Professor Kennedy Lees

  • Professor of Cerebrovascular Medicine (Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences)

telephone: 01412112780
email: Kennedy.Lees@glasgow.ac.uk

Research interests

Prof Kennedy Lees is a clinical stroke researcher with a background in clinical pharmacology and cardiovascular medicine. His stroke service possesses independent carotid and vertebral Doppler, transcranial Doppler and CT scanning equipment and radiography/sonography staff.

He has extensive experience with protocol design and all stages of clinical development of neuroprotective compounds and thrombolytics.  He co-authored the influential STAIR statement on preclinical assessment of putative stroke treatments. He chaired the steering committee for the SAINT and CHANT programme with NXY-059. Prof Lees was also Principal Investigator for GAIN International and IMAGES trials.  He is UK coordinator and steering committee member for the SITS-MOST trial that proved safety of alteplase in routine clinical use. He has chaired independent data monitoring committees for the ASTIN and ICTUS neuroprotection trials, and for the DIAS, DEDAS and ECASS-III Trials with desmoteplase and alteplase. In secondary prevention, Prof Lees was joint regional Principal Investigator for the PROGRESS Trial and is UK chief investigator for the MRC-funded VITATOPS and industry-sponsored PERFORM Trials.

Design of clinical trials depends on relationships between entry criteria, baseline prognostic fators and outcome measures. Prof Lees founded the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA).  This resource of >20,000 patients’ data maximises value from patient participation in research.

Assessment of clinical outcome is crucial in trials. Prof Lees developed a DVD-based training and certification tool for the modified Rankin Scale, already in eight languages. His team is developing methods to strengthen outcome assessment further and has been responsible for advances in endpoint analysis approaches.

Highlighted text will link to original articles or websites in NEJM, Lancet, Stroke etc.

Research:

Clinical Trials:

Member:

Grants

Grants and Awards listed are those received whilst working with the University of Glasgow.

  • Access data sets contained within the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA)- ICH Database in order to perform analysis
    Pfizer Inc
    2014 - 2015
     
  • Xanthine oxidase inhibition for improvement of Long-term Outcomes following ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attack (XILO-FIST)
    Stroke Association
    2014 - 2019
     
  • MISTIE III
    National Institute of Health
    2013 - 2014
     
  • Robotic Therapy Early After Stroke Events (RTEASE).
    Chest, Heart & Stroke, Scotland
    2012 - 2015
     
  • EuroHyp
    European Commission
    2012 - 2017
     
  • Improving Acute and Rehabilitation Trial Design through Development and Investigation of a Clinical Trial Resource
    Scottish Executive Health Department
    2010 - 2013
     
  • Evaluation of electrocardiographic monitoring strategy to identify atrial fibrillation in patients with recent acute stroke
    Scottish Executive Health Department
    2010 - 2011
     
  • Clot Lysis: Evaluating Accelerated Resolution of IVH Phase III
    National Institute of Health
    2009 - 2013
     
  • The effect of allopurinol on carotid intima-media thickness and markers of endothelial function in patients with recent stroke - a pilot study
    The Stroke Association
    2009 - 2012
     
  • The Impact of Intraventricular Haemorrhage on Functional Outcomes and Economic Cost of Stroke.
    The Stroke Association
    2009 - 2010
     
  • Central adjudication of modified Rankin scale disability assessments in acute stroke trials
    Scottish Executive Health Department
    2009 - 2011
     
  • Improving the management of blood pressure in acute stroke - the efficacy of nitric oxide in stroke (ENOS) trial
    MRC
    2006 - 2011
     
  • Aspirin resistance and microemboli - towards targeted antiplatelet treatment
    Chest, Heart & Stroke, Scotland
    2006 - 2008
     
  • Magnesium in acute lacunar stroke patients - preliminary exploration of scientific hypothesis and implementation of optimal design procedure
    Scottish Executive Health Department
    2005 - 2006
     
  • Co-ordinating Centre for the UK Stroke Research Network
    Department of Health
    2005 - 2010
     
  • Co-ordinating Centre for the UK Stroke Research Network
    Department of Health
    2005 - 2015
     
  • Cerebrovascular nitric oxide bioavailability in type II diabetes
    Scottish Executive Health Department
    2005 - 2008
     
  • VITATOPS study - a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamins to prevent stroke
    MRC
    2003 - 2010
     
  • Caring for Informal Carers of Stroke Patients: The Development of an Evidence Based Intervention
    Chest, Heart & Stroke, Scotland
    2000 - 2009
     

Publications

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Number of items: 224.

2014

Frank, B., Fulton, R. L., Lees, K. R., and Sanders, R. D. (2014) Impact of benzodiazepines on functional outcome and occurrence of pneumonia in stroke: evidence from VISTA. International Journal of Stroke, 9 (7). pp. 890-894. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/ijs.12148)

Bath, P.M.W. et al. (2014) Baseline characteristics of the 4011 patients recruited into the 'Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke' (ENOS) trial. International Journal of Stroke, 9 (6). pp. 711-720. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/ijs.12308)

Goldie, F. C., Fulton, R. L., Dawson, J., Bluhmki, E., and Lees, K. R. (2014) Exploration of time-course combinations of outcome scales for use in a global test of stroke recovery. International Journal of Stroke, 9 (6). pp. 755-758. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/ijs.12131)

Goldie, F. C., Fulton, R. L., Dawson, J., Bluhmki, E., and Lees, K. R. (2014) Exploration of time-course combinations of outcome scales for use in a global test of stroke recovery. International Journal of Stroke, 9 (6). pp. 755-758. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/ijs.12131)

Frank, B., Fulton, R. L., Goldie, F. C., Hacke, W., Weimar, C., and Lees, K. R. (2014) Intracluster correlation coefficients and reliability of randomized multicenter stroke trials within VISTA. International Journal of Stroke, 9 (5). pp. 602-606. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/ijs.12123)

Frank, B., Fulton, R. L., and Lees, K. R. (2014) The effect of time to treatment on outcome in very elderly thrombolysed stroke patients. International Journal of Stroke, 9 (5). pp. 591-596. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/ijs.12249)

Higgins, P., Walters, M. R., Murray, H. M., McArthur, K., McConnachie, A., Lees, K. R., and Dawson, J. (2014) Allopurinol reduces brachial and central blood pressure, and carotid intima-media thickness progression after ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attack: a randomised controlled trial. Heart, 100 (14). pp. 1085-1092. ISSN 1355-6037 (doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2014-305683)

Higgins, P., Dawson, J., Macfarlane, P. W., McArthur, K., Langhorne, P., and Lees, K. R. (2014) Predictive value of newly detected atrial fibrillation paroxysms in patients with acute ischemic stroke, for atrial fibrillation after 90 days. Stroke, 45 (7). pp. 2134-2136. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.005405)

Mattle, H. P., Brainin, M., Chamorro, A., Dichgans, M., Lees, K. R., Leys, D., and Michel, P. (2014) Second European Stroke Science Workshop. Stroke, 45 (7). e113-e122. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.005583)

Mishra, N. K., Mandava, P., Chen, C., Grotta, J., Lees, K. R., and Kent, T. A. (2014) Influence of racial differences on outcomes after thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemic stroke. International Journal of Stroke, 9 (5). pp. 613-617. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/ijs.12162)

van der Worp, H. B. et al. (2014) EuroHYP-1: European multicenter, randomized, phase III clinical trial of therapeutic hypothermia plus best medical treatment vs. best medical treatment alone for acute ischemic stroke. International Journal of Stroke, 9 (5). pp. 642-645. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/ijs.12294)

Goldie, F.C., Fulton, R.L., Frank, B., and Lees, K.R. (2014) Interdependence of stroke outcome scales: reliable estimates from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA). International Journal of Stroke, 9 (3). pp. 328-332. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/ijs.12178)

Krebs, H.I. et al. (2014) Robotic measurement of arm movements after stroke establishes biomarkers of motor recovery. Stroke, 45 (1). pp. 200-204. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.002296)

Abdul-Rahim, A. H., Fulton, R., Benedikt, F., Tatlisumak, T., Paciaroni, M., Caso, V., Diener, H.-C., and Lees, K. R. (2014) The role of antithrombotics therapy in recent ischaemic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation: analysis from VISTA. In: International Stroke Conference 2014, 12-14 Feb 2014, San Diego, CA, USA.

Fulton, R. L. et al. (2014) Selection for delayed intravenous alteplase treatment based on a prognostic score. International Journal of Stroke . ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/j.1747-4949.2012.00943.x) (In Press)

Hacke, W. et al. (2014) Transcranial laser therapy in acute stroke treatment: results of neurothera effectiveness and safety trial 3, a phase III clinical end point device trial. Stroke, 45 (11). pp. 3187-3193. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.005795)

Hesse, K. et al. (2014) Characteristic adverse events and their incidence among patients participating in acute ischemic stroke trials. Stroke, 45 . pp. 2677-2682. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/​STROKEAHA.114.005845)

Kishore, A., Vail, A., Majid, A., Dawson, J., Lees, K.R., Tyrrell, P.J., and Smith, C.J. (2014) Detection of atrial fibrillation after ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Stroke, 45 (2). pp. 520-526. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.003433)

Lees, K. R. (2014) Serial Alberta stroke program early computed tomography score from baseline to 24 hours in swift: a novel surrogate end point for revascularization in acute stroke. Stroke, 45 (3). pp. 653-654. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.004484)

Rahlfs, V. W., Zimmermann, H., and Lees, K. R. (2014) Effect size measures and their relationships in stroke studies. Stroke, 45 (2). pp. 627-633. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.003151)

Rankin, A.J., Tran, R.T., Abdul-Rahim, A.H., Rankin, A.C., and Lees, K.R. (2014) Clinically important atrial arrhythmia and stroke risk: a UK-wide online survey among stroke physicians and cardiologists. QJM, 107 (11). pp. 895-902. ISSN 1460-2725 (doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcu177)

Tan, J., Fulton, R., Abdul-Rahim, A., and Lees, K. (2014) Comparison of responses to activase versus actilyse in acute ischaemic stroke. In: Glasgow Evidence-Based Medicine Society Conference 2013, 5 Oct 2013, Glasgow, UK.

2013

Frank, B., Fulton, R.L., Weimar, C., Lees, K.R., and Sanders, R.D. (2013) Use of paracetamol in ischaemic stroke patients: evidence from VISTA. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 128 (3). pp. 172-177. ISSN 0001-6314 (doi:10.1111/ane.12094)

Hankey, G.J. et al. (2013) Effect of B vitamins and lowering homocysteine on cognitive impairment in patients with previous stroke or transient ischemic attack: a prespecified secondary analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial and meta-analysis. Stroke, 44 (8). pp. 2232-2239. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.001886)

Mazya, M.V., Lees, K.R., Markus, R., Roine, R.O., Seet, R.O.S., Wahlgren, N., and Ahmed, N. (2013) Safety of IV thrombolysis for ischemic stroke in patients treated with warfarin. Annals of Neurology, 74 (2). pp. 266-274. ISSN 0364-5134 (doi:10.1002/ana.23924)

Audebert, H.J., Saver, J.L., Starkman, S., Lees, K.R., and Endres, M. (2013) Prehospital stroke care: new prospects for treatment and clinical research. Neurology, 81 (5). pp. 501-508. ISSN 0028-3878 (doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e31829e0fdd)

Ahmed, N., Kellert, L., Lees, K.R., Mikulik, R., Tatlisumak, T., and Toni, D. (2013) Results of intravenous thrombolysis within 4.5 to 6 hours and updated results within 3 to 4.5 hours of onset of acute ischemic stroke recorded in the safe implementation of treatment in Stroke International Stroke Thrombolysis Register (SITS-ISTR)An Observational Study. JAMA Neurology, 70 (7). pp. 837-844. ISSN 2168-6149 (doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2013.406)

Ziai, W. C. et al. (2013) A multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase III study of Clot Lysis Evaluation of Accelerated Resolution of Intraventricular Hemorrhage (CLEAR III). International Journal of Stroke, 9 (4). pp. 536-542. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/ijs.12097)

Abdul-Rahim, A.H., and Lees, K.R. (2013) Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation after ischemic stroke: how should we hunt for it? Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy, 11 (4). pp. 485-494. ISSN 1477-9072 (doi:10.1586/erc.13.21)

Lees, K.R., Bornstein, N., Diener, H.-C., Gorelick, P.B., Rosenberg, G., and Shuaib, A. (2013) Results of membrane-activated chelator stroke intervention randomized trial of DP-b99 in acute ischemic stroke. Stroke, 44 (3). pp. 580-584. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.000013)

Morgan, T.C. et al. (2013) The modified graeb score: an enhanced tool for intraventricular hemorrhage measurement and prediction of functional outcome. Stroke, 44 (3). pp. 635-641. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.112.670653)

Cameron, A.C., Lees, K.R., Booth, M., Bailey, A., and Hunter, W. (2013) A survey of principal researchers who lead research into adults with incapacity in Scotland. Scottish Medical Journal, 58 (1). pp. 30-33. ISSN 0036-9330 (doi:10.1177/0036933012474592)

Bottle, A., Mozid, A., Grocott, H.P., Walters, M.R., Lees, K.R., Aylin, P., and Sanders, R.D. (2013) Preoperative risk factors in 10 418 patients with prior myocardial infarction and 5241 patients with prior unstable angina undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 111 (3). pp. 417-423. ISSN 0007-0912 (doi:10.1093/bja/aet107)

Frank, B. et al. (2013) Thrombolysis in stroke despite contraindications or warnings? Stroke, 44 (3). pp. 727-733. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.112.674622)

Hajjar, K., Fulton, R.L., Diener, H.-C., and Lees, K.R. (2013) Does the cognitive measure Cog-4 show improvement among patients treated with thrombolysis after acute stroke? International Journal of Stroke, 8 (8). pp. 652-656. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/j.1747-4949.2012.00848.x)

Higgins, P., Macfarlane, P. W., Dawson, J., McInnes, G. T., Langhorne, P., and Lees, K. R. (2013) Noninvasive cardiac event monitoring to detect atrial fibrillation after ischemic stroke: a randomized, controlled trial. Stroke, 44 (9). pp. 2525-2531. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.001927)

McArthur, K.S., Johnson, P.C.D., Quinn, T., Higgins, P., Langhorne, P., Walters, M.R., Weir, C.J., Dawson, J., and Lees, K.R. (2013) Improving the efficiency of stroke trials: feasibility and efficacy of group adjudication of functional end points. Stroke, 14 (12). pp. 3422-3428. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.002266)

Tu, H.T.H., Campbell, B.C.V., Meretoja, A., Churilov, L., Lees, K.R., Donnan, G.A., and Davis, S.M. (2013) Pre-stroke CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores are useful in stratifying three-month outcomes in patients with and without atrial fibrillation. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 36 (4). pp. 273-280. ISSN 1015-9770 (doi:10.1159/000353670)

