeated induction of nitric oxide synthase and leishmanicidal activity in murine macrophages. European Journal of Immunology, 23(6), pp. 1385-1388. (doi:10.1002/eji.1830230631) (PMID:7684689)

Conference Proceedings

Kurowska-Stolarska, M., Ballantine, L., Stolarski, B., Hunter, J., Hueber, A., Gracie, J.A., Liew, F. Y. and McInnes, I. B. (2010) miR-155 and miR-34a regulate proinflammatory cytokine production by human monocytes. In: European Workshop for Rheumatology Research, Bamberg, Germany, 4-7 Mar 2010, A30-A30. (doi:10.1136/ard.2010.129619g)

Kurowska-Stolarska, M. S., Kewin, P., Stolarski, B., Fraser, A., Xu, D., McInnes, I. and Liew, F. Y. (2008) A role of IL-33 in bone turnover. In: 72nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the American College of Rheumatology and the 43rd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Association of Rheumatology Health Professionals, San Francisco CA, USA, 24-29 Oct 2008, S895.

Kewin, P., Kurowska-Stolarska, M., Murphy, G., Pitman, N., ChooKang, B., Patel, M., Xu, D., Liew, F.Y. and Thomson, N. (2008) IL-33 is sufficient to induce eosinophilic airway inflammation, and exacerbates established inflammation, through increased local Th2 cytokine and chemokine production. In: Scottish Thoracic Society Meeting, Stirling, UK, 26 Oct 2007, p. 50. (doi:10.1258/rsmsmj.53.2.48)

Kewin, P., Kurowska-Stolarska, M., Murphy, G., Pitman, N., ChooKang, B., Patel, M., Xu, D., Liew, F.Y. and Thomson, N. (2007) IL-33 is sufficient to induce eosinophilic airway inflammation, and exacerbates established inflammation, through increased ST2 dependent local Th2 cytokine and chemokine production. In: Winter Meeting of the British-Thoracic-Society, London, UK, 05-07 Dec 2007, A1.

This list was generated on Tue Sep 19 10:05:06 2017 BST.