Wintermark, M. et al. (2013) Acute stroke imaging research roadmap II. Stroke, 44 (9). pp. 2628-2639. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.002015)

2012

O'Brien, R.E., and Lees, K.R. (2012) Management of acute poststroke blood pressure and detection of atrial fibrillation: a postal questionnaire of UK stroke physicians' current clinical practice. Scottish Medical Journal, 57 (4). pp. 204-208. ISSN 0036-9330 (doi:10.1258/smj.2012.012118)

Dawson, J., Quinn, T., Lees, K.R., and Walters, M.R. (2012) Microembolic signals and aspirin resistance in patients with carotid stenosis. Cardiovascular Therapeutics, 30 (4). pp. 234-239. ISSN 1755-5914 (doi:10.1111/j.1755-5922.2010.00259.x)

Higgins, P., Dawson, J., Lees, K.R., McArthur, K., Quinn, T.J., and Walters, M.R. (2012) Xanthine oxidase inhibition for the treatment of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cardiovascular Therapeutics, 30 (4). pp. 217-226. ISSN 1755-5914 (doi:10.1111/j.1755-5922.2011.00277.x)

Hankey, G. J. et al. (2012) Antiplatelet therapy and the effects of B vitamins in patients with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack: a post-hoc subanalysis of VITATOPS, a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurology, 11 (6). pp. 512-520. ISSN 1474-4422 (doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70091-1)

Kerr, D.M., Fulton, R.L., and Lees, K.R. (2012) Seven-day NIHSS is a sensitive outcome measure for exploratory clinical trials in acute stroke: evidence from the virtual international stroke trials archive. Stroke, 43 (5). pp. 1401-1403. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.644484)

Ali, M. et al. (2012) Development, expansion and use of a stroke clinical trials resource for novel exploratory analyses. International Journal of Stroke, 7 (2). pp. 133-138. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/j.1747-4949.2011.00735.x)

Hankey, G. J. et al. (2012) Treatment with B vitamins and incidence of cancer in patients with previous stroke or transient ischemic attack: results of a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Stroke, 43 (6). pp. 1572-1577. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.641613)

Bath, P.M.W., Lees, K.R., Schellinger, P.D., Altman, H., Bland, M., Hogg, C., Howard, G., and Saver, J.L. (2012) Statistical analysis of the primary outcome in acute stroke trials. Stroke, 43 (4). pp. 1171-1178. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.641456)

Frank, B., Fulton, R., Weimar, C., Shuaib, A., and Lees, K.R. (2012) Impact of atrial fibrillation on outcome in Thrombolyzed patients with stroke: evidence from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA). Stroke, 43 (7). pp. 1872-1877. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.112.650838)

Howard, G., Waller, J.L., Voeks, J.H., Howard, V.J., Jauch, E.C., Lees, K.R., Nichols, F.T., Rahlfs, V.W., and Hess, D.C. (2012) A simple, assumption-free, and clinically interpretable approach for analysis of modified Rankin outcomes. Stroke, 43 (3). pp. 664-669. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.632935)

Kerr, D.M., Fulton, R.L., Higgins, P., Bath, P.M.W., Shuaib, A., Lyden, P., and Lees, K.R. (2012) Response of blood pressure and blood glucose to treatment with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator in acute ischemic stroke: evidence from the virtual international stroke trials archive. Stroke, 43 (2). pp. 399-404. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.627059)

Kerr, D.M., and Lees, K.R. (2012) Letter by Kerr and Lees Regarding Article, "Country Comparisons of Human Stroke Research Since 2001: A Bibliometric Study". Stroke, 43 (5). e52-e52. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.112.653071)

Lees, K.R., Bath, P.M.W., Schellinger, P., Kerr, D.M., Fulton, R., Hacke, W., Matchar, D., Sehra, R., and Toni, D. (2012) Contemporary outcome measures in acute stroke research: choice of primary outcome measure. Stroke, 43 (4). pp. 1163-1170. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.641423)

Pitt, M., Monks, T., Agarwal, P., Worthington, D., Ford, G.A., Lees, K.R., Stein, K., and James, M.A. (2012) Will delays in treatment jeopardize the population benefit from extending the time window for stroke thrombolysis? Stroke, 43 (11). pp. 2992-2997. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.638650)

2011

Rosenberg, G., Bornstein, N., Diener, H.-C., Gorelick, P.B., Shuaib, A., and Lees, K. (2011) The Membrane-Activated Chelator Stroke Intervention (MACSI) Trial of DP-b99 in acute ischemic stroke: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational pivotal Phase III study. International Journal of Stroke, 6 (4). pp. 362-367. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/j.1747-4949.2011.00608.x)

Cameron, A., Dawson, J., Quinn, T.J., Walters, M.R., McInnes, G.T., Morrison, D., Sloan, W., and Lees, K.R. (2011) Long-term outcome following attendance at a transient ischemic attack clinic. International Journal of Stroke, 6 (4). pp. 306-311. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/j.1747-4949.2011.00591.x)

Hajjar, K., Kerr, D.M., and Lees, K.R. (2011) Thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke. Journal of Vascular Surgery, 54 (3). pp. 901-907. ISSN 0741-5214 (doi:10.1016/j.jvs.2011.04.062)

Mishra, N.K., Ahmed, N., Davalos, A., Iversen, H.K., Melo, T., Soinne, L., Wahlgren, N., and Lees, K.R. (2011) Thrombolysis outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients with prior stroke and diabetes mellitus. Neurology, 77 (21). pp. 1866-1872. ISSN 0028-3878 (doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e318238ee42)

Mishra, N.K., Shuaib, A., Lyden, P., Diener, H.-C., Grotta, J., Davis, S., Davalos, A., Ashwood, T., Wasiewski, W., and Lees, K.R. (2011) Home Time Is Extended in Patients With Ischemic Stroke Who Receive Thrombolytic Therapy: A Validation Study of Home Time as an Outcome Measure. Stroke, 42 (4). pp. 1046-1050. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.601302)

2010

Harrison, J.K., Sloan, B., Dawson, J., Lees, K.R., and Morrison, D.S. (2010) The ABCD and ABCD2 as predictors of stroke in transient ischemic attack clinic outpatients: a retrospective cohort study over 14 years. Quarterly Journal of Medicine, 103 (9). pp. 679-685. ISSN 1460-2725 (doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcq108)

Cucchiara, B., Kasner, S., Tanne, D., Levine, S., Demchuk, A., Messe, S., Sansing, L., Lees, K., and Lyden, P. (2010) Validation assessment of risk scores to predict postthrombolysis intracerebral haemorrhage. International Journal of Stroke, 6 (2). pp. 109-111. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/j.1747-4949.2010.00556.x)

Ali, M., Juttler, E., Lees, K.R., Hacke, W., and Diedler, J. (2010) Patient outcomes in historical comparators compared with randomised-controlled trials. International Journal of Stroke, 5 (1). pp. 10-15. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/j.1747-4949.2009.00393.x)

Ahmed, N. et al. (2010) Association of Admission Blood Glucose and Outcome in Patients Treated With Intravenous Thrombolysis. Archives of Neurology, 67 (9). pp. 1123-1130. ISSN 0003-9942 (doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.210)

Ahmed, N., Wahlgren, N., Grond, M., Hennerici, M., Lees, K.R., Mikulik, R., Parsons, M., Roine, R.O., Toni, D., and Ringleb, P. (2010) Implementation and outcome of thrombolysis with alteplase 3–4·5 h after an acute stroke: an updated analysis from SITS-ISTR. Lancet Neurology, 9 (9). pp. 866-874. ISSN 1474-4422 (doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(10)70165-4)

Ali, M. et al. (2010) VISTA-Rehab: A resource for stroke rehabilitation trials. International Journal of Stroke, 5 (6). pp. 447-452. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/j.1747-4949.2010.00485.x)

Dawson, J., Quinn, T.J., Rafferty, M., Higgins, P., Ray, G., Lees, K.R., and Walters, M.R. (2010) Aspirin resistance and compliance with therapy. Cardiovascular Therapeutics, 29 (5). pp. 301-307. ISSN 1755-5914 (doi:10.1111/j.1755-5922.2010.00188.x)

Diedler, J. et al. (2010) Safety of intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke in patients receiving antiplatelet therapy at stroke onset. Stroke, 41 (2). pp. 288-294. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.559724)

Ederle, J. et al. (2010) Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 375 (9719). pp. 985-997. ISSN 0140-6736 (doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60239-5)

Kumar, N., Davis, S.M., Kaste, M., and Lees, K.R. (2010) Comparison of Outcomes Following Thrombolytic Therapy Among Patients With Prior Stroke and Diabetes in the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA). Diabetes Care, 33 (12). pp. 2531-2537. ISSN 0149-5992

Lees, K.R. et al. (2010) Time to treatment with intravenous alteplase and outcome in stroke: an updated pooled analysis of ECASS, ATLANTIS, NINDS, and EPITHET trials. Lancet, 375 (9727). pp. 1695-1703. ISSN 0140-6736 (doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60491-6)

McArthur, K., and Lees, K.R. (2010) Advances in emerging therapies 2009. Stroke, 41 (2). e67-e70. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.571539)

Mishra, N.K., Ahmed, N., Andersen, G., Egido, J.A., Lindsberg, P.J., Ringleb, P.A., Wahlgren, N.G., and Lees, K.R. (2010) Thrombolysis in very elderly people: controlled comparison of SITS international stroke thrombolysis registry and virtual international stroke trials archive. British Medical Journal, 341 . c6046. ISSN 0959-535X (doi:10.1136/bmj.c6046)

Mishra, N.K., Diener, H.-C., Lyden, P.D., Bluhmki, E., and Lees, K.R. (2010) Influence of age on outcome from thrombolysis in acute stroke: a controlled comparison in patients from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA). Stroke, 41 (12). pp. 2840-2848. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.586206)

Mishra, N.K., Donnan, G.A., Furlan, A.J., Hacke, W., and Lees, K.R. (2010) Mismatch-based delayed thrombolysis: a meta-analysis. Stroke, 41 (1). e25-e33. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.566869)

Mishra, N.K. et al. (2010) 5th UK Stroke Forum Conference 30 November-2 December 2010 SECC, Glasgow, UK Abstracts. International Journal of Stroke, 5 (Suppl.). pp. 3-67. ISSN 1747-4930

Mishra, N.K., Lyden, P., Grotta, J.C., and Lees, K.R. (2010) Thrombolysis is associated with consistent functional improvement across baseline stroke severity: a comparison of outcomes in patients from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA). Stroke, 41 (11). pp. 2612-2617. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.589317)

Weimar, C., Ali, M., Lees, K.R., Bluhmki, E., Donnan, G. A., and Diener, H. C. (2010) The Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA): results and impact on future stroke trials and management of stroke patients. International Journal of Stroke, 5 (2). pp. 103-109. ISSN 1747-4930

2009

Dawson, J., Quinn, T.J., Harrow, C., Lees, K.R., and Walters, M. (2009) The effect of allopurinol on the cerebral vasculature of patients with subcortical stroke; a randomized trial. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 68 (5). pp. 662-668. ISSN 0306-5251 (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2009.03497.x)

Kamel, H., Lees, K.R., Lyden, P.D., Teal, P.A., Shuaib, A., Ali, M., and Johnston, S.C. (2009) Delayed detection of atrial fibrillation after ischemic stroke. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, 18 (6). pp. 453-457. ISSN 1052-3057 (doi:10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2009.01.012)

Quinn, T.J., Dawson, J., Walters, M., and Lees, K. (2009) Functional outcome measures in contemporary stroke trials. International Journal of Stroke, 4 (3). pp. 200-205. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/j.1747-4949.2009.00271.x)

Quinn, T.J., Dawson, J., Walters, M., and Lees, K.R. (2009) Functional outcome measures in contemporary stroke trials. International Journal of Stroke, 4 (3). pp. 200-205. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/j.1747-4949.2009.00271.x)

Ali, M., Lyden, P., Sacco, R.L., Shuaib, A., and Lees, K.R. (2009) Natural history of complications after intracerebral haemorrhage. European Journal of Neurology, 16 (5). pp. 624-630. ISSN 1351-5101 (doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2009.02559.x)

Ahmed, N., Ford, G.A., Kaste, M., Lees, K.R., and Toni, D. (2009) Relationship of blood pressure, antihypertensive therapy, and outcome in ischemic stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis: retrospective analysis from Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-International Stroke Thrombolysis Register (SITS-ISTR). Stroke, 40 (7). pp. 2442-2449. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/​STROKEAHA.109.548602)

Ali, M., Sacco, R., and Lees, K. (2009) Primary end-point times, functional outcome and adverse event profile after acute ischaemic stroke. International Journal of Stroke, 4 (6). pp. 432-442.

Ali, M., Atula, S., Bath, P.M.W., Grotta, J., Hacke, W., Lyden, P., Marler, J.R., Sacco, R.L., and Lees, K.R. (2009) Stroke outcome in clinical trial patients deriving from different countries. Stroke, 40 (1). pp. 35-40. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/​STROKEAHA.108.518035)

Cucchiara, B., Kasner, S.E., Tanne, D., Levine, S.R., Demchuk, A., Messe, S.R., Sansing, L., Lees, K.R., and Lyden, P. (2009) Factors associated with intracerebral hemorrhage after thrombolytic therapy for ischemic stroke pooled analysis of placebo data from the Stroke-Acute Ischemic NXY Treatment (SAINT) I and SAINT II trials. Stroke, 40 (9). pp. 3067-3072. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.554386)

Dawson, J., Lees, K., Weir, C., Weir, C., Quinn, T., Ali, M., Hennerici, M., and Walters, M. (2009) Baseline Serum Urate and 90-Day Functional Outcomes following Acute Ischemic Stroke. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 28 (2). pp. 202-203.

Dawson, J., Lamb, K.E., Quinn, T.J., Lees, K.R., Horvers, M., Verrijth, M.J., and Walters, M. (2009) A recognition tool for transient ischaemic attack. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, 102 (1). pp. 43-49. ISSN 1460-2725 (doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcn139)

Dawson, J., Quinn, T.J., Harrow, C., Lees, K.R., Weir, C., Cleland, S., and Walters, M. (2009) Allopurinol and nitric oxide activity in the cerebral circulation of those with diabetes. Diabetes Care, 32 (1). pp. 135-137. ISSN 0149-5992 (doi:10.2337/dc08-1179)

Diener, H., Weimar, C., Ali, M., and Lees, K. (2009) The Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA): Significance for Stroke Research. Aktuelle Neurologie, 36 (4). pp. 174-179.

Higgins, P., and Lees, K.R. (2009) Advances in emerging therapies 2008. Stroke, 40 (5). e292-e294. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.544544)

Kidwell, C.S., Lees, K.R., Muir, K.W., Chen, C., Davis, S.M., De Silva, D.A., Weir, C.J., Starkman, S., Alger, J.R., and Saver, J.L. (2009) Results of the MRI substudy of the intravenous magnesium efficacy in stroke trial. Stroke, 40 (5). pp. 1704-1709. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.537613)

Lees, K.R. (2009) PRoFESS. Stroke, 40 (5). p. 1941. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.541854)

Lees, K.R. (2009) Training and consistency in stroke assessments. Stroke, 40 (7). p. 2297. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.541581)

Lees, K. (2009) Stroke: success for extending acute treatment. Lancet Neurology, 8 (1). pp. 2-4. ISSN 1474-4422

Quinn, T.J., Cameron, A., Dawson, J., Lees, K.R., and Walters, M.R. (2009) ABCD2 scores and prediction of noncerebrovascular diagnoses in an outpatient population: a case-control study. Stroke, 40 (3). pp. 749-753. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.530444)

Quinn, T.J., Cameron, A.D., Dawson, J., Walters, M., and Lees, K.R. (2009) A prospective study using the ABCD2 score in screening for minor stroke or transient ischaemic attack in referrals to a fast track clinic response. Stroke, 40 (6). e468-e468. (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.551077)

Quinn, T.J., Dawson, J., Walters, M., and Lees, K.R. (2009) Exploring the reliability of the modified Rankin Scale. Stroke, 40 (3). pp. 762-766. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.522516)

Quinn, T.J., Dawson, J., Walters, M., and Lees, K.R. (2009) Reliability of the modified Rankin Scale: a systematic review. Stroke, 40 (10). pp. 3393-3395. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.557256)

Quinn, T., and Lees, K. (2009) Hyperglycaemia in Acute Stroke - To Treat or Not to Treat. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 27 . pp. 148-155.

Quinn, T., Paolucci, S., Sunnerhagen, K., Sivenius, J., Walker, M., Toni, D., and Lees, K. (2009) Evidence-Based Stroke Rehabilitation: An Expanded Guidance Document from the European Stroke Organisation (Eso) Guidelines for Management of Ischaemic Stroke and Transient Ischaemic Attack 2008. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 41 (2). pp. 99-111.

Saini, M., Saqqur, M., Kamruzzaman, A., Lees, K.R., and Shuaib, A. (2009) Effect of hyperthermia on prognosis after acute ischemic stroke. Stroke, 40 (9). pp. 3051-3059. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.556134)

Whitehead, J., Bolland, K., Valdes-Marquez, E., Lihic, A., Ali, M., and Lees, K.R. (2009) Using historical lesion volume data in the design of a new phase II clinical trial in acute stroke. Stroke, 40 (4). pp. 1347-1352. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.531442)

2008

Muir, S.W., Harrow, C., Dawson, J., Lees, K.R., Weir, C.J., Sattar, N., and Walters, M.R. (2008) Allopurinol use yields potentially beneficial effects on inflammatory indices in those with recent ischemic stroke: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Stroke, 39 (12). pp. 3303-3307. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.519793)

Lecrux, C., McCabe, C., Weir, C.J., Gallagher, L., Mullin, J., Touzani, O., Muir, K., Lees, K.R., and Macrae, I.M. (2008) Effects of magnesium treatment in a model of internal capsule lesion in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Stroke, 39 (2). pp. 448-454. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.492934)

Quinn, T.J., Dawson, J., and Lees, K.R. (2008) Past, present and future of alteplase for acute ischemic stroke. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics , 8 (2). pp. 181-192. ISSN 1473-7175 (doi:10.1586/14737175.8.2.181)

Quinn, T.J., Dawson, J., Lees, J.S., Chang, T.P., Walters, M.R., and Lees, K.R. (2008) Time spent at home poststroke: “home-time” a meaningful and robust outcome measure for stroke trials. Stroke, 39 (1). pp. 231-233. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.493320)

Dawson, J., Quinn, T.J., Lees, K.R., and Walters, M. (2008) The continued yin and yang of uric acid. Stroke, 39 (1). e9-e9. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.502245 )

Dawson, J., Weir, C., Wright, F., Bryden, C., Aslanyan, S., Lees, K., Bird, W., and Walters, M. (2008) Associations between meteorological variables and acute stroke hospital admissions in the west of Scotland. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 117 (2). pp. 85-89. ISSN 0001-6314 (doi:10.1111/j.1600-0404.2007.00916.x )

Diener, H.C. et al. (2008) NXY-059 for the treatment of acute stroke: pooled analysis of the SAINT I and II trials. Stroke, 39 (6). pp. 1751-1758. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.503334 )

Fink, J.N., Frampton, C.M., Lyden, P., and Lees, K.R. (2008) Does hemispheric lateralization influence functional and cardiovascular outcomes after stroke?: an analysis of placebo-treated patients from prospective acute stroke trials. Stroke, 39 (12). pp. 3335-3340. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.523365 )

Hacke, W. et al. (2008) Thrombolysis with alteplase 3 to 4.5 hours after acute ischemic stroke. New England Journal of Medicine, 359 (13). pp. 1317-1329. ISSN 0028-4793 (doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0804656)

Higgins, P., Ghosh, S., and Lees, K. (2008) Improving mortality from stroke disease: putting the evidence into practice. British Journal of Hospital Medicine, 69 (12). pp. 668-669. ISSN 1750-8460

Lees, K.R. et al. (2008) Thrombolytic therapy for acute stroke in the United Kingdom: experience from the safe implementation of thrombolysis in stroke (SITS) register. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, 101 (11). pp. 863-869. ISSN 1460-2725 (doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcn102)

Quinn, T.J., Dawson, J., Walters, M., and Lees, K.R. (2008) Variability in modified rankin scoring across a large cohort of observers. Stroke, 39 (11). pp. 2975-2979. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.515262)

Quinn, T.J., and Lees, K.R. (2008) Advances in emerging therapies 2007. Stroke, 39 (2). pp. 255-257. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.508291)

Quinn, T.J., Ray, G., Atula, S., Walters, M.R., Dawson, J., and Lees, K.R. (2008) Deriving modified rankin scores from medical records. Stroke, 39 (12). pp. 3421-3423. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.519306)

Wahlgren, N., Ahmed, N., Davalos, A., Hacke, W., Millan, M., Muir, K., Roine, R.O., Toni, D., and Lees, K.R. (2008) Thrombolysis with alteplase 3—4·5 h after acute ischaemic stroke (SITS-ISTR): an observational study. Lancet, 372 (9646). pp. 1303-1309. ISSN 0140-6736 (doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61339-2)

Wahlgren, N. et al. (2008) Multivariable analysis of outcome predictors and adjustment of main outcome results to baseline data profile in randomized controlled trials: Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-MOnitoring STudy (SITS-MOST). Stroke, 39 (12). pp. 3316-3322. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.510768)

Wintermark, M. et al. (2008) Acute stroke imaging research roadmap. Stroke, 39 (5). pp. 1621-1628. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.512319)

2007

Quinn, T.J., Dawson, J., Walters, M.R., and Lees, K.R. (2007) Reliability of the modified rankin scale. Stroke, 38 (11). e144. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.490110)

Quinn, T.J., and Lees, K.R. (2007) European Stroke Conference, Glasgow, UK, May 29–June 1, 2007. International Journal of Stroke, 2 (4). pp. 297-298. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/j.1747-4949.2007.00155.x)

Ahmed, N. et al. (2007) Thrombolysis with alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke in the Safe implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-Monitoring Study (SITS-MOST): an observational study. Lancet, 369 . pp. 275-282.

Ali, M. et al. (2007) The Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive. Stroke, 38 (6). pp. 1905-1910. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.106.473579)

Ashwood, T., Davalos, A., Davis, S., Diener, H., Emeribe, U., Grotta, J., Lees, K., Lyden, P., Shuaib, A., and Wasiewski, W. (2007) NXY-059 for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. New England Journal of Medicine, 357 . pp. 562-571. ISSN 0028-4793

Aslanyan, S., Grieve, A., Johnston, C., Krams, M., Lees, K., and Weir, C. (2007) The association of post-stroke neurological improvement with risk of subsequent deterioration due to stroke events. European Journal of Neurology, 14 . pp. 1-6. (doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2006.01549.x)

Aslanyan, S., Weir, C.J., Muir, K.W., and Lees, K.R. (2007) Magnesium for treatment of acute lacunar stroke syndromes: further analysis of the IMAGES trial. Stroke, 38 (10). pp. 1269-1273. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000259628.94421.09)

Dawson, J., Lees, J.S., Chang, T.P., Walters, M.R., Ali, M., Davis, S.M., Diener, H.C., and Lees, K.R. (2007) Association between disability measures and healthcare costs after initial treatment for acute stroke. Stroke, 38 (6). pp. 1893-1898. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.106.472381)

Dawson, J., and Lees, K.R. (2007) Advances in emerging therapies 2006. Stroke, 38 (2). pp. 219-221. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000254718.22566.90)

Dawson, J., Lees, K.R., and Quinn, T.J. (2007) Acute stroke: we have the treatments and we have the evidence we need to use them. Critical Care Medicine, 11 (2). p. 124. ISSN 0090-3493

Lees, K.R., Ashwood, T., and Odergren, T. (2007) Response to letter by Proctor and Tamborello. Stroke, 38 (10). e110-e110. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.493411)

Lees, K., and Shuaib, A. (2007) NXY-059 for the treatment of stroke. New England Journal of Medicine, 357 (21). pp. 2198-2199. ISSN 0028-4793

Lyden, P.D. et al. (2007) Safety and tolerability of NXY-059 for acute intracerebral hemorrhage: the CHANT trial. Stroke, 38 (8). pp. 2262-2269. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.106.472746)

Murray, S., Bashir, K., Lees, K.R., Langhorne, P., Muir, K., MacAlpine, C., and Roberts, M. (2007) Epidemiological aspects of referral to TIA clinics in Glasgow. Scottish Medical Journal, 52 . pp. 4-8. ISSN 0036-9330

Prosser, J., MacGregor, L., Lees, K.R., Diener, H.-C., Hacke, W., and Davis, S. (2007) Predictors of early cardiac morbidity and mortality after ischemic stroke. Stroke, 38 (8). pp. 2295-2302. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.106.471813)

Quinn, T.J., Lees, K.R., Hardemark, H.G., Dawson, J., and Walters, M.R. (2007) Initial experience of a digital training resource for modified Rankin scale assessment in clinical trials. Stroke, 38 (8). pp. 2257-2261. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.106.480723)

2006

Lees, K.R. et al. (2006) Additional outcomes and subgroup analyses of NXY-059 for acute ischemic stroke in the SAINT I trial. Stroke, 37 (12). pp. 2970-2978. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000249410.91473.44)

Thomas, D. et al. (2006) Glyceryl trinitrate vs. control, and continuing vs. stopping temporarily prior anti hypertensive therapy, in acute stroke: rationale and design of the Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke (ENOS) trial. International Journal of Stroke, 1 (4). pp. 245-249. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/j.1747-4949.2006.00059.x)

Arima, H. et al. (2006) Prior events predict cerebrovascular and coronary outcomes in the PROGRESS trial. Stroke, 37 (6). pp. 1497-1502. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000221212.36860.c9)

Lees, K.R., Lyden, P., and Shuaib, A. (2006) NXY-059 for acute ischemic stroke - reply. New England Journal of Medicine, 354 (19). p. 2076. ISSN 0028-4793

Al, R.Y., Albers, G.W., Eyding, D., Furlan, A.J., Hacke, W.l., Lees, K.R., Rowley, H.A., Sachara, C., Soehngen, M., and Warach, S. (2006) Dose escalation of desmoteplase for acute ischemic stroke (DEDAS): evidence of safety and efficacy 3 to 9 hours after stroke onset. Stroke, 37 (5). pp. 1227-1231. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000217403.66996.6d)

Dittrich, R., Ritter, M.A., Kaps, M., Siebler, M., Lees, K.R., Larrue, V., Nabavi, D.G., Ringelstein, E.B., Markus, H.S., and Droste, D.W. (2006) The use of embolic signal detection in multicenter trials to evaluate antiplatelet efficacy: signal analysis and quality control mechanisms in the CARESS (Clopidogrel and Aspirin for Reduction of Emboli in Symptomatic carotid Stenosis) trial. Stroke, 37 (4). pp. 1065-1069. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000209331.39894.3d)

Ashwood, T. et al. (2006) NXY-059 for acute ischemic stroke. New England Journal of Medicine, 354 . pp. 588-600. ISSN 0028-4793

Bain, C., Lees, K., Lumsden, M., and Walters, M. (2006) Sex hormones and cerebral hemodynamics - Author's reply. Climacteric, 9 (1). p. 67.

Chiu, D. et al. (2006) Effect of the glycine antagonist gavestinel on cerebral infarcts in acute stroke patients, a randomized placebo-controlled trial: The GAIN MRI substudy. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 21 . pp. 106-111. (doi:10.1159/000090208)

Davis, S., Lees, K., and Donnan, G. (2006) Treating the acute stroke patient as an emergency: current practices and future opportunities. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 60 . pp. 399-407. (doi:10.1111/j.1368-5031.2006.00873.x)

Davis, S., Lees, K., and Lyden, P. (2006) Alteplase for acute stroke revisited: the first 10 years. Lancet Neurology, 5 (9). pp. 722-724. ISSN 1474-4422

Dawson, J., Walters, M., and Lees, K. (2006) 21st century stroke - A medical emergency. Scottish Medical Journal, 51 (3). pp. 34-41.

Lees, K. (2006) The narrow upward path towards neuroprotection. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 22 . pp. 1-2.

Lees, K., and Milia, P. (2006) Halving effort in acute stroke trials. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension, 28 (03-Apr). pp. 309-312.

Lees, K., Muir, K., Ovbiagele, B., Saver, J., and Weir, C. (2006) Effect of smoking status on outcome after acute ischemic stroke. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 21 . pp. 260-265. (doi:10.1159/000091224)

Milia, P., Muir, S., Alem, M., Lees, K., and Walters, M. (2006) Comparison of the effect of diuretics on carotid blood flow in stroke patients. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, 47 . pp. 446-449.

Nazir, F., Alem, M., Small, M., Connell, J., Lees, K., Walters, M., and Cleland, S. (2006) Blunted response to systemic nitric oxide synthase inhibition in the cerebral circulation of patients with Type 2 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine, 23 . pp. 398-402. (doi:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2005.01815.x)

Newman, E.J., Rahman, F.S., Lees, K.R., Weir, C.J., and Walters, M. (2006) Elevated serum urate concentration independently predicts poor outcome following stroke in patients with diabetes. Diabetes: Metabolism Research and Reviews, 22 (1). pp. 79-82.

Walters, M., Weir, C., and Lees, K. (2006) A randomised, controlled pilot study to investigate the potential benefit of intervention with insulin in hyperglycaemic acute ischaemic stroke patients. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 22 . pp. 116-122. (doi:10.1159/000093239)

2005

Krams, M., Lees, K.R., and Berry, D.A. (2005) The past is the future: innovative designs in acute stroke therapy trials. Stroke, 36 (6). pp. 1341-1347. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000165931.77045.ee)

Al, R.Y., Albers, G., Eliasziw, M., Fischer, M., Furlan, A., Hacke, W., Kaste, M., Lees, K.R., Soehngen, M., and Warach, S. (2005) The Desmoteplase In Acute Ischemic Stroke Trial (DIAS): a phase II MRI-based 9-hour window acute stroke thrombolysis trial with intravenous desmoteplase. Stroke, 36 (1). pp. 66-73. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000149938.08731.2c)

Aslanyan, S., Weir, C., McInnes, G., Reid, J., Walters, M., and Lees, K. (2005) Statin administration prior to ischaemic stroke onset and survival: exploratory evidence from matched treatment-control study. European Journal of Neurology, 12 . pp. 493-498.

Bain, C., Lees, K., Lumsden, M., and Walters, M. (2005) Effect of a gonadotropin releasing hormone analog on cerebral hemodynamics in premenopausal women. Climacteric, 8 . pp. 193-197. (doi:10.1080/13697130500118068)

Bolster, A., Hilditch, T., Lees, K., Nazir, F., and Overell, J. (2005) Effect of perindopril on cerebral and renal perfusion on normotensives in mild early ischaemic stroke: A randomized controlled trial. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 19 . pp. 77-83. (doi:10.1159/000082783)

Bone, I., Lees, K., and Nazir, F. (2005) Clinical features associated with medically unexplained stroke-like symptoms presenting to an acute stroke unit. European Journal of Neurology, 12 . pp. 81-85.

Cheng, Y., Edenius, C., Jonsson, S., Karlsson, M., Lees, K., and Odergren, T. (2005) Population pharmacokinetic modelling and estimation of dosing strategy for NXY-059, a nitrone being developed for stroke. Clinical Pharmacokinetics, 44 . pp. 863-878.

Droste, D., Kaps, M., Larrue, V., Lees, K., Markus, H., Ringelstein, E., and Siebler, M. (2005) Dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin in symptomatic carotid stenosis evaluated using Doppler embolic signal detection - The Clopidogrel and Aspirin for Reduction of Emboli in Symptomatic Carotid Stenosis (CARESS) trial. Circulation, 111 . pp. 2233-2240. (doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000163561.90680.1C)

Droste, D., Kaps, M., Larrue, V., Lees, K., Markus, H., Ringelstein, E., and Siebler, M. (2005) Letter regarding article by Markus et al, 'Dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin in symptomatic cardiac stenosis evaluated using Doppler embolic signal detection: The clopidogrel and aspirin for reducton of emboli in symptomatic car. Circulation, 112 (20). E325-E326.

Haley, E.C., Thompson, J.L.P., Levin, B., Davis, S., Lees, K.R., Pittman, J.G., Derosa, J.T., Ordronneau, P., Brown, D.L., and Sacco, R.L. (2005) Gavestinel does not improve outcome after acute intracerebral hemorrhage: an analysis from the GAIN International and GAIN Americas studies. Stroke, 36 (5). pp. 1006-1010. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000163053.77982.8d)

Lees, K.R., Weir, C.J., and Young, F.B. (2005) Improving trial power through use of prognosis-adjusted end points. Stroke, 36 (3). pp. 597-601. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000154856.42135.85)

Lees, K., and Walters, M. (2005) Acute stroke and diabetes. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 20 (Suppl.). pp. 9-14. (doi:10.1159/000088232)

Murray, G. et al. (2005) Design and analysis of Phase III trials with ordered outcome scales: The concept of the sliding dichotomy. Journal of Neurotrauma, 22 . pp. 511-517.

Walters, M., Kaste, M., Lees, K., Diener, H., Hommel, M., De Keyser, J., Steiner, H., and Versavel, M. (2005) The AMPA antagonist ZK 200775 in patients with acute ischaemic stroke: A double-blind, multicentre, placebo-controlled safety and tolerability study. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 20 . pp. 304-309. (doi:10.1159/000087929)

Walters, M., Muir, K., Harbison, J., Lees, K., and Ford, G. (2005) Intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke: Preliminary experience with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in the UK. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 20 . pp. 438-442. (doi:10.1159/000088982)

Walters, M., Weir, C., Adams, F., and Lees, K. (2005) The prognostic significance of visible infarction on computed tomography following lacunar stroke: Results of a long-term follow-up study. Journal of Neuroimaging, 15 . pp. 331-335. (doi:10.1177/1051228405279993)

Young, F.B., Weir, C.J., and Lees, K.R. (2005) Comparison of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale with disability outcome measures in acute stroke trials. Stroke, 36 (10). pp. 2187-2192. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000181089.41324.70)

2004

Aslanyan, S., Diener, H., Kaste, M., Lees, K., and Weir, C. (2004) Pneumonia and urinary tract infection after acute ischaemic stroke: a tertiary analysis of the GAIN International trial. European Journal of Neurology, 11 . pp. 49-53.

Aslanyan, S., Weir, C.J., Johnston, S.C., and Lees, K.R. (2004) Poststroke neurological improvement within 7 days is associated with subsequent deterioration. Stroke, 35 (9). pp. 2165-2170. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000136554.03470.9d)

Aslanyan, S., Weir, C.J., and Lees, K.R. (2004) Elevated pulse pressure during the acute period of ischemic stroke is associated with poor stroke outcome. Stroke, 35 (6). e153-e155. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000126598.88662.16)

Bain, C., Walters, M., Lees, K., and Lumsden, M. (2004) The effect of HRT on cerebral haemodynamics and cerebral vasomotor reactivity in post-menopausal women. Human Reproduction, 19 . pp. 2411-2414. (doi:10.1093/humrep/deh396)

Bolland, K., Lees, K., Weeks, A., and Whitehead, J. (2004) How a sequential design would have affected the GAIN international study of Gavestinel in stroke. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 17 . pp. 111-117. (doi:10.1159/000075778)

Bolster, A., Hilditch, T., Lees, K., Nazir, F., Overell, J., and Reid, J. (2004) The effect of losartan on global and focal cerebral perfusion and on renal function in hypertensives in mild early ischaemic stroke. Journal of Hypertension, 22 . pp. 989-995. (doi:10.1097/01.hjh.0000125398.50839.97)

Krams, M., Lees, K.R., Hacke, W., Grieve, A.P., Orgogozo, J.-M., and Ford, G.A. (2004) Effectively bridging the preclinical/clinical gap: the results of the ASTIN trial - a response. Stroke, 35 (4). e81-e82. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000121164.29117.44)

Lees, K.R. et al. (2004) Magnesium for acute stroke (Intravenous Magnesium Efficacy in Stroke trial): randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 363 . pp. 439-445.

Lees, K., and Weir, C. (2004) Comparison of stratification and adaptive methods for treatment allocation in an acute stroke clinical trial - Arthor's reply. Statistics in Medicine, 23 (23). pp. 3720-3721.

Smith, L.N., Lawrence, M., Kerr, S.M., Langhorne, P., and Lees, K.R. (2004) Informal carers' experience of caring for stroke survivors. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 46 . pp. 235-244. ISSN 0309-2402 (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2004.02983.x)

Smith, L.N., Norrie, J., Kerr, S.M., Lawrence, M., Langhorne, P., and Lees, K.R. (2004) Impact and influences on caregiver outcomes at one year post-stroke. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 18 . pp. 145-153. ISSN 1015-9770 (doi:10.1159/000079268)

Walters, M., Muir, S., Shah, I., and Lees, K. (2004) Effect of perindopril on cerebral vasomotor reactivity in patients with lacunar infarction. Stroke, 35 . pp. 1899-1902. (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000131748.12553.ed)

Weir, C.J., Kaste, M., and Lees, K.R. (2004) Targeting neuroprotection clinical trials to ischemic stroke patients with potential to benefit from therapy. Stroke, 35 (9). pp. 2111-2116. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000136556.34438.b3)

Weir, C., Muir, S., Walters, M., and Lees, K. (2004) Yin and Yang of uric acid in patients with stroke - Response. Stroke, 35 (1). E11-E12.

2003

Chaturvedi, V. et al. (2003) Effects of a perindopril-based blood pressure lowering regimen on cardiac outcomes among patients with cerebrovascular disease. European Heart Journal, 24 (5). pp. 475-484. ISSN 0195-668X (doi:10.1016/S0195-668X(02)00804-7)

Al, D.L. et al. (2003) Cluster-randomized, controlled trial of computer-based decision support for selecting long-term anti-thrombotic therapy after acute ischaemic stroke. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, 96 . pp. 143-153. ISSN 1460-2725 (doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcg019)

Alberts, M., Graffagnino, C., Hoffmann, K., Lees, K., McCarron, M., Muir, K., Nicoll, J., and Weir, C. (2003) Effect of apolipoprotein E genotype on in-hospital mortality following intracerebral haemorrhage. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 107 . pp. 106-109.

Aslanyan, S., Fazekas, F., Horner, S., Lees, K., and Weir, C. (2003) Effect of blood pressure during the acute period of ischemic stroke on stroke outcome - A tertiary analysis of the GAIN International Trial. Stroke, 34 . pp. 2420-2425. (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000091233.04524.0C)

Aslanyan, S., Lees, K., McInnes, G., Reid, J., and Weir, C. (2003) Effect of area-based deprivation on the severity, subtype, and outcome of ischemic stroke. Stroke, 34 . pp. 2623-2628. (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000097610.12803.D7)

Asplund, K., Ashburner, S., Cargill, K., Hux, M., Lees, K., and Drummond, M. (2003) Health care resource use and stroke outcome - Multinational comparisons within the GAIN International trial. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, 19 . pp. 267-277.

Asplund, K., Diener, H., Krams, M., and Lees, K. (2003) UK-279,276, a neutrophil inhibitory glycoprotein, in acute stroke - Tolerability and pharmacokinetics. Stroke, 34 . pp. 1704-1709. (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000078563.72650.61)

Barer, D., Ford, G., Hacke, W., Kostulas, V., Lees, K., Odergren, T., and Sharma, A. (2003) Tolerability of NXY-059 at higher target concentrations in patients with acute stroke. Stroke, 34 . pp. 482-487. (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000053032.14223.81)

Clark, W.M., Davalos, A., Goldstein, L.B., and Lees, K.R. (2003) Design and Baseline Characteristics of the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) Study. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 16 (4). pp. 389-395. (doi:10.1159/000072562)

Ford, G., Grieve, A., Hacke, W., Krams, M., Lees, K., and Orgogozo, J. (2003) Acute Stroke Therapy by Inhibition of Neutrophils (ASTIN) - An adaptive dose-response study of UK-279,276 in acute ischemic stroke. Stroke, 34 . pp. 2543-2548. (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000092527.33910.89)

Hacke, W., Hankey, G., and Lees, K. (2003) Design of future acute-stroke treatment trials. Lancet Neurology, 2 (1). pp. 54-61. ISSN 1474-4422

Lees, K. (2003) Stroke is best managed by a neurologist: Battle of the titans. Stroke, 34 (11). pp. 2764-2765.

Lees, K. (2003) Stroke: Trial by jury. European Neurology, 49 . pp. 106-108. (doi:10.1159/000068509)

Lees, K., and Orgogozo, J. (2003) Acute stroke: Trial by jury - The toothless tiger (role of the principal investigator). European Neurology, 49 . pp. 120-124. (doi:10.1159/000068512)

Lees, K., and Weir, C. (2003) Comparison of stratification and adaptive methods for treatment allocation in an acute stroke clinical trial. Statistics in Medicine, 22 . pp. 705-726. (doi:10.1002/sim.1366)

Lees, K., Weir, C., and Young, F. (2003) Strengthening acute stroke trials through optimal use of disability end points. Stroke, 34 . pp. 2676-2680. (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000096210.36741.E7)

Muir, K., and Lees, K. (2003) Excitatory Amino Acid antagonists for acute stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 3 . CD001244.

Weir, C.J., Bradford, A.P.J., and Lees, K.R. (2003) The prognostic value of the components of the Glasgow Coma Scale following acute stroke. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, 96 . pp. 67-74. ISSN 1460-2725 (doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcg008)

Weir, C., Muir, S., Walters, M., and Lees, K. (2003) Serum urate as an independent predictor of poor outcome and future vascular events after acute stroke. Stroke, 34 . pp. 1951-1956. (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000081983.34771.D2)

Weir, C., Sattar, N., Walters, M., and Lees, K. (2003) Low triglyceride, not low cholesterol concentration, independently predicts poor outcome following acute stroke. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 16 . pp. 76-82. (doi:10.1159/000070119)

2002

De, K., Diener, H., Elting, J., Hommel, M., Kaste, M., Lees, K., Sulter, G., Teelken, A., and Versavel, M. (2002) AMPA antagonist ZK200775 in patients with acute ischemic stroke - Possible glial cell toxicity detected by monitoring of S-100B serum levels. Stroke, 33 . pp. 2813-2818. (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000043823.37855.FB)

Elliott, P., Lees, K., Pien, C., and Shah, I. (2002) Early clinical experience with the novel proteasome inhibitor PS-519. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 54 . pp. 269-276.

Grosset, D., Lees, K., Li, Q., Shuaib, A., and Yang, Y. (2002) Turbulence and circulating cerebral emboli detectable at Doppler ultrasonography: A differentiation study in a stenotic middle cerebral artery model. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 23 . pp. 1229-1236.

Harraf, F., Sharma, A., Brown, M., Lees, K., Vass, R., and Kalra, L. (2002) A multicentre observational study of presentation and early assessment of acute stroke. British Medical Journal, 325 . pp. 17-20. ISSN 0959-535X

Lees, K. (2002) Management of acute stroke. Lancet Neurology, 1 . pp. 41-50. ISSN 1474-4422

Lees, K. (2002) Neuroprotection is unlikely to be effective in humans using current trial designs: An opposing view. Stroke, 33 . pp. 308-309.

Muir, S., and Lees, K. (2002) PROGRESS in the secondary prevention of stroke. British Journal of Cardiology, 9 (3). pp. 131-134.

Walters, M., Bradford, A., Fischer, J., and Lees, K. (2002) Early clinical experience with the novel NMDA receptor antagonist CNS 5161. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 53 . pp. 305-311.

2001

Ardron, M., Dyker, A., Ford, G., Grosset, D., Lees, K., and Sharma, A. (2001) Tolerability of the low-affinity, use-dependent NMDA antagonist AR-R15896AR in stroke patients - A dose-ranging study. Stroke, 32 . pp. 466-472.

Barer, D., Cheng, Y., Ford, G., Kostulas, V., Lees, K., Odergren, T., and Sharma, A. (2001) Tolerability and pharmacokinetics of the nitrone NXY-059 in patients with acute stroke. Stroke, 32 . pp. 675-680.

Bath, P., Boysen, G., Donnan, G., Kaste, M., Lees, K.R., Olsen, T., Overgaard, K., Sandercock, P., and Wahlgren, N.G. (2001) Hypertension in acute stroke: what to do? Stroke, 32 (7). pp. 1697-1698. ISSN 0039-2499

Bone, I., Dyker, A., Lees, K., McCarron, M., Muir, K., Nicoll, J., and Weir, C. (2001) Apolipoprotein E genotype, coagulation, and survival following acute stroke. Neurology, 57 (6). pp. 1097-1100.

Bone, I., Lees, K., and Overell, J. (2001) Percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale in patients with paradoxical embolism. Circulation, 103 (10). E56-E56.

Cunha, L., Diener, H., Lavelle, J., Lees, K., Sanders, E., Tack, P., and Wester, P. (2001) Glycine antagonist (GV150526) in acute stroke: A multicentre, double-blind placebo-controlled phase II trial. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 11 . pp. 20-29.

Grosset, D., Lees, K., Yang, T., and Yang, Y. (2001) Characterization of ultrasound-detected cerebral microemboli in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization using an in vitro middle cerebral artery model. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, 53 . pp. 323-330.

Lees, K. (2001) Advances in neuroprotection trials. European Neurology, 45 . pp. 6-10.

Walters, M., Bolster, A., Dyker, A., and Lees, K. (2001) Effect of perindopril on cerebral and renal perfusion in stroke patients with carotid disease. Stroke, 32 . pp. 473-478.

2000

Bradford, A., and Lees, K. (2000) Design of the Intravenous Magnesium Efficacy in Acute Stroke (IMAGES) trial. Current Controlled Trials in Cardiovascular Medicine, 1 . pp. 184-190.

Lees, K.R., Bath, P.M.W., and Naylor, A.R. (2000) ABC of arterial and venous disease. Secondary prevention of transient ischaemic attack and stroke. British Medical Journal, 320 (7240). pp. 991-994. ISSN 0959-535X (doi:10.1136/bmj.320.7240.991)

This list was generated on Sat Dec 20 11:55:08 2014 GMT.
Number of items: 224.

Articles

Frank, B., Fulton, R. L., Lees, K. R., and Sanders, R. D. (2014) Impact of benzodiazepines on functional outcome and occurrence of pneumonia in stroke: evidence from VISTA. International Journal of Stroke, 9 (7). pp. 890-894. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/ijs.12148)

Bath, P.M.W. et al. (2014) Baseline characteristics of the 4011 patients recruited into the 'Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke' (ENOS) trial. International Journal of Stroke, 9 (6). pp. 711-720. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/ijs.12308)

Goldie, F. C., Fulton, R. L., Dawson, J., Bluhmki, E., and Lees, K. R. (2014) Exploration of time-course combinations of outcome scales for use in a global test of stroke recovery. International Journal of Stroke, 9 (6). pp. 755-758. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/ijs.12131)

Goldie, F. C., Fulton, R. L., Dawson, J., Bluhmki, E., and Lees, K. R. (2014) Exploration of time-course combinations of outcome scales for use in a global test of stroke recovery. International Journal of Stroke, 9 (6). pp. 755-758. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/ijs.12131)

Frank, B., Fulton, R. L., Goldie, F. C., Hacke, W., Weimar, C., and Lees, K. R. (2014) Intracluster correlation coefficients and reliability of randomized multicenter stroke trials within VISTA. International Journal of Stroke, 9 (5). pp. 602-606. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/ijs.12123)

Frank, B., Fulton, R. L., and Lees, K. R. (2014) The effect of time to treatment on outcome in very elderly thrombolysed stroke patients. International Journal of Stroke, 9 (5). pp. 591-596. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/ijs.12249)

Higgins, P., Walters, M. R., Murray, H. M., McArthur, K., McConnachie, A., Lees, K. R., and Dawson, J. (2014) Allopurinol reduces brachial and central blood pressure, and carotid intima-media thickness progression after ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attack: a randomised controlled trial. Heart, 100 (14). pp. 1085-1092. ISSN 1355-6037 (doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2014-305683)

Higgins, P., Dawson, J., Macfarlane, P. W., McArthur, K., Langhorne, P., and Lees, K. R. (2014) Predictive value of newly detected atrial fibrillation paroxysms in patients with acute ischemic stroke, for atrial fibrillation after 90 days. Stroke, 45 (7). pp. 2134-2136. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.005405)

Mattle, H. P., Brainin, M., Chamorro, A., Dichgans, M., Lees, K. R., Leys, D., and Michel, P. (2014) Second European Stroke Science Workshop. Stroke, 45 (7). e113-e122. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.005583)

Mishra, N. K., Mandava, P., Chen, C., Grotta, J., Lees, K. R., and Kent, T. A. (2014) Influence of racial differences on outcomes after thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemic stroke. International Journal of Stroke, 9 (5). pp. 613-617. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/ijs.12162)

van der Worp, H. B. et al. (2014) EuroHYP-1: European multicenter, randomized, phase III clinical trial of therapeutic hypothermia plus best medical treatment vs. best medical treatment alone for acute ischemic stroke. International Journal of Stroke, 9 (5). pp. 642-645. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/ijs.12294)

Goldie, F.C., Fulton, R.L., Frank, B., and Lees, K.R. (2014) Interdependence of stroke outcome scales: reliable estimates from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA). International Journal of Stroke, 9 (3). pp. 328-332. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/ijs.12178)

Krebs, H.I. et al. (2014) Robotic measurement of arm movements after stroke establishes biomarkers of motor recovery. Stroke, 45 (1). pp. 200-204. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.002296)

Fulton, R. L. et al. (2014) Selection for delayed intravenous alteplase treatment based on a prognostic score. International Journal of Stroke . ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/j.1747-4949.2012.00943.x) (In Press)

Hacke, W. et al. (2014) Transcranial laser therapy in acute stroke treatment: results of neurothera effectiveness and safety trial 3, a phase III clinical end point device trial. Stroke, 45 (11). pp. 3187-3193. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.005795)

Hesse, K. et al. (2014) Characteristic adverse events and their incidence among patients participating in acute ischemic stroke trials. Stroke, 45 . pp. 2677-2682. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/​STROKEAHA.114.005845)

Kishore, A., Vail, A., Majid, A., Dawson, J., Lees, K.R., Tyrrell, P.J., and Smith, C.J. (2014) Detection of atrial fibrillation after ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Stroke, 45 (2). pp. 520-526. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.003433)

Lees, K. R. (2014) Serial Alberta stroke program early computed tomography score from baseline to 24 hours in swift: a novel surrogate end point for revascularization in acute stroke. Stroke, 45 (3). pp. 653-654. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.004484)

Rahlfs, V. W., Zimmermann, H., and Lees, K. R. (2014) Effect size measures and their relationships in stroke studies. Stroke, 45 (2). pp. 627-633. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.003151)

Rankin, A.J., Tran, R.T., Abdul-Rahim, A.H., Rankin, A.C., and Lees, K.R. (2014) Clinically important atrial arrhythmia and stroke risk: a UK-wide online survey among stroke physicians and cardiologists. QJM, 107 (11). pp. 895-902. ISSN 1460-2725 (doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcu177)

Frank, B., Fulton, R.L., Weimar, C., Lees, K.R., and Sanders, R.D. (2013) Use of paracetamol in ischaemic stroke patients: evidence from VISTA. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 128 (3). pp. 172-177. ISSN 0001-6314 (doi:10.1111/ane.12094)

Hankey, G.J. et al. (2013) Effect of B vitamins and lowering homocysteine on cognitive impairment in patients with previous stroke or transient ischemic attack: a prespecified secondary analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial and meta-analysis. Stroke, 44 (8). pp. 2232-2239. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.001886)

Mazya, M.V., Lees, K.R., Markus, R., Roine, R.O., Seet, R.O.S., Wahlgren, N., and Ahmed, N. (2013) Safety of IV thrombolysis for ischemic stroke in patients treated with warfarin. Annals of Neurology, 74 (2). pp. 266-274. ISSN 0364-5134 (doi:10.1002/ana.23924)

Audebert, H.J., Saver, J.L., Starkman, S., Lees, K.R., and Endres, M. (2013) Prehospital stroke care: new prospects for treatment and clinical research. Neurology, 81 (5). pp. 501-508. ISSN 0028-3878 (doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e31829e0fdd)

Ahmed, N., Kellert, L., Lees, K.R., Mikulik, R., Tatlisumak, T., and Toni, D. (2013) Results of intravenous thrombolysis within 4.5 to 6 hours and updated results within 3 to 4.5 hours of onset of acute ischemic stroke recorded in the safe implementation of treatment in Stroke International Stroke Thrombolysis Register (SITS-ISTR)An Observational Study. JAMA Neurology, 70 (7). pp. 837-844. ISSN 2168-6149 (doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2013.406)

Ziai, W. C. et al. (2013) A multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase III study of Clot Lysis Evaluation of Accelerated Resolution of Intraventricular Hemorrhage (CLEAR III). International Journal of Stroke, 9 (4). pp. 536-542. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/ijs.12097)

Abdul-Rahim, A.H., and Lees, K.R. (2013) Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation after ischemic stroke: how should we hunt for it? Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy, 11 (4). pp. 485-494. ISSN 1477-9072 (doi:10.1586/erc.13.21)

Lees, K.R., Bornstein, N., Diener, H.-C., Gorelick, P.B., Rosenberg, G., and Shuaib, A. (2013) Results of membrane-activated chelator stroke intervention randomized trial of DP-b99 in acute ischemic stroke. Stroke, 44 (3). pp. 580-584. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.000013)

Morgan, T.C. et al. (2013) The modified graeb score: an enhanced tool for intraventricular hemorrhage measurement and prediction of functional outcome. Stroke, 44 (3). pp. 635-641. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.112.670653)

Cameron, A.C., Lees, K.R., Booth, M., Bailey, A., and Hunter, W. (2013) A survey of principal researchers who lead research into adults with incapacity in Scotland. Scottish Medical Journal, 58 (1). pp. 30-33. ISSN 0036-9330 (doi:10.1177/0036933012474592)

Bottle, A., Mozid, A., Grocott, H.P., Walters, M.R., Lees, K.R., Aylin, P., and Sanders, R.D. (2013) Preoperative risk factors in 10 418 patients with prior myocardial infarction and 5241 patients with prior unstable angina undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 111 (3). pp. 417-423. ISSN 0007-0912 (doi:10.1093/bja/aet107)

Frank, B. et al. (2013) Thrombolysis in stroke despite contraindications or warnings? Stroke, 44 (3). pp. 727-733. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.112.674622)

Hajjar, K., Fulton, R.L., Diener, H.-C., and Lees, K.R. (2013) Does the cognitive measure Cog-4 show improvement among patients treated with thrombolysis after acute stroke? International Journal of Stroke, 8 (8). pp. 652-656. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/j.1747-4949.2012.00848.x)

Higgins, P., Macfarlane, P. W., Dawson, J., McInnes, G. T., Langhorne, P., and Lees, K. R. (2013) Noninvasive cardiac event monitoring to detect atrial fibrillation after ischemic stroke: a randomized, controlled trial. Stroke, 44 (9). pp. 2525-2531. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.001927)

McArthur, K.S., Johnson, P.C.D., Quinn, T., Higgins, P., Langhorne, P., Walters, M.R., Weir, C.J., Dawson, J., and Lees, K.R. (2013) Improving the efficiency of stroke trials: feasibility and efficacy of group adjudication of functional end points. Stroke, 14 (12). pp. 3422-3428. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.002266)

Tu, H.T.H., Campbell, B.C.V., Meretoja, A., Churilov, L., Lees, K.R., Donnan, G.A., and Davis, S.M. (2013) Pre-stroke CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores are useful in stratifying three-month outcomes in patients with and without atrial fibrillation. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 36 (4). pp. 273-280. ISSN 1015-9770 (doi:10.1159/000353670)

Wintermark, M. et al. (2013) Acute stroke imaging research roadmap II. Stroke, 44 (9). pp. 2628-2639. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.002015)

O'Brien, R.E., and Lees, K.R. (2012) Management of acute poststroke blood pressure and detection of atrial fibrillation: a postal questionnaire of UK stroke physicians' current clinical practice. Scottish Medical Journal, 57 (4). pp. 204-208. ISSN 0036-9330 (doi:10.1258/smj.2012.012118)

Dawson, J., Quinn, T., Lees, K.R., and Walters, M.R. (2012) Microembolic signals and aspirin resistance in patients with carotid stenosis. Cardiovascular Therapeutics, 30 (4). pp. 234-239. ISSN 1755-5914 (doi:10.1111/j.1755-5922.2010.00259.x)

Higgins, P., Dawson, J., Lees, K.R., McArthur, K., Quinn, T.J., and Walters, M.R. (2012) Xanthine oxidase inhibition for the treatment of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cardiovascular Therapeutics, 30 (4). pp. 217-226. ISSN 1755-5914 (doi:10.1111/j.1755-5922.2011.00277.x)

Hankey, G. J. et al. (2012) Antiplatelet therapy and the effects of B vitamins in patients with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack: a post-hoc subanalysis of VITATOPS, a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurology, 11 (6). pp. 512-520. ISSN 1474-4422 (doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70091-1)

Kerr, D.M., Fulton, R.L., and Lees, K.R. (2012) Seven-day NIHSS is a sensitive outcome measure for exploratory clinical trials in acute stroke: evidence from the virtual international stroke trials archive. Stroke, 43 (5). pp. 1401-1403. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.644484)

Ali, M. et al. (2012) Development, expansion and use of a stroke clinical trials resource for novel exploratory analyses. International Journal of Stroke, 7 (2). pp. 133-138. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/j.1747-4949.2011.00735.x)

Hankey, G. J. et al. (2012) Treatment with B vitamins and incidence of cancer in patients with previous stroke or transient ischemic attack: results of a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Stroke, 43 (6). pp. 1572-1577. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.641613)

Bath, P.M.W., Lees, K.R., Schellinger, P.D., Altman, H., Bland, M., Hogg, C., Howard, G., and Saver, J.L. (2012) Statistical analysis of the primary outcome in acute stroke trials. Stroke, 43 (4). pp. 1171-1178. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.641456)

Frank, B., Fulton, R., Weimar, C., Shuaib, A., and Lees, K.R. (2012) Impact of atrial fibrillation on outcome in Thrombolyzed patients with stroke: evidence from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA). Stroke, 43 (7). pp. 1872-1877. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.112.650838)

Howard, G., Waller, J.L., Voeks, J.H., Howard, V.J., Jauch, E.C., Lees, K.R., Nichols, F.T., Rahlfs, V.W., and Hess, D.C. (2012) A simple, assumption-free, and clinically interpretable approach for analysis of modified Rankin outcomes. Stroke, 43 (3). pp. 664-669. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.632935)

Kerr, D.M., Fulton, R.L., Higgins, P., Bath, P.M.W., Shuaib, A., Lyden, P., and Lees, K.R. (2012) Response of blood pressure and blood glucose to treatment with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator in acute ischemic stroke: evidence from the virtual international stroke trials archive. Stroke, 43 (2). pp. 399-404. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.627059)

Kerr, D.M., and Lees, K.R. (2012) Letter by Kerr and Lees Regarding Article, "Country Comparisons of Human Stroke Research Since 2001: A Bibliometric Study". Stroke, 43 (5). e52-e52. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.112.653071)

Lees, K.R., Bath, P.M.W., Schellinger, P., Kerr, D.M., Fulton, R., Hacke, W., Matchar, D., Sehra, R., and Toni, D. (2012) Contemporary outcome measures in acute stroke research: choice of primary outcome measure. Stroke, 43 (4). pp. 1163-1170. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.641423)

Pitt, M., Monks, T., Agarwal, P., Worthington, D., Ford, G.A., Lees, K.R., Stein, K., and James, M.A. (2012) Will delays in treatment jeopardize the population benefit from extending the time window for stroke thrombolysis? Stroke, 43 (11). pp. 2992-2997. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.638650)

Rosenberg, G., Bornstein, N., Diener, H.-C., Gorelick, P.B., Shuaib, A., and Lees, K. (2011) The Membrane-Activated Chelator Stroke Intervention (MACSI) Trial of DP-b99 in acute ischemic stroke: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational pivotal Phase III study. International Journal of Stroke, 6 (4). pp. 362-367. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/j.1747-4949.2011.00608.x)

Cameron, A., Dawson, J., Quinn, T.J., Walters, M.R., McInnes, G.T., Morrison, D., Sloan, W., and Lees, K.R. (2011) Long-term outcome following attendance at a transient ischemic attack clinic. International Journal of Stroke, 6 (4). pp. 306-311. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/j.1747-4949.2011.00591.x)

Hajjar, K., Kerr, D.M., and Lees, K.R. (2011) Thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke. Journal of Vascular Surgery, 54 (3). pp. 901-907. ISSN 0741-5214 (doi:10.1016/j.jvs.2011.04.062)

Mishra, N.K., Ahmed, N., Davalos, A., Iversen, H.K., Melo, T., Soinne, L., Wahlgren, N., and Lees, K.R. (2011) Thrombolysis outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients with prior stroke and diabetes mellitus. Neurology, 77 (21). pp. 1866-1872. ISSN 0028-3878 (doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e318238ee42)

Mishra, N.K., Shuaib, A., Lyden, P., Diener, H.-C., Grotta, J., Davis, S., Davalos, A., Ashwood, T., Wasiewski, W., and Lees, K.R. (2011) Home Time Is Extended in Patients With Ischemic Stroke Who Receive Thrombolytic Therapy: A Validation Study of Home Time as an Outcome Measure. Stroke, 42 (4). pp. 1046-1050. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.601302)

Harrison, J.K., Sloan, B., Dawson, J., Lees, K.R., and Morrison, D.S. (2010) The ABCD and ABCD2 as predictors of stroke in transient ischemic attack clinic outpatients: a retrospective cohort study over 14 years. Quarterly Journal of Medicine, 103 (9). pp. 679-685. ISSN 1460-2725 (doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcq108)

Cucchiara, B., Kasner, S., Tanne, D., Levine, S., Demchuk, A., Messe, S., Sansing, L., Lees, K., and Lyden, P. (2010) Validation assessment of risk scores to predict postthrombolysis intracerebral haemorrhage. International Journal of Stroke, 6 (2). pp. 109-111. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/j.1747-4949.2010.00556.x)

Ali, M., Juttler, E., Lees, K.R., Hacke, W., and Diedler, J. (2010) Patient outcomes in historical comparators compared with randomised-controlled trials. International Journal of Stroke, 5 (1). pp. 10-15. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/j.1747-4949.2009.00393.x)

Ahmed, N. et al. (2010) Association of Admission Blood Glucose and Outcome in Patients Treated With Intravenous Thrombolysis. Archives of Neurology, 67 (9). pp. 1123-1130. ISSN 0003-9942 (doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.210)

Ahmed, N., Wahlgren, N., Grond, M., Hennerici, M., Lees, K.R., Mikulik, R., Parsons, M., Roine, R.O., Toni, D., and Ringleb, P. (2010) Implementation and outcome of thrombolysis with alteplase 3–4·5 h after an acute stroke: an updated analysis from SITS-ISTR. Lancet Neurology, 9 (9). pp. 866-874. ISSN 1474-4422 (doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(10)70165-4)

Ali, M. et al. (2010) VISTA-Rehab: A resource for stroke rehabilitation trials. International Journal of Stroke, 5 (6). pp. 447-452. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/j.1747-4949.2010.00485.x)

Dawson, J., Quinn, T.J., Rafferty, M., Higgins, P., Ray, G., Lees, K.R., and Walters, M.R. (2010) Aspirin resistance and compliance with therapy. Cardiovascular Therapeutics, 29 (5). pp. 301-307. ISSN 1755-5914 (doi:10.1111/j.1755-5922.2010.00188.x)

Diedler, J. et al. (2010) Safety of intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke in patients receiving antiplatelet therapy at stroke onset. Stroke, 41 (2). pp. 288-294. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.559724)

Ederle, J. et al. (2010) Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 375 (9719). pp. 985-997. ISSN 0140-6736 (doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60239-5)

Kumar, N., Davis, S.M., Kaste, M., and Lees, K.R. (2010) Comparison of Outcomes Following Thrombolytic Therapy Among Patients With Prior Stroke and Diabetes in the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA). Diabetes Care, 33 (12). pp. 2531-2537. ISSN 0149-5992

Lees, K.R. et al. (2010) Time to treatment with intravenous alteplase and outcome in stroke: an updated pooled analysis of ECASS, ATLANTIS, NINDS, and EPITHET trials. Lancet, 375 (9727). pp. 1695-1703. ISSN 0140-6736 (doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60491-6)

McArthur, K., and Lees, K.R. (2010) Advances in emerging therapies 2009. Stroke, 41 (2). e67-e70. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.571539)

Mishra, N.K., Ahmed, N., Andersen, G., Egido, J.A., Lindsberg, P.J., Ringleb, P.A., Wahlgren, N.G., and Lees, K.R. (2010) Thrombolysis in very elderly people: controlled comparison of SITS international stroke thrombolysis registry and virtual international stroke trials archive. British Medical Journal, 341 . c6046. ISSN 0959-535X (doi:10.1136/bmj.c6046)

Mishra, N.K., Diener, H.-C., Lyden, P.D., Bluhmki, E., and Lees, K.R. (2010) Influence of age on outcome from thrombolysis in acute stroke: a controlled comparison in patients from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA). Stroke, 41 (12). pp. 2840-2848. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.586206)

Mishra, N.K., Donnan, G.A., Furlan, A.J., Hacke, W., and Lees, K.R. (2010) Mismatch-based delayed thrombolysis: a meta-analysis. Stroke, 41 (1). e25-e33. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.566869)

Mishra, N.K. et al. (2010) 5th UK Stroke Forum Conference 30 November-2 December 2010 SECC, Glasgow, UK Abstracts. International Journal of Stroke, 5 (Suppl.). pp. 3-67. ISSN 1747-4930

Mishra, N.K., Lyden, P., Grotta, J.C., and Lees, K.R. (2010) Thrombolysis is associated with consistent functional improvement across baseline stroke severity: a comparison of outcomes in patients from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA). Stroke, 41 (11). pp. 2612-2617. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.589317)

Weimar, C., Ali, M., Lees, K.R., Bluhmki, E., Donnan, G. A., and Diener, H. C. (2010) The Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA): results and impact on future stroke trials and management of stroke patients. International Journal of Stroke, 5 (2). pp. 103-109. ISSN 1747-4930

Dawson, J., Quinn, T.J., Harrow, C., Lees, K.R., and Walters, M. (2009) The effect of allopurinol on the cerebral vasculature of patients with subcortical stroke; a randomized trial. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 68 (5). pp. 662-668. ISSN 0306-5251 (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2009.03497.x)

Kamel, H., Lees, K.R., Lyden, P.D., Teal, P.A., Shuaib, A., Ali, M., and Johnston, S.C. (2009) Delayed detection of atrial fibrillation after ischemic stroke. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, 18 (6). pp. 453-457. ISSN 1052-3057 (doi:10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2009.01.012)

Quinn, T.J., Dawson, J., Walters, M., and Lees, K. (2009) Functional outcome measures in contemporary stroke trials. International Journal of Stroke, 4 (3). pp. 200-205. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/j.1747-4949.2009.00271.x)

Quinn, T.J., Dawson, J., Walters, M., and Lees, K.R. (2009) Functional outcome measures in contemporary stroke trials. International Journal of Stroke, 4 (3). pp. 200-205. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/j.1747-4949.2009.00271.x)

Ali, M., Lyden, P., Sacco, R.L., Shuaib, A., and Lees, K.R. (2009) Natural history of complications after intracerebral haemorrhage. European Journal of Neurology, 16 (5). pp. 624-630. ISSN 1351-5101 (doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2009.02559.x)

Ahmed, N., Ford, G.A., Kaste, M., Lees, K.R., and Toni, D. (2009) Relationship of blood pressure, antihypertensive therapy, and outcome in ischemic stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis: retrospective analysis from Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-International Stroke Thrombolysis Register (SITS-ISTR). Stroke, 40 (7). pp. 2442-2449. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/​STROKEAHA.109.548602)

Ali, M., Sacco, R., and Lees, K. (2009) Primary end-point times, functional outcome and adverse event profile after acute ischaemic stroke. International Journal of Stroke, 4 (6). pp. 432-442.

Ali, M., Atula, S., Bath, P.M.W., Grotta, J., Hacke, W., Lyden, P., Marler, J.R., Sacco, R.L., and Lees, K.R. (2009) Stroke outcome in clinical trial patients deriving from different countries. Stroke, 40 (1). pp. 35-40. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/​STROKEAHA.108.518035)

Cucchiara, B., Kasner, S.E., Tanne, D., Levine, S.R., Demchuk, A., Messe, S.R., Sansing, L., Lees, K.R., and Lyden, P. (2009) Factors associated with intracerebral hemorrhage after thrombolytic therapy for ischemic stroke pooled analysis of placebo data from the Stroke-Acute Ischemic NXY Treatment (SAINT) I and SAINT II trials. Stroke, 40 (9). pp. 3067-3072. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.554386)

Dawson, J., Lees, K., Weir, C., Weir, C., Quinn, T., Ali, M., Hennerici, M., and Walters, M. (2009) Baseline Serum Urate and 90-Day Functional Outcomes following Acute Ischemic Stroke. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 28 (2). pp. 202-203.

Dawson, J., Lamb, K.E., Quinn, T.J., Lees, K.R., Horvers, M., Verrijth, M.J., and Walters, M. (2009) A recognition tool for transient ischaemic attack. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, 102 (1). pp. 43-49. ISSN 1460-2725 (doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcn139)

Dawson, J., Quinn, T.J., Harrow, C., Lees, K.R., Weir, C., Cleland, S., and Walters, M. (2009) Allopurinol and nitric oxide activity in the cerebral circulation of those with diabetes. Diabetes Care, 32 (1). pp. 135-137. ISSN 0149-5992 (doi:10.2337/dc08-1179)

Diener, H., Weimar, C., Ali, M., and Lees, K. (2009) The Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA): Significance for Stroke Research. Aktuelle Neurologie, 36 (4). pp. 174-179.

Higgins, P., and Lees, K.R. (2009) Advances in emerging therapies 2008. Stroke, 40 (5). e292-e294. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.544544)

Kidwell, C.S., Lees, K.R., Muir, K.W., Chen, C., Davis, S.M., De Silva, D.A., Weir, C.J., Starkman, S., Alger, J.R., and Saver, J.L. (2009) Results of the MRI substudy of the intravenous magnesium efficacy in stroke trial. Stroke, 40 (5). pp. 1704-1709. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.537613)

Lees, K.R. (2009) PRoFESS. Stroke, 40 (5). p. 1941. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.541854)

Lees, K.R. (2009) Training and consistency in stroke assessments. Stroke, 40 (7). p. 2297. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.541581)

Lees, K. (2009) Stroke: success for extending acute treatment. Lancet Neurology, 8 (1). pp. 2-4. ISSN 1474-4422

Quinn, T.J., Cameron, A., Dawson, J., Lees, K.R., and Walters, M.R. (2009) ABCD2 scores and prediction of noncerebrovascular diagnoses in an outpatient population: a case-control study. Stroke, 40 (3). pp. 749-753. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.530444)

Quinn, T.J., Cameron, A.D., Dawson, J., Walters, M., and Lees, K.R. (2009) A prospective study using the ABCD2 score in screening for minor stroke or transient ischaemic attack in referrals to a fast track clinic response. Stroke, 40 (6). e468-e468. (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.551077)

Quinn, T.J., Dawson, J., Walters, M., and Lees, K.R. (2009) Exploring the reliability of the modified Rankin Scale. Stroke, 40 (3). pp. 762-766. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.522516)

Quinn, T.J., Dawson, J., Walters, M., and Lees, K.R. (2009) Reliability of the modified Rankin Scale: a systematic review. Stroke, 40 (10). pp. 3393-3395. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.557256)

Quinn, T., and Lees, K. (2009) Hyperglycaemia in Acute Stroke - To Treat or Not to Treat. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 27 . pp. 148-155.

Quinn, T., Paolucci, S., Sunnerhagen, K., Sivenius, J., Walker, M., Toni, D., and Lees, K. (2009) Evidence-Based Stroke Rehabilitation: An Expanded Guidance Document from the European Stroke Organisation (Eso) Guidelines for Management of Ischaemic Stroke and Transient Ischaemic Attack 2008. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 41 (2). pp. 99-111.

Saini, M., Saqqur, M., Kamruzzaman, A., Lees, K.R., and Shuaib, A. (2009) Effect of hyperthermia on prognosis after acute ischemic stroke. Stroke, 40 (9). pp. 3051-3059. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.556134)

Whitehead, J., Bolland, K., Valdes-Marquez, E., Lihic, A., Ali, M., and Lees, K.R. (2009) Using historical lesion volume data in the design of a new phase II clinical trial in acute stroke. Stroke, 40 (4). pp. 1347-1352. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.531442)

Muir, S.W., Harrow, C., Dawson, J., Lees, K.R., Weir, C.J., Sattar, N., and Walters, M.R. (2008) Allopurinol use yields potentially beneficial effects on inflammatory indices in those with recent ischemic stroke: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Stroke, 39 (12). pp. 3303-3307. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.519793)

Lecrux, C., McCabe, C., Weir, C.J., Gallagher, L., Mullin, J., Touzani, O., Muir, K., Lees, K.R., and Macrae, I.M. (2008) Effects of magnesium treatment in a model of internal capsule lesion in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Stroke, 39 (2). pp. 448-454. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.492934)

Quinn, T.J., Dawson, J., and Lees, K.R. (2008) Past, present and future of alteplase for acute ischemic stroke. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics , 8 (2). pp. 181-192. ISSN 1473-7175 (doi:10.1586/14737175.8.2.181)

Quinn, T.J., Dawson, J., Lees, J.S., Chang, T.P., Walters, M.R., and Lees, K.R. (2008) Time spent at home poststroke: “home-time” a meaningful and robust outcome measure for stroke trials. Stroke, 39 (1). pp. 231-233. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.493320)

Dawson, J., Quinn, T.J., Lees, K.R., and Walters, M. (2008) The continued yin and yang of uric acid. Stroke, 39 (1). e9-e9. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.502245 )

Dawson, J., Weir, C., Wright, F., Bryden, C., Aslanyan, S., Lees, K., Bird, W., and Walters, M. (2008) Associations between meteorological variables and acute stroke hospital admissions in the west of Scotland. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 117 (2). pp. 85-89. ISSN 0001-6314 (doi:10.1111/j.1600-0404.2007.00916.x )

Diener, H.C. et al. (2008) NXY-059 for the treatment of acute stroke: pooled analysis of the SAINT I and II trials. Stroke, 39 (6). pp. 1751-1758. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.503334 )

Fink, J.N., Frampton, C.M., Lyden, P., and Lees, K.R. (2008) Does hemispheric lateralization influence functional and cardiovascular outcomes after stroke?: an analysis of placebo-treated patients from prospective acute stroke trials. Stroke, 39 (12). pp. 3335-3340. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.523365 )

Hacke, W. et al. (2008) Thrombolysis with alteplase 3 to 4.5 hours after acute ischemic stroke. New England Journal of Medicine, 359 (13). pp. 1317-1329. ISSN 0028-4793 (doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0804656)

Higgins, P., Ghosh, S., and Lees, K. (2008) Improving mortality from stroke disease: putting the evidence into practice. British Journal of Hospital Medicine, 69 (12). pp. 668-669. ISSN 1750-8460

Lees, K.R. et al. (2008) Thrombolytic therapy for acute stroke in the United Kingdom: experience from the safe implementation of thrombolysis in stroke (SITS) register. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, 101 (11). pp. 863-869. ISSN 1460-2725 (doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcn102)

Quinn, T.J., Dawson, J., Walters, M., and Lees, K.R. (2008) Variability in modified rankin scoring across a large cohort of observers. Stroke, 39 (11). pp. 2975-2979. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.515262)

Quinn, T.J., and Lees, K.R. (2008) Advances in emerging therapies 2007. Stroke, 39 (2). pp. 255-257. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.508291)

Quinn, T.J., Ray, G., Atula, S., Walters, M.R., Dawson, J., and Lees, K.R. (2008) Deriving modified rankin scores from medical records. Stroke, 39 (12). pp. 3421-3423. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.519306)

Wahlgren, N., Ahmed, N., Davalos, A., Hacke, W., Millan, M., Muir, K., Roine, R.O., Toni, D., and Lees, K.R. (2008) Thrombolysis with alteplase 3—4·5 h after acute ischaemic stroke (SITS-ISTR): an observational study. Lancet, 372 (9646). pp. 1303-1309. ISSN 0140-6736 (doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61339-2)

Wahlgren, N. et al. (2008) Multivariable analysis of outcome predictors and adjustment of main outcome results to baseline data profile in randomized controlled trials: Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-MOnitoring STudy (SITS-MOST). Stroke, 39 (12). pp. 3316-3322. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.510768)

Wintermark, M. et al. (2008) Acute stroke imaging research roadmap. Stroke, 39 (5). pp. 1621-1628. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.512319)

Quinn, T.J., Dawson, J., Walters, M.R., and Lees, K.R. (2007) Reliability of the modified rankin scale. Stroke, 38 (11). e144. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.490110)

Quinn, T.J., and Lees, K.R. (2007) European Stroke Conference, Glasgow, UK, May 29–June 1, 2007. International Journal of Stroke, 2 (4). pp. 297-298. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/j.1747-4949.2007.00155.x)

Ahmed, N. et al. (2007) Thrombolysis with alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke in the Safe implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-Monitoring Study (SITS-MOST): an observational study. Lancet, 369 . pp. 275-282.

Ali, M. et al. (2007) The Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive. Stroke, 38 (6). pp. 1905-1910. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.106.473579)

Ashwood, T., Davalos, A., Davis, S., Diener, H., Emeribe, U., Grotta, J., Lees, K., Lyden, P., Shuaib, A., and Wasiewski, W. (2007) NXY-059 for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. New England Journal of Medicine, 357 . pp. 562-571. ISSN 0028-4793

Aslanyan, S., Grieve, A., Johnston, C., Krams, M., Lees, K., and Weir, C. (2007) The association of post-stroke neurological improvement with risk of subsequent deterioration due to stroke events. European Journal of Neurology, 14 . pp. 1-6. (doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2006.01549.x)

Aslanyan, S., Weir, C.J., Muir, K.W., and Lees, K.R. (2007) Magnesium for treatment of acute lacunar stroke syndromes: further analysis of the IMAGES trial. Stroke, 38 (10). pp. 1269-1273. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000259628.94421.09)

Dawson, J., Lees, J.S., Chang, T.P., Walters, M.R., Ali, M., Davis, S.M., Diener, H.C., and Lees, K.R. (2007) Association between disability measures and healthcare costs after initial treatment for acute stroke. Stroke, 38 (6). pp. 1893-1898. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.106.472381)

Dawson, J., and Lees, K.R. (2007) Advances in emerging therapies 2006. Stroke, 38 (2). pp. 219-221. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000254718.22566.90)

Dawson, J., Lees, K.R., and Quinn, T.J. (2007) Acute stroke: we have the treatments and we have the evidence we need to use them. Critical Care Medicine, 11 (2). p. 124. ISSN 0090-3493

Lees, K.R., Ashwood, T., and Odergren, T. (2007) Response to letter by Proctor and Tamborello. Stroke, 38 (10). e110-e110. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.493411)

Lees, K., and Shuaib, A. (2007) NXY-059 for the treatment of stroke. New England Journal of Medicine, 357 (21). pp. 2198-2199. ISSN 0028-4793

Lyden, P.D. et al. (2007) Safety and tolerability of NXY-059 for acute intracerebral hemorrhage: the CHANT trial. Stroke, 38 (8). pp. 2262-2269. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.106.472746)

Murray, S., Bashir, K., Lees, K.R., Langhorne, P., Muir, K., MacAlpine, C., and Roberts, M. (2007) Epidemiological aspects of referral to TIA clinics in Glasgow. Scottish Medical Journal, 52 . pp. 4-8. ISSN 0036-9330

Prosser, J., MacGregor, L., Lees, K.R., Diener, H.-C., Hacke, W., and Davis, S. (2007) Predictors of early cardiac morbidity and mortality after ischemic stroke. Stroke, 38 (8). pp. 2295-2302. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.106.471813)

Quinn, T.J., Lees, K.R., Hardemark, H.G., Dawson, J., and Walters, M.R. (2007) Initial experience of a digital training resource for modified Rankin scale assessment in clinical trials. Stroke, 38 (8). pp. 2257-2261. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.106.480723)

Lees, K.R. et al. (2006) Additional outcomes and subgroup analyses of NXY-059 for acute ischemic stroke in the SAINT I trial. Stroke, 37 (12). pp. 2970-2978. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000249410.91473.44)

Thomas, D. et al. (2006) Glyceryl trinitrate vs. control, and continuing vs. stopping temporarily prior anti hypertensive therapy, in acute stroke: rationale and design of the Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke (ENOS) trial. International Journal of Stroke, 1 (4). pp. 245-249. ISSN 1747-4930 (doi:10.1111/j.1747-4949.2006.00059.x)

Arima, H. et al. (2006) Prior events predict cerebrovascular and coronary outcomes in the PROGRESS trial. Stroke, 37 (6). pp. 1497-1502. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000221212.36860.c9)

Lees, K.R., Lyden, P., and Shuaib, A. (2006) NXY-059 for acute ischemic stroke - reply. New England Journal of Medicine, 354 (19). p. 2076. ISSN 0028-4793

Al, R.Y., Albers, G.W., Eyding, D., Furlan, A.J., Hacke, W.l., Lees, K.R., Rowley, H.A., Sachara, C., Soehngen, M., and Warach, S. (2006) Dose escalation of desmoteplase for acute ischemic stroke (DEDAS): evidence of safety and efficacy 3 to 9 hours after stroke onset. Stroke, 37 (5). pp. 1227-1231. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000217403.66996.6d)

Dittrich, R., Ritter, M.A., Kaps, M., Siebler, M., Lees, K.R., Larrue, V., Nabavi, D.G., Ringelstein, E.B., Markus, H.S., and Droste, D.W. (2006) The use of embolic signal detection in multicenter trials to evaluate antiplatelet efficacy: signal analysis and quality control mechanisms in the CARESS (Clopidogrel and Aspirin for Reduction of Emboli in Symptomatic carotid Stenosis) trial. Stroke, 37 (4). pp. 1065-1069. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000209331.39894.3d)

Ashwood, T. et al. (2006) NXY-059 for acute ischemic stroke. New England Journal of Medicine, 354 . pp. 588-600. ISSN 0028-4793

Bain, C., Lees, K., Lumsden, M., and Walters, M. (2006) Sex hormones and cerebral hemodynamics - Author's reply. Climacteric, 9 (1). p. 67.

Chiu, D. et al. (2006) Effect of the glycine antagonist gavestinel on cerebral infarcts in acute stroke patients, a randomized placebo-controlled trial: The GAIN MRI substudy. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 21 . pp. 106-111. (doi:10.1159/000090208)

Davis, S., Lees, K., and Donnan, G. (2006) Treating the acute stroke patient as an emergency: current practices and future opportunities. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 60 . pp. 399-407. (doi:10.1111/j.1368-5031.2006.00873.x)

Davis, S., Lees, K., and Lyden, P. (2006) Alteplase for acute stroke revisited: the first 10 years. Lancet Neurology, 5 (9). pp. 722-724. ISSN 1474-4422

Dawson, J., Walters, M., and Lees, K. (2006) 21st century stroke - A medical emergency. Scottish Medical Journal, 51 (3). pp. 34-41.

Lees, K. (2006) The narrow upward path towards neuroprotection. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 22 . pp. 1-2.

Lees, K., and Milia, P. (2006) Halving effort in acute stroke trials. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension, 28 (03-Apr). pp. 309-312.

Lees, K., Muir, K., Ovbiagele, B., Saver, J., and Weir, C. (2006) Effect of smoking status on outcome after acute ischemic stroke. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 21 . pp. 260-265. (doi:10.1159/000091224)

Milia, P., Muir, S., Alem, M., Lees, K., and Walters, M. (2006) Comparison of the effect of diuretics on carotid blood flow in stroke patients. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, 47 . pp. 446-449.

Nazir, F., Alem, M., Small, M., Connell, J., Lees, K., Walters, M., and Cleland, S. (2006) Blunted response to systemic nitric oxide synthase inhibition in the cerebral circulation of patients with Type 2 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine, 23 . pp. 398-402. (doi:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2005.01815.x)

Newman, E.J., Rahman, F.S., Lees, K.R., Weir, C.J., and Walters, M. (2006) Elevated serum urate concentration independently predicts poor outcome following stroke in patients with diabetes. Diabetes: Metabolism Research and Reviews, 22 (1). pp. 79-82.

Walters, M., Weir, C., and Lees, K. (2006) A randomised, controlled pilot study to investigate the potential benefit of intervention with insulin in hyperglycaemic acute ischaemic stroke patients. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 22 . pp. 116-122. (doi:10.1159/000093239)

Krams, M., Lees, K.R., and Berry, D.A. (2005) The past is the future: innovative designs in acute stroke therapy trials. Stroke, 36 (6). pp. 1341-1347. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000165931.77045.ee)

Al, R.Y., Albers, G., Eliasziw, M., Fischer, M., Furlan, A., Hacke, W., Kaste, M., Lees, K.R., Soehngen, M., and Warach, S. (2005) The Desmoteplase In Acute Ischemic Stroke Trial (DIAS): a phase II MRI-based 9-hour window acute stroke thrombolysis trial with intravenous desmoteplase. Stroke, 36 (1). pp. 66-73. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000149938.08731.2c)

Aslanyan, S., Weir, C., McInnes, G., Reid, J., Walters, M., and Lees, K. (2005) Statin administration prior to ischaemic stroke onset and survival: exploratory evidence from matched treatment-control study. European Journal of Neurology, 12 . pp. 493-498.

Bain, C., Lees, K., Lumsden, M., and Walters, M. (2005) Effect of a gonadotropin releasing hormone analog on cerebral hemodynamics in premenopausal women. Climacteric, 8 . pp. 193-197. (doi:10.1080/13697130500118068)

Bolster, A., Hilditch, T., Lees, K., Nazir, F., and Overell, J. (2005) Effect of perindopril on cerebral and renal perfusion on normotensives in mild early ischaemic stroke: A randomized controlled trial. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 19 . pp. 77-83. (doi:10.1159/000082783)

Bone, I., Lees, K., and Nazir, F. (2005) Clinical features associated with medically unexplained stroke-like symptoms presenting to an acute stroke unit. European Journal of Neurology, 12 . pp. 81-85.

Cheng, Y., Edenius, C., Jonsson, S., Karlsson, M., Lees, K., and Odergren, T. (2005) Population pharmacokinetic modelling and estimation of dosing strategy for NXY-059, a nitrone being developed for stroke. Clinical Pharmacokinetics, 44 . pp. 863-878.

Droste, D., Kaps, M., Larrue, V., Lees, K., Markus, H., Ringelstein, E., and Siebler, M. (2005) Dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin in symptomatic carotid stenosis evaluated using Doppler embolic signal detection - The Clopidogrel and Aspirin for Reduction of Emboli in Symptomatic Carotid Stenosis (CARESS) trial. Circulation, 111 . pp. 2233-2240. (doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000163561.90680.1C)

Droste, D., Kaps, M., Larrue, V., Lees, K., Markus, H., Ringelstein, E., and Siebler, M. (2005) Letter regarding article by Markus et al, 'Dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin in symptomatic cardiac stenosis evaluated using Doppler embolic signal detection: The clopidogrel and aspirin for reducton of emboli in symptomatic car. Circulation, 112 (20). E325-E326.

Haley, E.C., Thompson, J.L.P., Levin, B., Davis, S., Lees, K.R., Pittman, J.G., Derosa, J.T., Ordronneau, P., Brown, D.L., and Sacco, R.L. (2005) Gavestinel does not improve outcome after acute intracerebral hemorrhage: an analysis from the GAIN International and GAIN Americas studies. Stroke, 36 (5). pp. 1006-1010. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000163053.77982.8d)

Lees, K.R., Weir, C.J., and Young, F.B. (2005) Improving trial power through use of prognosis-adjusted end points. Stroke, 36 (3). pp. 597-601. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000154856.42135.85)

Lees, K., and Walters, M. (2005) Acute stroke and diabetes. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 20 (Suppl.). pp. 9-14. (doi:10.1159/000088232)

Murray, G. et al. (2005) Design and analysis of Phase III trials with ordered outcome scales: The concept of the sliding dichotomy. Journal of Neurotrauma, 22 . pp. 511-517.

Walters, M., Kaste, M., Lees, K., Diener, H., Hommel, M., De Keyser, J., Steiner, H., and Versavel, M. (2005) The AMPA antagonist ZK 200775 in patients with acute ischaemic stroke: A double-blind, multicentre, placebo-controlled safety and tolerability study. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 20 . pp. 304-309. (doi:10.1159/000087929)

Walters, M., Muir, K., Harbison, J., Lees, K., and Ford, G. (2005) Intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke: Preliminary experience with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in the UK. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 20 . pp. 438-442. (doi:10.1159/000088982)

Walters, M., Weir, C., Adams, F., and Lees, K. (2005) The prognostic significance of visible infarction on computed tomography following lacunar stroke: Results of a long-term follow-up study. Journal of Neuroimaging, 15 . pp. 331-335. (doi:10.1177/1051228405279993)

Young, F.B., Weir, C.J., and Lees, K.R. (2005) Comparison of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale with disability outcome measures in acute stroke trials. Stroke, 36 (10). pp. 2187-2192. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000181089.41324.70)

Aslanyan, S., Diener, H., Kaste, M., Lees, K., and Weir, C. (2004) Pneumonia and urinary tract infection after acute ischaemic stroke: a tertiary analysis of the GAIN International trial. European Journal of Neurology, 11 . pp. 49-53.

Aslanyan, S., Weir, C.J., Johnston, S.C., and Lees, K.R. (2004) Poststroke neurological improvement within 7 days is associated with subsequent deterioration. Stroke, 35 (9). pp. 2165-2170. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000136554.03470.9d)

Aslanyan, S., Weir, C.J., and Lees, K.R. (2004) Elevated pulse pressure during the acute period of ischemic stroke is associated with poor stroke outcome. Stroke, 35 (6). e153-e155. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000126598.88662.16)

Bain, C., Walters, M., Lees, K., and Lumsden, M. (2004) The effect of HRT on cerebral haemodynamics and cerebral vasomotor reactivity in post-menopausal women. Human Reproduction, 19 . pp. 2411-2414. (doi:10.1093/humrep/deh396)

Bolland, K., Lees, K., Weeks, A., and Whitehead, J. (2004) How a sequential design would have affected the GAIN international study of Gavestinel in stroke. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 17 . pp. 111-117. (doi:10.1159/000075778)

Bolster, A., Hilditch, T., Lees, K., Nazir, F., Overell, J., and Reid, J. (2004) The effect of losartan on global and focal cerebral perfusion and on renal function in hypertensives in mild early ischaemic stroke. Journal of Hypertension, 22 . pp. 989-995. (doi:10.1097/01.hjh.0000125398.50839.97)

Krams, M., Lees, K.R., Hacke, W., Grieve, A.P., Orgogozo, J.-M., and Ford, G.A. (2004) Effectively bridging the preclinical/clinical gap: the results of the ASTIN trial - a response. Stroke, 35 (4). e81-e82. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000121164.29117.44)

Lees, K.R. et al. (2004) Magnesium for acute stroke (Intravenous Magnesium Efficacy in Stroke trial): randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 363 . pp. 439-445.

Lees, K., and Weir, C. (2004) Comparison of stratification and adaptive methods for treatment allocation in an acute stroke clinical trial - Arthor's reply. Statistics in Medicine, 23 (23). pp. 3720-3721.

Smith, L.N., Lawrence, M., Kerr, S.M., Langhorne, P., and Lees, K.R. (2004) Informal carers' experience of caring for stroke survivors. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 46 . pp. 235-244. ISSN 0309-2402 (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2004.02983.x)

Smith, L.N., Norrie, J., Kerr, S.M., Lawrence, M., Langhorne, P., and Lees, K.R. (2004) Impact and influences on caregiver outcomes at one year post-stroke. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 18 . pp. 145-153. ISSN 1015-9770 (doi:10.1159/000079268)

Walters, M., Muir, S., Shah, I., and Lees, K. (2004) Effect of perindopril on cerebral vasomotor reactivity in patients with lacunar infarction. Stroke, 35 . pp. 1899-1902. (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000131748.12553.ed)

Weir, C.J., Kaste, M., and Lees, K.R. (2004) Targeting neuroprotection clinical trials to ischemic stroke patients with potential to benefit from therapy. Stroke, 35 (9). pp. 2111-2116. ISSN 0039-2499 (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000136556.34438.b3)

Weir, C., Muir, S., Walters, M., and Lees, K. (2004) Yin and Yang of uric acid in patients with stroke - Response. Stroke, 35 (1). E11-E12.

Chaturvedi, V. et al. (2003) Effects of a perindopril-based blood pressure lowering regimen on cardiac outcomes among patients with cerebrovascular disease. European Heart Journal, 24 (5). pp. 475-484. ISSN 0195-668X (doi:10.1016/S0195-668X(02)00804-7)

Al, D.L. et al. (2003) Cluster-randomized, controlled trial of computer-based decision support for selecting long-term anti-thrombotic therapy after acute ischaemic stroke. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, 96 . pp. 143-153. ISSN 1460-2725 (doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcg019)

Alberts, M., Graffagnino, C., Hoffmann, K., Lees, K., McCarron, M., Muir, K., Nicoll, J., and Weir, C. (2003) Effect of apolipoprotein E genotype on in-hospital mortality following intracerebral haemorrhage. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 107 . pp. 106-109.

Aslanyan, S., Fazekas, F., Horner, S., Lees, K., and Weir, C. (2003) Effect of blood pressure during the acute period of ischemic stroke on stroke outcome - A tertiary analysis of the GAIN International Trial. Stroke, 34 . pp. 2420-2425. (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000091233.04524.0C)

Aslanyan, S., Lees, K., McInnes, G., Reid, J., and Weir, C. (2003) Effect of area-based deprivation on the severity, subtype, and outcome of ischemic stroke. Stroke, 34 . pp. 2623-2628. (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000097610.12803.D7)

Asplund, K., Ashburner, S., Cargill, K., Hux, M., Lees, K., and Drummond, M. (2003) Health care resource use and stroke outcome - Multinational comparisons within the GAIN International trial. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, 19 . pp. 267-277.

Asplund, K., Diener, H., Krams, M., and Lees, K. (2003) UK-279,276, a neutrophil inhibitory glycoprotein, in acute stroke - Tolerability and pharmacokinetics. Stroke, 34 . pp. 1704-1709. (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000078563.72650.61)

Barer, D., Ford, G., Hacke, W., Kostulas, V., Lees, K., Odergren, T., and Sharma, A. (2003) Tolerability of NXY-059 at higher target concentrations in patients with acute stroke. Stroke, 34 . pp. 482-487. (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000053032.14223.81)

Clark, W.M., Davalos, A., Goldstein, L.B., and Lees, K.R. (2003) Design and Baseline Characteristics of the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) Study. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 16 (4). pp. 389-395. (doi:10.1159/000072562)

Ford, G., Grieve, A., Hacke, W., Krams, M., Lees, K., and Orgogozo, J. (2003) Acute Stroke Therapy by Inhibition of Neutrophils (ASTIN) - An adaptive dose-response study of UK-279,276 in acute ischemic stroke. Stroke, 34 . pp. 2543-2548. (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000092527.33910.89)

Hacke, W., Hankey, G., and Lees, K. (2003) Design of future acute-stroke treatment trials. Lancet Neurology, 2 (1). pp. 54-61. ISSN 1474-4422

Lees, K. (2003) Stroke is best managed by a neurologist: Battle of the titans. Stroke, 34 (11). pp. 2764-2765.

Lees, K. (2003) Stroke: Trial by jury. European Neurology, 49 . pp. 106-108. (doi:10.1159/000068509)

Lees, K., and Orgogozo, J. (2003) Acute stroke: Trial by jury - The toothless tiger (role of the principal investigator). European Neurology, 49 . pp. 120-124. (doi:10.1159/000068512)

Lees, K., and Weir, C. (2003) Comparison of stratification and adaptive methods for treatment allocation in an acute stroke clinical trial. Statistics in Medicine, 22 . pp. 705-726. (doi:10.1002/sim.1366)

Lees, K., Weir, C., and Young, F. (2003) Strengthening acute stroke trials through optimal use of disability end points. Stroke, 34 . pp. 2676-2680. (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000096210.36741.E7)

Muir, K., and Lees, K. (2003) Excitatory Amino Acid antagonists for acute stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 3 . CD001244.

Weir, C.J., Bradford, A.P.J., and Lees, K.R. (2003) The prognostic value of the components of the Glasgow Coma Scale following acute stroke. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, 96 . pp. 67-74. ISSN 1460-2725 (doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcg008)

Weir, C., Muir, S., Walters, M., and Lees, K. (2003) Serum urate as an independent predictor of poor outcome and future vascular events after acute stroke. Stroke, 34 . pp. 1951-1956. (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000081983.34771.D2)

Weir, C., Sattar, N., Walters, M., and Lees, K. (2003) Low triglyceride, not low cholesterol concentration, independently predicts poor outcome following acute stroke. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 16 . pp. 76-82. (doi:10.1159/000070119)

De, K., Diener, H., Elting, J., Hommel, M., Kaste, M., Lees, K., Sulter, G., Teelken, A., and Versavel, M. (2002) AMPA antagonist ZK200775 in patients with acute ischemic stroke - Possible glial cell toxicity detected by monitoring of S-100B serum levels. Stroke, 33 . pp. 2813-2818. (doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000043823.37855.FB)

Elliott, P., Lees, K., Pien, C., and Shah, I. (2002) Early clinical experience with the novel proteasome inhibitor PS-519. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 54 . pp. 269-276.

Grosset, D., Lees, K., Li, Q., Shuaib, A., and Yang, Y. (2002) Turbulence and circulating cerebral emboli detectable at Doppler ultrasonography: A differentiation study in a stenotic middle cerebral artery model. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 23 . pp. 1229-1236.

Harraf, F., Sharma, A., Brown, M., Lees, K., Vass, R., and Kalra, L. (2002) A multicentre observational study of presentation and early assessment of acute stroke. British Medical Journal, 325 . pp. 17-20. ISSN 0959-535X

Lees, K. (2002) Management of acute stroke. Lancet Neurology, 1 . pp. 41-50. ISSN 1474-4422

Lees, K. (2002) Neuroprotection is unlikely to be effective in humans using current trial designs: An opposing view. Stroke, 33 . pp. 308-309.

Muir, S., and Lees, K. (2002) PROGRESS in the secondary prevention of stroke. British Journal of Cardiology, 9 (3). pp. 131-134.

Walters, M., Bradford, A., Fischer, J., and Lees, K. (2002) Early clinical experience with the novel NMDA receptor antagonist CNS 5161. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 53 . pp. 305-311.

Ardron, M., Dyker, A., Ford, G., Grosset, D., Lees, K., and Sharma, A. (2001) Tolerability of the low-affinity, use-dependent NMDA antagonist AR-R15896AR in stroke patients - A dose-ranging study. Stroke, 32 . pp. 466-472.

Barer, D., Cheng, Y., Ford, G., Kostulas, V., Lees, K., Odergren, T., and Sharma, A. (2001) Tolerability and pharmacokinetics of the nitrone NXY-059 in patients with acute stroke. Stroke, 32 . pp. 675-680.

Bath, P., Boysen, G., Donnan, G., Kaste, M., Lees, K.R., Olsen, T., Overgaard, K., Sandercock, P., and Wahlgren, N.G. (2001) Hypertension in acute stroke: what to do? Stroke, 32 (7). pp. 1697-1698. ISSN 0039-2499

Bone, I., Dyker, A., Lees, K., McCarron, M., Muir, K., Nicoll, J., and Weir, C. (2001) Apolipoprotein E genotype, coagulation, and survival following acute stroke. Neurology, 57 (6). pp. 1097-1100.

Bone, I., Lees, K., and Overell, J. (2001) Percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale in patients with paradoxical embolism. Circulation, 103 (10). E56-E56.

Cunha, L., Diener, H., Lavelle, J., Lees, K., Sanders, E., Tack, P., and Wester, P. (2001) Glycine antagonist (GV150526) in acute stroke: A multicentre, double-blind placebo-controlled phase II trial. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 11 . pp. 20-29.

Grosset, D., Lees, K., Yang, T., and Yang, Y. (2001) Characterization of ultrasound-detected cerebral microemboli in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization using an in vitro middle cerebral artery model. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, 53 . pp. 323-330.

Lees, K. (2001) Advances in neuroprotection trials. European Neurology, 45 . pp. 6-10.

Walters, M., Bolster, A., Dyker, A., and Lees, K. (2001) Effect of perindopril on cerebral and renal perfusion in stroke patients with carotid disease. Stroke, 32 . pp. 473-478.

Bradford, A., and Lees, K. (2000) Design of the Intravenous Magnesium Efficacy in Acute Stroke (IMAGES) trial. Current Controlled Trials in Cardiovascular Medicine, 1 . pp. 184-190.

Lees, K.R., Bath, P.M.W., and Naylor, A.R. (2000) ABC of arterial and venous disease. Secondary prevention of transient ischaemic attack and stroke. British Medical Journal, 320 (7240). pp. 991-994. ISSN 0959-535X (doi:10.1136/bmj.320.7240.991)

Conference Proceedings

Abdul-Rahim, A. H., Fulton, R., Benedikt, F., Tatlisumak, T., Paciaroni, M., Caso, V., Diener, H.-C., and Lees, K. R. (2014) The role of antithrombotics therapy in recent ischaemic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation: analysis from VISTA. In: International Stroke Conference 2014, 12-14 Feb 2014, San Diego, CA, USA.

Tan, J., Fulton, R., Abdul-Rahim, A., and Lees, K. (2014) Comparison of responses to activase versus actilyse in acute ischaemic stroke. In: Glasgow Evidence-Based Medicine Society Conference 2013, 5 Oct 2013, Glasgow, UK.

This list was generated on Sat Dec 20 11:55:08 2014 GMT.